An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, aquatic plants; the term "aquarium", coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large; the aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. An aquarium is a water-filled tank. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are larger public aquariums in many cities.
This kind of aquarium is other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles and other sea animals. Most aquarium tanks have plants. An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic. Cuboid aquaria are known as fish tanks or tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl, under a gallon in volume, to immense public aquaria of several thousand gallons. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents. In 1369, the Hongwu Emperor of China established a porcelain company that produced large porcelain tubs for maintaining goldfish. Leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts, it is sometimes held that the aquarium was invented by the Romans, who are said to have kept sea barbels in marble-and-glass tanks, but this is unlikely to be true. In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, became the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.
In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with toy fish. However, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium. In 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for three years, was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London. English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria; the aquarium principle was developed by Warington, explaining that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large. He published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society's journal; the keeping of fish in an aquarium spread quickly. In the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast-iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851.
In 1853, the aquarium craze was launched in England by Philip Henry Gosse who created and stocked the first public aquarium in the London Zoo which came to be known as the Fish House. Gosse coined the word "aquarium", opting for this term in 1854 in his book The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea. In this book, Gosse discussed saltwater aquaria. In the 1850s, the aquarium became a fad in the United Kingdom. Tank designs and techniques for maintaining water quality were developed by Warington cooperating with Gosse until his critical review of the tank water composition. Edward Edwards developed these glass-fronted aquaria in his 1858 patent for a "dark-water-chamber slope-back tank", with water circulating to a reservoir beneath. Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest. In 1854, an anonymous author had two articles published about the saltwater aquaria of the United Kingdom: Die Gartenlaube entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische. However, in 1856, Der See im Glase was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, which were much easier to maintain in landlocked areas.
In 1862 William Alford Lloyd bankrupt because of the craze in England being over, moved to Grindel Dammthor, Hamburg, to supervise the installation of the circulating system and tanks at the Hamburg Aquarium. During the 1870s, some of the first aquarist societies were appearing in Germany; the United States soon followed. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butler's The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States about the aquarium. According to the July issue of The North American Review of the same year, William Stimson may have owned some of the first functional aquaria, had as many as seven or eight; the first aquarist society in the United States was founded in New York City in 1893, followed by others. The New York Aquarium Journal, first published in October 1876, is considered to be the world's first aquarium magazine. In the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, a common design for the home aquarium was a glass front with the other sides made of wood; the bottom would be heated from below.
More advanced systems soon began to be introduced, along with tanks of
Chaetomorpha linum is a species of green algae in the family Cladophoraceae. Chaetomorpha linum and Chaetomorpha aerea are considered by some authors to be conspecific; this is not accepted by other authorities. Chaetomorpha linum is a species composed of fine hair-like, unbranched filaments. Cells 1 - 2 times as long as broad, maximum width 585μm. Cells cylindrical or barrel-shaped. Both unattached and attached forms exist; the unattached plants form masses of twisted filaments the attached filament grow as tufts from a definite base. In Ireland found in fresh water. Both attached and unattached forms are to be found in marine waters. Both C. linum and C. aerea are found around the British Isles and around Europe into the Mediterranean. In North America it is to be found along the Atlantic coast and in California
Chaetomorpha antennina is a species of green algae of the family Cladophoraceae
Chlorophyta or Prasinophyta is a taxon of green algae informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants and thus includes about 7,000 species of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to the sister of the streptophytes/charophytes; the clade Streptophyta consists of the Charophyta. In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species. Like the land plants, green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch in their plastids; the Chlorophyta contains both multicellular species. Some members of the group form symbiotic relationships with protozoa and cnidarians. Others form symbiotic relationships with fungi to form lichens, but the majority of species are free-living; some conduct sexual reproduction, oogamous or isogamous.
All members of the clade have motile flagellated swimming cells. While most species live in freshwater habitats and a large number in marine habitats, other species are adapted to a wide range of land environments. For example, Chlamydomonas nivalis, which causes Watermelon snow, lives on summer alpine snowfields. Others, such as Trentepohlia species, live attached to rocks or woody parts of trees. Monostroma kuroshiense, an edible green alga cultivated worldwide and most expensive among green algae, belongs to this group. Species of Chlorophyta are common inhabitants of marine and terrestrial environments. Several species have adapted to specialised and extreme environments, such as deserts, arctic environments, hypersaline habitats, marine deep waters and deep-sea hydrothermal vents; some groups, such as the Trentepohliales are found on land. Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a diverse range of eukaryotes, including fungi, forams and molluscs; some species of Chlorophyta are either free-living or parasitic.
