The Chaulukya dynasty known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between c. 940 CE and c. 1244 CE. Their capital was located at Anahilavada. At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh; the medieval legends describe them as Agnivanshi Rajputs, they are known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature. Mularaja, the founder of the dynasty, supplanted the last ruler of the Chapotkata dynasty around 940 CE, his successors fought several battles with the neighbouring rulers such as the Chudasamas, the Paramaras and the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. During the reign of Bhima I, the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded the kingdom and raided the Somnath temple during 1024-1025 CE; the Chaulukyas soon recovered, the kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of Jayasimha Siddharaja and Kumarapala in the 12th century. Several minor dynasties, such as the Chahamanas of Jalor and the Chahamanas of Naddula, served as Chaulukya vassals during this period.
After Kumarapala's death, the kingdom was weakened by internal rebellions. Taking advantage of this, the Vaghelas, who had earlier served as Chaulukya generals, usurped the power and established a new dynasty in the 1240s. Several princely state rulers of the Solanki clan claimed descent from the Chaulukyas; the dynasty used the self-designation "Chaulukya" in all but four of its records. The four exceptions are: "Chaulukika" in the Kadi grant of Mularaja "Saulkika" in a grant of Chamundaraja "Chaulakya" in the Sambhar inscription of Jayasimha "Chaullakya" in the Jalor inscription of KumarapalaHemachandra, a Jain scholar in the Chaulukya court used the terms "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya", his Dvyasraya Mahakavya mentions the variants "Chulakya", "Chalukka", "Chulukka". The Chaulukya court poet Someshvara describes the dynasty as "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya"."Solanki" or "Solankhi" is a vernacular form of the term. The word "Chaulukya" is thought to be a variant of the word "Chalukya". Several other dynasties were known by the name "Chalukya", including the Chalukyas of Vatapi, Vemulavada, Kalyani and Lata.
These dynasties are sometimes thought to be branches of the same family, but the relationship between all of them is not certain. Unlike the Chalukyas of Kalyani and Vengi, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat never claimed a shared descent or any other association with the earliest Chalukya dynasty — the Chalukyas of Vatapi. Moreover, they never used the term "Chalukya" to describe themselves. However, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat shared a myth of origin with the Chalukyas of Vengi. According to this legend, the progenitor of the dynasty was created by Brahma; the version of the legend mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti inscription of Kumarapala is as follows: the deities once asked the creator god Brahma to protect them from the danavas. Brahma created a hero from his chuluka, filled with Ganges water; this hero was named "Chulukya", became the progenitor of the dynasty. A variation of this legend is mentioned by Abhayatilaka Gani in his commentary on Hemachandra's Dvyashraya-Kavya. According to this version, Brahma produced the hero to support the earth, after his other creations disappointed him.
These stories are of no historical value, as it was customary for contemporary royal houses to claim mythical and heroic origins. The Kumarapala-Bhupala-Charita of Jayasimha Suri presents Chulukya as a historical warrior, whose capital was Madhupadma. Mularaja was his descendant, with nearly a hundred generations separating the two; this account may be historical: Madhupadma has been identified variously as a location outside Gujarat, including present-day Mathura. C. V. Vaidya theorized. G. H. Ojha opposed this theory, pointing out that an inscription of the Lata Chalukya ruler Kirtiraja describes his family as "Chalukya", while an inscription of his grandson Trilochanapala describes the family as "Chaulukya". According to Asoke Majumdar, while these similar-sounding names suggest a common origin for all these dynasties, there is no concrete evidence to draw any definitive conclusion. Majumdar theorized that the Chaulukyas were connected to the Sulikas or the Chulikas, a tribe mentioned in several ancient records.
This tribe is described as living on the northern frontier of ancient India. However, Majumdar admitted. In the period, the Chaulukyas were categorized as one of the Rajput clans, although the Rajput identity did not exist during their time. According to the Agnikula myth mentioned in a 16th-century recension of the legendary text Prithviraj Raso, four Rajput clans including the Chaulukyas were born from a fire-pit on Mount Abu. A section of colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest that these clans were foreigners who came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around the 5th century CE, were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. In addition, the Chaulukya rulers have been called "Gurjararāja" and "Gurjareśvara". Based on this legend, D. R. Bhandarkar and others theorized that the Chaulukyas were a branch of Gurjaras, whom they believed to be a tribe of foreign origin. Bhandarkar and Augustus Hoernle believed that the name of the "Lata" region changed to "Gurjaratra" during the Chaulukya reign because they were Gurjaras.
