Goulburn River National Park
The Goulburn River National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 213 kilometres northwest of Sydney and it is 35 kilometres south-west of Merriwa. The Goulburn River National Park is located in the Hunter Valley region and covers 90 kilometres of the Goulburn River, it is near the towns of Sandy Hollow, Denman and Mudgee. The park is a sanctuary for kangaroos, emus, platypus, a wide variety of birds, it lies within the Mudgee-Wollar Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance for the endangered regent honeyeater. The park contains some 300 or more aboriginal site. Protected areas of New South Wales
Nangar National Park
Nangar is a national park in located New South Wales, Australia, 252 kilometres west of Sydney. The park is located in the Nangar-Murga Range between Canowindra, it features Nangar Mountain, which rises to 778 metres AHD . Trees consist of eucalyptus, scribbly gum and ironbark. Shrubs include spider flowers, thyme spurge, nodding blue waxlip orchids. Birds recorded include wrens, falcons, peregrine falcons and glossy black cockatoos. Eastern grey kangaroos and grey and swamp wallabies are common; the park was established in 1983 when 1,550 hectares of bushland were declared a national park. "Dripping Rock" was added to the park in 1988 and, in 1994, the Nangar State Forest was added to the park to expand its size to 9,196 hectares. "Dripping Rock" was a grazing property established in 1928 and named after a local seasonal waterfall. The original "Dripping Rock" homestead was converted to a shearing shed and a new homestead, built in 1935, was destroyed by a bushfire in September 2009. Protected areas of New South Wales Page on NPWS official site
Supreme Court of New South Wales
The Supreme Court of New South Wales is the highest state court of the Australian State of New South Wales. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the state in civil matters, hears the most serious criminal matters. Whilst the Supreme Court is the highest New South Wales court in the Australian court hierarchy, an appeal by special leave can be made to the High Court of Australia. Matters of appeal can be submitted to the New South Wales Court of Appeal and Court of Criminal Appeal, both of which are constituted by members of the Supreme Court, in the case of the Court of Appeal from those who have been commissioned as judges of appeal; the Supreme Court consists of 52 permanent judges, including the Chief Justice of New South Wales, presently Tom Bathurst, the President of the Court of Appeal, 11 Judges of Appeal, the Chief Judge at Common Law, the Chief Judge in Equity. The Supreme Court building is physically located in Queen's Square, New South Wales; the first superior court of the Colony of New South Wales was established by letters patent dated 2 April 1814, known as the Second Charter of Justice of New South Wales.
That charter provided that there should be a Supreme Court constituted by a Judge appointed by the King's commission and two Magistrates. The charter created the Governor's Court and the Lieutenant-Governor's Court; the jurisdiction of the Governor's Court and the Supreme Court extended to Van Diemen's Land. All three courts were concerned with civil matters only. Legislation to establish a new supreme court for both New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land was prepared in London by James Stephen, counsel to the Colonial Office, Francis Forbes, Chief Justice of Newfoundland and Chief Justice-designate of New South Wales; the act was called an "Act to provide for the better administration of justice in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land and for the more effectual government thereof" and is numbered as "4 Geo. IV, c. 96". The statute was passed on 19 July 1823. In consequence of this legislation, letters patent establishing the New South Wales Supreme Court were sealed on 13 October 1823, proclaimed in Sydney on 17 May 1824.
They are known as the Third Charter of Justice of New South Wales. This charter provided that there should be a Chief Justice for the colony of New South Wales in the Island of New Holland, as well as other judges, a registrar, a prothonotary, a master, a Keeper of Records and such other Officers as may be necessary for the administration of Justice in the colony; the charter established the office of sheriff. A person had to be admitted as such in the United Kingdom. However, ex-convicts were not permitted to be admitted. In 1840, a Port Phillip division of the Court was created, consisting of a single Resident Judge, to exercise the court's jurisdiction in the Port Phillip District of the Colony of New South Wales; the division existed until 1852, when it was replaced by the Supreme Court of Victoria following the creation of the Colony of Victoria. In 1840, the Parliament of New South Wales established a separate equity division in the court. Limited jurisdiction in divorce cases was granted in 1873 and full Admiralty jurisdiction was added in 1911.