Two common species of the heterotrophic green alga Prototheca are pathogenic and can cause the disease protothecosis in humans and animals. Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides and more genetic data. A newer proposed classification follows Leliaert et al. 2011 and modified with Silar 2016, Leliaert 2016 and Lopes dos Santos et al. 2017 for the green algae clades and Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015 for the land plants clade. Sánchez-Baracaldo et al. is followed for the basal clades. Simplified phylogeny of the Chlorophyta, according to Leliaert et al. 2012. Note that many algae classified in Chlorophyta are placed here in Streptophyta. Viridiplantae Chlorophyta core chlorophytes Ulvophyceae Cladophorales Dasycladales Bryopsidales Trentepohliales Ulvales-Ulotrichales Oltmannsiellopsidales Chlorophyceae Oedogoniales Chaetophorales Chaetopeltidiales Chlamydomonadales Sphaeropleales Trebouxiophyceae Chlorellales Oocystaceae Microthamniales Trebouxiales Prasiola clade Chlorodendrophyceae prasinophytes Pyramimonadales Mamiellophyceae Pycnococcaceae Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinococcales Palmophyllales Streptophyta charophytes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Charophyceae Zygnematophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Embryophyta A possible classification when Chlorophyta refers to one of the two clades of the Viridiplantae is shown below.
Class Prasinophyceae T. A. Chr. ex Ø. Moestrup & J. Throndsen Class Chlorophyceae Wille Class Trebouxiophyceae T. Friedl Class Ulvophyceae Division Chlorophyta Subdivision Chlorophytina Class Chlorophyceae Order Chlamydomonadales Order Sphaeropleales Order Oedogoniales Order Chaetopeltidales Order Chaetophorales Incertae Sedis Class Ulvophyceae Order Ulotrichales Order Ulvales Order Siphoncladales/Cladophorales Order Caulerpales Order Dasycladales Class Trebouxiophyceae Order Trebouxiales Order Microthamniales Order Prasiolales Order Chlorellales Class Prasinophyceae Order Pyramimonadales Order Mamiellales Order Pseudoscourfieldiales Order Chlorodendrales Incertae sedis Division Charophyta Class Mesostigmatophyceae Class Chlorokybophyceae Class Klebsormidiophyceae Class Zygnemophyceae Order Zygnematales Order Desmidiales Class Coleochaetophyceae Order Coleochaetales Subdivision Streptophytina Class Charophyceae Order Charales Class Embryophyceae Classification of the Chlorophyta, treated as all green algae, according to Hoek and Jahns 1995.
Class Prasinophyceae Class Chlorophyceae Class Ulvophyceae Class Cladophorophyceae Class Bryopsidophyceae Class Dasycladophyceae Class Trentepohliophyceae
Chaetomorpha aerea is a species of green algae of the family Cladophoraceae. Chaetomorpha aerea and Chaetomorpha linum are considered conspecific by some authors, other authors do not accept this synonymy; the genus to which this species belongs is regarded as needing further taxonomic investigation. Cheatomorpha aerea is the attached form; this species is wide spread world wide. In New Zealand it is found in upper to mid-intertidal pool on the coast of the North and South Islands, Chatham Islands and Stewart Island
The Ulvophyceae or ulvophytes are a class of green algae, distinguished on the basis of ultrastructural morphology, life cycle and molecular phylogenetic data. The sea lettuce, belongs here. Other well-known members include Caulerpa, Acetabularia, Cladophora and Monostroma; the Ulvophytes are diverse in their habitat. Most are seaweeds such as those listed above. Others, such as Rhizoclonium and some species of Cladophora live in fresh water and in some areas are considered weeds; the origin and early diversification of the Ulvophyceae took place in the late Neoproterozoic. Although most contemporary ulvophytes are marine macroalgae, ancestral ulvophytes may have been freshwater, unicellular green algae. Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in the various major lineages of Ulvophyceae. Fossils are rare but there are sone good candidates in a mid-Ordovician lagerstatten. Current hypothesis on relationships among the main clades of Ulvophyceae are shown below.
List of Ulvophyceae genera