Vagad is a region in southeastern Rajasthan state of western India. Its boundaries are defined by those of the districts of Dungarpur and Banswara. Major cities of the region are Banswara. Vagad is bounded on the north by Mewar region of Rajasthan, on the southeast and eastby Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, on the west and southwest by Gujarat state; the region lies in the upper watershed of the Mahi River and its tributaries, said to be the lifeline of Vagad. The Mahi flows north through the district from its origin in the Vindhya Range of Madhya Pradesh, entering the district from the southeast and flowing north towards the northern end of the district, where it turns southwest to form the boundary between Banswara and Dungarpur districts before entering Gujarat and emptying into the Gulf of Cambay. Vagad has rich fauna; the forests include teak. The wildlife includes a large variety of wild animals such as the chinkara. Common birds in the region include fowl, black drongo, grey shrike, green bee-eater and parrot.
Some of the towns in this region are Aspur, Simalwada, Partapur and Garhi. Parmar rulers held Vagar during the 11th century with their political center at Arthuna. Vagad as a different region separated from Mewar, a branch of Guhilot Rajput ruled here The states of Banswara and Kishangarh separated, the state of Sisodias continued existence as Dungarpur. All princely states were merged into Rajasthan prior to 1947. Beneshwar, situated on the confluence of rivers Mahi and Jakham, is a major pilgrimage centre in Vagad, which hosts one of Asia's largest annual congregation of tribals known as the Beneshwar Fair. Rural Images of Vagad
Marwar is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in North Western India. It lies in the Thar Desert; the word'maru' is Sanskrit for desert. In Rajasthani dialect, "wad" means a particular area. English translation of the word'marvar' is'the region of desert.'The region includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and parts of Sikar. It is bounded on the north by Jangladesh region, on the northeast by Dhundhar, on the east by Ajmer, on the southeast by Mewar, on the south by Godwar, on the southwest by Sindh, on the west by Jaisalmer region. In 1901 the region had an area of 93,424 km2. Marwar is a sandy plain lying northwest of the Aravalli Range, which runs southwest-northeast through Rajasthan state; the Aravallis wring much of the moisture from the southwest monsoon, which provides most of India's rainfall. Annual rainfall is low, ranging from 10 cm to 40 cm. Temperatures range from 48 to 50 degrees Celsius in the summer, to below freezing point in winter; the northwestern thorn scrub forests lie next to the Aravalli Range, while the rest of the region lies in the Thar Desert.
The Luni River is the principal feature of the Marwar plains. It originates in the sacred Pushkar Lake of Ajmer District, the main river flows through Marwar in a south-westerly direction until it disappears into the seasonal wetland of the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, it is fed by tributaries. Irrigation from the river, from wells near the river, support crops of wheat and barley; the sandy tracts of Thar Desert in western Marwar are characterized by a harsh physical geography and a fragile ecology. High wind velocity, shifting sand dunes and deep and saline water sources pose a challenge to sustained human habitation in the Thar; the area is prone to devastating droughts. The Thar Desert is one of the most inhospitable landscapes on earth. Apart from the huge distances between hamlets and settlements here, the landscape is shifting with the sand, as wind and sandstorms re-arrange the landscape. This, added to the lack of water in such an arid region, means that the villagers find themselves migrating on foot across hundreds of miles towards neighboring states in search of water.
Hieun Tsang described a kingdom in Rajasthan which he calls Ku-cha-lo because the whole of the marwar area of rajasthan was more or less identified with the Gurjars, as early as the 6th or 7th century. The Gurjara Pratihara, a Rajput clan, established a kingdom in Marwar in the 6th century, with a capital at Mandore, 9 km from present-day Jodhpur; the ruined city of Osian or Ossian, 65 km from Jodhpur, was an important religious centre of the Pratihara period. The royal Rathore family of Jodhpur claim descent from the famous Rashtrakuta dynasty. On the fall of the Rashtrakuta dynasty they migrated north to Kannauj in Uttar Pradesh; the Jodhpur state was founded in the 13th century by the Rathore clan of Rajputs. After the sacking of Kannauj by Muhammad of Ghor in 1194, its capture by the Delhi Sultanate in the early 13th century, the Rathores fled west; the Rathore family chronicles relate that Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, the last Gahadvala king of Kannauj, came to Marwar on a pilgrimage to Dwarka in Gujarat.