The Supreme Court, in 1972, was one of the last Common Law jurisdictions in the world to fuse the administration of Equity and Common Law, although these continue as the historic names for the two divisions of the court. This process began in the United Kingdom with the passage of the Judicature Acts in 1873. Since 1930, three generations of the Street family have served New South Wales as Chief Justice. Supreme Court Judges Carolyn Simpson, Margaret Beazley and Virginia Bell made headlines in April 1999 when the three sat in the Court of Criminal Appeal in Sydney; the Judges threw out an appeal from a convicted computer hacker who had, out of "sheer maliciousness", been posting offensive messages on Ausnet's homepage. According to the Women Lawyers Association of NSW, there had never been an all-female bench in England or New Zealand at the time; the court now operates under the Constitution Act 1902, the Supreme Court Act 1970, the Civil Procedure Act 2005, although provisions on the appointment and removal of judicial officers were incorporated into the state's Constitution in 1992.
The court consists of 52 permanent judges, three Acting Judges of Appeal, two Acting Judges, an Associate Judge. Permanent judges include the Chief Justice of New South Wales, the President of the Court of Appeal, eleven Judges of Appeal, the Chief Judge at Common Law and the Chief Judge in Equity, 38 Puisne Judges; the Chief Judge in each trial division sits in the Court of Appeal from time to time. Puisne judges sit in the Court of Appeal, though this is uncommon; the court hears serious cases such as murder and treason, civil cases involving more than $750 000, civil matters such as wills and admiralty. The court's work at first instance is divided between the Common Law Division, which hears civil and administrative law matters, the Equity Division, which hears equity, commercial and protective matters; the court includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Criminal Appeal which hear appeals from the District Court and the Local Court and from single judges sitting in the Common Law or Equity Divisions.
The Court of Appeal hears appeal
Goobang National Park
Goobang is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 296 kilometres northwest of Sydney. It protects the largest remnant forest and woodland in the central west region of the state, where interior and coastal New South Wales flora and fauna species overlap. Named Herveys Range by John Oxley in 1817, the area was reserved in 1897 as state forest because of its importance as a timber resource, was designated a national park in 1995; the park contains a camping ground and a hiking trail, Burrabadine Peak Walking Track, a 3.6 km round trip moderate hike. Goobang National Park is in a temperate to semi-arid zone experiencing hot summers and cool winters with temperatures ranging from 4 to 15 °C in winter and 17 to 32 °C in summer; the heaviest rain fall is in the summer and can range from 645 millimetres on the east side of the ranges to 564 millimetres west of the ranges. There are 459 species recorded in several that are threatened. Tylophora linearis is listed as vulnerable according to the TCS ACT 1995 and endangered according to the EPBC ACT 1999.
Eriostemon ericifolius is vulnerable based on TCS ACT 1995 and Astrotricha linearis only known record west of the Great Dividing Range. Pomaderris queeslandica endangered TSC ACT 1995 and Philotheca ericifoia vulnerable EPBC ACT 1999. There are 135 ecological communities in the South West Slope bioregion, most are considered poorly protected. There are 11 ecological communities in the park; these include red stringybark woodland found on siliceous hillslopes of the Hervey Range. Red stringybark, long leaved box black cypress pine, hummock grass, shrubby low woodland found on siliceous volcanic and sedimentary ranges. Red ironbark in association with black cypress shrubby woodland found on shallow sandy soils derived from sandstone. Red ironbark, red stringybark tumbledown gum heathland found on siliceous ridges and scribbly gum dominated open forest in association with black cypress pine and red ironbark. A further four communities that are protected in Goobang are considered to be of significance.
