Subscriber trunk dialling
Subscriber trunk dialling is a telephone system allowing subscribers to dial trunk calls without operator assistance. The term was introduced when it first became possible for long-distance calls to be dialled directly, is now used where calls to any destination can be dialled; the term subscriber trunk dialling is used in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Australia and South East Asia. The corresponding term in the North American Numbering Plan, e.g. in the United States and Canada, is direct distance dialing. The term was extended when, on 8 March 1963, subscribers in London were able to directly dial Paris using international direct dialling; the introduction in the UK of subscriber dialling of long distance calls removed the distinction that had existed between trunk and toll calls. This term however, is still prevalent in India to describe any national call made outside one's local unit. A "subscriber" is someone who subscribes to, i.e. rents, a telephone line and a "trunk call" is one made over a trunk line, i.e. a telephone line connecting two exchanges a long distance apart.
Now that all calls may be dialled direct, the term has fallen into disuse. When telephone systems were first introduced, subscribers called a telephone exchange and asked a human operator to connect the call to another subscriber on the same exchange, it became possible to dial numbers on the same exchange. When subscribers in one area became able to dial non-local subscribers, the term used for the innovation was subscriber trunk dialling. In the UK, STD started before 5 December 1958 when the Queen, in Bristol, publicized it by dialling Edinburgh – the farthest distance a call could be directly dialled; the STD system was completed in 1979. The system required that a new STD code, which could be dialled by subscribers, be allocated to each area. With the introduction of subscriber trunk dialling each city with a Director system was assigned a 3-digit code, in which the second digit corresponded to the first letter of the city name on the telephone dial, with the exception of London which had the two-digit code 01.
Codes were changed. 01 London 021 Birmingham 031 Edinburgh 041 Glasgow 051 Liverpool 061 Manchester Until 1992, calls to these cities from the Republic of Ireland required the following codes: 031 London 032 Birmingham 033 Edinburgh 034 Glasgow 035 Liverpool 036 ManchesterIn that year, this changed to dialling in the international format 0044, the 03 range was withdrawn from use. Trunk prefix Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom Telephone numbers in India Telephone numbers in Australia Telephone numbers in New Zealand List of country calling codes The archives of BT including archives of its predecessor organizations: information relating to the history of the telephone system in the UK. Archive news article from the BBC on the introduction of Subscriber Trunk Dialing BBC video of first call taking place
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Lamhi or Lamahi is a village, gram panchayat, just north of the holy city of Varanasi in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The renowned Hindu and Urdu writer Munshi Premchand was born here in 1880. There are two villages in the Lamahi Gram Panchayat: Lamahi with a population of 1,841 and Banwaripur with a population of 764. In 2016, Banaras Hindu University established its "Munshi Prem Chandra Memorial Research Institute and Study Centre" in Lamhi. Lamahi is connected to Azamgarh by National Highway 28, a two-lane highway. There is a proposed ring road for Varanasi; the nearest airport, Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport, is 20 km away from Lamhi. The nearest railway station is Varanasi Junction, situated on the Howrah–Delhi main line; the station is 9 km away from Lamhi. Munshi Premchand Monument and Memorial Park Munshi Premchand Smriti Dwar Munshi Premchand Sarovar Lamahi Ram-Reela Har Har Mahadev Temple Lamahi Post office Kashi Temple Munshi PremChand https://ravikumarswarnkar.wordpress.com/tag/%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%80/ http://kkyadav.blogspot.in/2014/04/blog-post.html http://hindi.firstpost.com/culture/special-story-on-munshi-premchand-village-lamahi-on-his-birthday-pr-44233.html
Baliakheri is a village in Saharanpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is about 509 kilometers from the state capital Lucknow and 173 kilometers from the national capital Delhi. Baliakheri can be accessed by Indian railways. Closest airports are Chandigarh Airport and Delhi airport. In this village a railway station is situated; the distance of the village from saharanpur district is 9 km far. People are farmers and the sugarcane is a most famous crop here. Most of guys of this village are settled in private sectors. Saharanpur district
Babatpur is a village in Pindra Tehsil of Varanasi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The village falls under gram panchayat by the same name as the village; the village houses Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport which serves Varanasi district. The village is about 26 kilometers North-West of Varanasi city, 260 kilometers South-East of state capital Lucknow and 797 kilometers South-East of the national capital Delhi. Babatpur has a total population of 2,293 people amongst 339 families. Sex ratio of the village is 897 and child sex ratio is 811. Uttar Pradesh state average for both ratios is 902 respectively. Babatpur can be accessed by road. Nearest operational airports are Allahabad Airports. Pindra Tehsil Pindra Varanasi district ^ All demographic data is based on 2011 Census of India
Lucknow is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the twelfth most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries, it continues to be an important centre of governance, education, aerospace, pharmaceuticals, design, tourism and poetry. The city stands at an elevation of 123 metres above sea level. Lucknow district covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres. Bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. Lucknow was the capital of the Awadh region, controlled by the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, it was transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. In 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj.
Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947. It has been listed as the 17th fastest growing city in 74th in the world. Lucknow, along with Agra and Varanasi, is in the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, a chain of survey triangulations created by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to boost tourism in the state. "Lucknow" is the anglicised spelling of the local pronunciation "Lakhnau". According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana, a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana; the legend states that Lakshmana had a palace or an estate in the area, called Lakshmanapuri. However, the Dalit movement believes that Lakhan Pasi, a dalit ruler, was the settler of the city and is named after him; the settlement came to be known as Lakhanpur by the 11th century, Lucknow. A similar theory states; the name changed to Lakhanavati Lakhnauti and Lakhnau. Yet another theory states that the city's name is connected with Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth. Over time, the name changed to Laksmanauti, Lakhsnaut and Lakhnau.
From 1350 onwards and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company and the British Raj. For about eighty-four years, Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jahangir granted an estate in Awadh to a favoured nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who built Machchi Bhawan on this estate, it became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region. The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality, the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital; the city became North India's cultural capital, its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion and dance flourished, construction of numerous monuments took place. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chota Imambara, the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples.
One of the Nawab's enduring legacies is the region's syncretic Hindu–Muslim culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed Nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad, near Lucknow. Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established as the Mughal Empire disintegrated; the third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim. Roundly defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, he was forced to pay heavy penalties and surrender parts of his territory. Awadh's capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab, shifted his court to the city from Faizabad in 1775; the British East India Company appointed a resident in 1773 and by early 19th century gained control of more territory and authority in the state.
They were, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Maratha Empire and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British and was forced to abdicate; the British helped Saadat Ali Khan take the throne. He became a puppet king, in a treaty of 1801, yielded large part of Awadh to the East India Company while agreeing to disband his own troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-controlled army; this treaty made the state of Awadh a vassal of the East India Company, although it continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819. The treaty of 1801 proved a beneficial arrangement for the East India Company as they gained access to Awadh's vast treasuries digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful returns while the territory acted as a buffer state; the Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with show. By the mid-nineteenth century, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and demanded direct control over Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Compa
Varanasi Junction railway station
Varanasi Junction, popularly known as Varanasi Cantt Railway Station is the main railway station which serves the city of Varanasi. It is the headquarter of Varanasi railway division of North Eastern Railway zone. Varanasi railway station is an important hub for Bihar, it is headquarter of Varanasi railway division of North Eastern Railway zone and is being operated by the same. The division has a DRM as its head, its platforms numbered 6–9 come under the administrative control of Lucknow Division of the Northern Railway Zone. The administration is led by the Station Director, Anand Mohan while the railway operations of Varanasi Area are handled by Area Officer, Siddhartha Verma. Former Railway Minister Ms. Mamata Bannerjee included Varanasi Cant in World-Class Railway Stations development project; the first railway line to Benares was opened from Howrah station in December 1862. George Turnbull, the Chief Engineer of the East Indian Railway Company was responsible for deciding the route and building the 541-mile line via Bandel, Burdwan and Patna.
This route up the Ganges plain, with few hills, was chosen because of the primitive railway engines available. The station was built on the right bank of the Ganges. In 1872, the Oudh & Rohilkhand Railway Company opened the line from Benares to Lucknow. In 1887, Dufferin Bridge was constructed over the Ganges at Benares allowing trains to go to Mughalsarai; the present station building on the city side was built while Kamlapati Tripathi was railway minister. The cantonment-side building was opened in 1998 by the railway minister Nitish Kumar; the circulating area was renovated in 2008. The Varanasi Cantonment Railway Station has a modern Route Interlock System with automated signalling system. Varanasi railway station was ranked 14 among 75 busiest A1 category stations on cleanliness scale; the station ranks 30th in overall ranking. Varanasi railway station handles a large number of passengers, with more than 250 trains daily. There are some other important railway stations in the city in order to decrease the rush at Varanasi Junction.
Some stations are: Manduadih railway station Varanasi City railway station Kashi railway stationMughalsarai Junction railway station is located in suburban parts of Varanasi and it's one of the important railway stations in the country. The station serves the population of Varanasi. Mughalsarai Junction railway station Sarnath Railway Station Shivpur Railway Station Babatpur Railway Station Lohta Railway Station Raja Talab Railway Station Bhulanpur Railway Station Aunrihar Junction Railway Station Some of the important trains that originate and pass through station are: Vande Bharat Express to New Delhi Mahamana Express to New Delhi Patna Jan Shatabdi Express to Patna Sabarmati Express to Ahmedabad Kashi Vishwanath Express to New Delhi Begampura Express to Jammu Tawi Varuna Express to Kanpur Lokmanya Tilak Terminus - Varanasi Express to Lokmanya Tilak Terminus Kamayani Express to Lokmanya Tilak Terminus Mahanagari Express to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus railway station Ahmedabad - Varanasi Weekly Express to Ahmedabad Varanasi-Anand Vihar Terminal Garib Rath Express to Anand Vihar Terminal railway station Okha - Varanasi Superfast Express to Okha Mysore - Varanasi Express to Mysuru Varanasi - Bareilly Express to Bareilly Sealdah - Varanasi Express to Kolkata Dibrugarh Rajdhani Express via Varanasi Junction Swatantra Sainani Superfast Express via Varanasi Junction Bapu Dham Superfast Express via Varanasi Junction Upasana Express via Varanasi Junction Amritsar Mail via Varanasi Junction Bhirgu Superfast Express via Varanasi Junction Ganga Kaveri Express via Varanasi Junction Akal Takht Express via Varanasi Junction Ganga Sutlej Express via Varanasi Junction Ahmedabad - Darbhanga Sabarmati Express via Varanasi Junction Varanasi travel guide from Wikivoyage