On halting at the town of Pali he and his followers settled there to protect the Brahmin community from the raids of marauding bands. Rao Chanda, tenth in succession from Siyaji wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas; the city of Jodhpur, capital of the Rathor state and now a district administrative centre, was founded in 1459 by Rao Chanda's successor Rao Jodha. In 1561 the kingdom was invaded by the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great. Rao Maldev Rathore was forced to submit and to send his son Udai Singh as a mark of homage to take service under the Mughal emperor. After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, Marwar was brought under direct Mughal administration and remained so till 1583, when Udai Singh ascended to the throne. In 1679 CE, when Maharaja Jaswant Singh whom Emperor Aurangzeb had posted at Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, died at that place, leaving no son to succeed him. One died and the other survived to secure the throne of Marwar and to stir up the sentiments of his co-religionists against the Muslim Monarch.
The family of the late Raja had left Jamrud without the permission of the emperor and killed an officer at Attock when asked to produce a passport. This was a sufficient ground for incorporating Marwar in the Mughal Empire, or reducing it to a state of dependency under a capable ruler. So the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb crushed the Rathore rebellion. Marwar left under Mughal control until late 18th century, it backfired. A triple alliance was formed by the states of Jodhpur kingdom and Jaipur Kingdom to became independent from the Mughal Empire. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sisodia dynasty of Mewar, which they had forfeited by contracting alliances with the Mughal emperors, on the understanding that the offspring of Sisodia princesses should succeed to the state in preference to all other children; the quarrels arising from this stipulation lasted through many generations. It led to the invitation of Maratha help from the rival aspirants to power and to the subjection of all the Rajput states to the Marathas.
Jodhpur was conquered by Sindhia, who levied a tribute of 60,000 rupees, took from it the fort and town of Ajmer. Internecine disputes and succession wars disturbed the peace of the early years
Bhoja was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty. His kingdom was centered around the Malwa region in central India, where his capital Dhara-nagara was located. Bhoja fought wars with nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east. Bhoja is best known as a patron of arts and sciences; the establishment of the Bhoj Shala, a centre for Sanskrit studies, is attributed to him. He was a polymath, several books covering a wide range of topics are attributed to him, he is said to have constructed a large number of Shiva temples, although Bhojeshwar Temple in Bhojpur is the only surviving temple that can be ascribed to him with certainty. Because of his patronage to scholars, Bhoja became one of the most celebrated kings in the Indian history. After his death, he came to be featured in several legends as a righteous scholar-king.
The body of legends clustered around him is comparable to that of the fabled Vikramaditya. Bhoja's father and predecessor was Sindhuraja. According to Bhoja-Prabandha, his mother's name was Savitri. Bhoja's reputation as a scholar-king suggests; the Bhoja-Prabandha states. According to Bhoja-Prabandha, early in his life, Bhoja suffered from intense headaches. Two Brahmin surgeons from Ujjain made him unconscious using an anaesthetic powder called moha-churna, opened his cranial bone, removed a tumor, made him regain his consciousness by administering another powder called sanjivani. According to Tilaka-Manjari, composed by Bhoja's contemporary Dhanapala, Bhoja's feet had auspicious birthmarks indicating that he was fit to be a king, his uncle Munja loved him and appointed him as the king. However, several legendary accounts state that Munja was jealous of Bhoja, tried to prevent him from becoming a king. For example, the 14th century Prabandha-Chintamani states that during the reign of Munja, an astrologer prophesied Bhoja's long reign.
Munja, who wanted his own son to become the king, ordered Bhoja's killing. Bhoja was appointed as the king by the royal ministers after Munja's death. According to a Gujarati legend documented in Rasmala, Munja ordered Bhoja's murder, but appointed him as the crown prince. Bhoja-Prabandha states that Munja ordered one Vatsaraja to kill Bhoja at the Mahamaya temple in Bhuvaneshvari forest. On hearing Bhoja's cultured manner of talking and his men abandoned the murder plan, they faked Bhoja's death, presented to Munja a fake head and a verse from Bhoja. The verse described how great kings like Mandhata and Yudhishthira died leaving behind all their property; the verse moved Munja to tears, made him realize his mistake. When he learned that Bhoja was still alive, he invited Bhoja to back to his court. To repent for his sin, he went on a pilgrimage to Dharmaranya, where he established a town called Munjapuram; the sarcastic verse, purportedly written by Bhoja to Munja appears as an antonymous extract in Sharngadhara-paddhati.