Mugga ironbark, black cypress, red stringybark, Blakely's red gum and red ironbark woodland which are found on hillslopes and in valleys on the ranges. Buloke and white cypress pine. Riparian Blakely's red gum, apple box, yellow box and inland grey box, with shrub and grass tall open forest in valleys. White box, with black cypress and red gum shrubby woodlands in the hills. Fires are an intrinsic feature of the Australian bush, to ensure continual biodiversity prescribed burns are carried out at the appropriate times within the park. Wildfires at Goobang have occurred due to dry lightning strikes in the hot summer months. There have been 52 wildfires recorded since 1942. There are 31 species of reptiles, 14 species of frogs and 31 species of mammals recorded in the park including echidnas, kangaroos and bats as well as exotics such as rabbits, foxes, goats and dogs. Threatened species include carpet python, Sloane's froglet, brush tailed rock wallaby, grey-headed flying-fox, yellow-bellied sheathtail bat, Corben's long eared bat (Nyetophilus corbeni and New Holland mouse Rabbits pose a threat to the survival of tree seedlings competition with native herbivores.
Weeds such as blackberry are significant as far as causing havoc within the natural environment forming large thickets blocking creeks suppressing native ground covers and providing a hiding spot for feral animals such as rabbits. Exotic grasses and weeds have replaced native undergrowth in most of the scattered white box communities. Grazing in and around remnant woodlands. Clearing of native vegetation that might act as connective corridors between the park and any other patchy native landscapes. Species that require specialized niches and or cannot disperse and colonize suitable habitat will be affected if this current
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Bago Bluff National Park
Bago Bluff is a national park in New South Wales, Australia 410 km northeast of Sydney. It is situated south west of Wauchope and includes parts of the former Broken Bago State Forest and a part of Lorne State Forest; the Bago Bluff National Park includes in the northern section the old Bago Bluff Flora Reserve and Six B Flora Reserve. Bago Bluff offers splendid views of the Hastings Valley from the top of the bluff which can be accessed via several forest roads from the south, including Bago Road; the park's northern boundary is on southern side of the Oxley Highway where there are two badly washed 4WD tracks into the park. Quarries in the park have yielded leaf and shell fossils. Birds that may be spotted in the park include: Australian magpies, golden whistlers, green winged pigeons, grey fantails, large-billed scrubwrens, spotted pardalotes, pied currawongs, striated thornbills and white-browed scrubwrens. Lantana has become a problem in the park where it is covering some of the tracks. Protected areas of New South Wales
Central West (New South Wales)
The Central West is a region of New South Wales, Australia. The region is geographically in eastern New South Wales, in the area west of the Blue Mountains, which are west of Sydney, it has an area of 63,262 square kilometres. Major population and service centres in the Central West include the cities of Bathurst and Dubbo. Bathurst and Dubbo are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only main provider of university education for the region; the Central West includes three cities: Bathurst and Orange. The following local government areas are contained within the region: The Central West's east is higher and hillier and supports orchards, vegetable-growing and pastoralism; the west supports grain crops and pastoralism. The Central West region is traversed by the Great Western Highway, the Mid-Western Highway, the Mitchell Highway, the Newell Highway and the Castlereagh Highway; the Central West has several radio stations, including 97.9 2LVR, 105.1 2GZFM, 105.9 Star FM, 107.5 Community Radio, 103.5 Rhema FM and 1089AM — a commercial station that gets most of its programming from 2SM in Sydney.
Other electronic media are represented by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation with both television and radio broadcasting. The Central Western Daily newspaper is published in Orange; the Central West area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people. The first white explorer, George Wilson Evans, entered the Lachlan Valley in 1815, he named the area the Oxley Plains after his superior John Oxley. In 1817 he deemed the area unfit for white settlement. A Military Depot was established not long after at Soldiers Flat near present-day Billimari. Arthur Ranken and James Sloan, from Bathurst, were amongst the first white settlers on the Lachlan, they moved to the area in 1831. In the 1850s many gold prospectors passed through headed for gold fields at Lambing Flat and Grenfell. NSW Forecast Areas map Department of Local Government page for the region listing links to council pages "Open Directory" listing