These stories of Bhoja's persecution by Munja are mythical. This legend is not found in the works composed by the contemporaries of Munja and Bhoja. For example, the Nava-Sahasanka-Charita makes no mention of this story; the legend appears to be the poetic imagination of composers. Ain-i-Akbari contains a variation of this account, but distorts the legend, naming Munja as the one, persecuted by Bhoja; this account is completely unreliable from a historical point of view. Some literary works suggest; these works include Tilaka-Manjari, Prabandha-Chintamani, Rasmala. However, several other works as well as epigraphic evidence indicate that Bhoja succeeded his father Sindhuraja. Padmagupta, the court poet of Sindhuraja and Bhoja supports this fact. According to Bhoja-Prabandha, Munja left the Paramara administration in hands of Sindhuraja before departing on a military expedition. Munja unexpectedly died in this campaign, as a result, Sindhuraja succeeded him as the king. Sindhuraja's court poet Padmagupta, in his Nava-Sahasanka-Charita, states that Munja "placed the world in Sindhuraja's hands" before leaving for Ambika's town.
This indicates that he left the administration in Sindhuraja's hands before leaving for his fatal expedition against Tailapa II. Udaipur Prashasti inscription seems to confirm this; the Modasa copper plates are the earliest historical record of Bhoja's reign. The Chintamani-Sarnika was composed by Bhoja's court poet Dasabala. An inscription of Bhoja's successor Jayasimha I is dated 1055 CE. Thus, 1055 CE can be taken as the last year of Bhoja's reign. Based on these evidences, scholars such as Pratipal Bhatia assign Bhoja's reign to 1010–1055 CE. However, some scholars assign the beginning of Bhoja's reign variously between 1000 CE and 1010 CE, based on their interpretations of inscriptions and legendary texts. For example, Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani states that Bhoja ruled for 55 years, 7 months and 3 days. Based on this, scholars such as D. C. Ganguly and K. C. Jain assign Bhoja's reign to 1000–1055 CE. However, as K. M. Munshi states, dates are "the weakest point in Merutunga's narratives".
A. K. Warder, who dismisses Merutunga as "completely unreliable" and his narratives as "essentially fiction", believes there is no evidenc
Provenance is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object. The term was mostly used in relation to works of art but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including archaeology, archives, printed books and science and computing; the primary purpose of tracing the provenance of an object or entity is to provide contextual and circumstantial evidence for its original production or discovery, by establishing, as far as practicable, its history the sequences of its formal ownership and places of storage. The practice has a particular value in helping authenticate objects. Comparative techniques, expert opinions and the results of scientific tests may be used to these ends, but establishing provenance is a matter of documentation; the term dates to the 1780s in English. Provenance is conceptually comparable to the legal term chain of custody. In archaeology and paleontology, the derived term provenience is used with a related but particular meaning, to refer to the location where an artifact or other ancient item was found.
Provenance covers an object's complete documented history. An artifact may thus have both a provenance; the provenance of works of fine art and antiquities is of great importance to their owner. There are a number of reasons why painting provenance is important, which also apply to other types of fine art. A good provenance increases the value of a painting, establishing provenance may help confirm the date and for portraits, the subject of a painting, it may confirm. The provenance of paintings can help resolve ownership disputes. For example, provenance between 1933 and 1945 can determine whether a painting was looted by the Nazis. Many galleries are putting a great deal of effort into researching the provenance of paintings in their collections for which there is no firm provenance during that period. Documented evidence of provenance for an object can help to establish that it has not been altered and is not a forgery, a reproduction, stolen or looted art. Provenance helps assign the work to a known artist, a documented history can be of use in helping to prove ownership.
An example of a detailed provenance is given in the Arnolfini portrait. The quality of provenance of an important work of art can make a considerable difference to its selling price in the market; the provenance of a work of art may vary in length, depending on context or the amount, known, from a single name to an entry in a scholarly catalogue some thousands of words long. An expert certification can mean the difference between an object having no value and being worth a fortune. Certifications themselves may be open to question. Jacques van Meegeren forged the work of his father Han van Meegeren. Jacques sometimes produced a certificate with his forgeries stating that a work was created by his father. John Drewe was able to pass off as genuine paintings, a large number of forgeries that would have been recognised as such by scientific examination, he established an impressive provenance and because of this galleries and dealers accepted the paintings as genuine. He created this false provenance by forging letters and other documents, including false entries in earlier exhibition catalogues.
Sometimes provenance can be as simple as a photograph of the item with its original owner. Simple yet definitive documentation such as that can increase its value by an order of magnitude, but only if the owner was of high renown. Many items that were sold at auction have gone far past their estimates because of a photograph showing that item with a famous person; some examples include antiques owned by politicians, artists, etc. The objective of provenance research is to produce a complete list of owners from when the painting was commissioned or in the artist's studio through to the present time. In practice, there are to be gaps in the list and documents that are missing or lost; the documented provenance should list when the painting has been part of an exhibition and a bibliography of when it has been discussed in print. Where the research is proceeding backwards, to discover the previous provenance of a painting whose current ownership and location is known, it is important to record the physical details of the painting – style, signature, dimensions, etc.
The titles of paintings and the attribution to a particular artist may change over time. The size of the work and its description can be used to identify earlier references to the painting; the back of a painting can contain significant provenance information. There may be exhibition marks, dealer stamps, gallery labels and other indications of previous ownership. There may be shipping labels. In the BBC TV programme Fake or Fortune? the provenance of the painting Bords de la Seine à Argenteuil was investigated using a gallery sticker and shipping label on the back. Early provenance can sometimes be indicated by a cartellino added to the front of a painting. However, these can fade or be painted over. Auction records are an important resource to assist i
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan; the definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. The Malwa region had been a separate political unit from the time of the ancient Malava Kingdom, it has been ruled by several kingdoms and dynasties, including the Avanti Kingdom, the Mauryans, the Malavas, the Guptas, the Paramaras, the Malwa sultans, the Mughals and the Marathas. Malwa continued to be an administrative division until 1947, when the Malwa Agency of British India was merged into Madhya Bharat state of independent India. Although its political borders have fluctuated throughout history, the region has developed its own distinct culture, influenced by the Rajasthani and Gujarati cultures.
Several prominent people in the history of India have lived in Malwa, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, the polymath king Bhoja. Ujjain had been the political and cultural capital of the region in ancient times, Indore is now the largest city and commercial centre. Overall, agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Malwa; the region has been one of the important producers of opium in the world. Wheat and soybeans are other important cash crops, textiles are a major industry. Several early stone age or Lower Paleolithic habitations have been excavated in eastern Malwa; the name Malwa is derived from the name of the ancient Indian tribe of Malavas. The name Malava is said to be derived from the Sanskrit term Malav, which means “part of the abode of Lakshmi”; the location of the Malwa or Moholo, mentioned by the 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang, is plausibly identified with present-day Gujarat.
The region is cited as Malibah such as Kamilu-t Tawarikh by Ibn Asir. The Malwa Culture was a Chalcolithic archaeological culture which existed in the Malwa region, as well as nearby parts of Maharashtra to the south, during the 2nd millennium BCE. Ujjain known as Ujjaiyini and Avanti, emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa region during India's second wave of urbanisation in the 7th century BC. Around 600 BC an earthen rampart was built around Ujjain. Ujjain was the capital city of the Avanti kingdom, one of the prominent mahajanapadas of ancient India. In the post-Mahabharata period—around 500 BC—Avanti was an important kingdom in western India; the region was conquered by the Nanda Empire in the mid-4th century BC, subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire. Ashoka, a Mauryan emperor, was governor of Ujjain in his youth. After the death of Ashoka in 232 BC, the Maurya Empire began to collapse. Although evidence is sparse, Malwa was ruled by the Kushanas, the Shakas and the Satavahana dynasty during the 1st and 2nd century CE.
Ownership of the region was the subject of dispute between the Western Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas during the first three centuries AD. Ujjain emerged a major trading centre during the 1st century AD. Malwa became part of the Gupta Empire during the reign of Chandragupta II known as Vikramaditya, who conquered the region, driving out the Western Kshatrapas; the Gupta period is regarded as a golden age in the history of Malwa, when Ujjain served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa and Varahamihira were all based in Ujjain, which emerged as a major centre of learning in astronomy and mathematics. Around 500, Malwa re-emerged from the dissolving Gupta Empire as a separate kingdom. During the seventh century, the region became part of Harsha's empire, who disputed the region with the Chalukya king Pulakesin II of Badami in the Deccan. In 756 AD Gurjara-Pratiharas advanced into Malwa. In 786 the region was captured by the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan, was disputed between the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara Pratihara kings of Kannauj until the early part of the tenth century.
The Emperors of the Rashtrakuta dynasty appointed the Paramara rulers as governors of Malwa. From the mid-tenth century, Malwa was ruled by the Paramaras. King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was known as the great polymath philosopher-king of medieval India. Under his rule Malwa became an intellectual centre of India, his successors ruled until about 1305. Malwa was several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire. Dilawar Khan Malwa's governor under the rule of the Delhi sultanate, declared himself sultan of Malwa in 1401 after the Mughal conqueror Timur attacked Delhi, causing the break-up of the sultanate into smaller states. Khan started the Malwa Sultanate and established a capital at Mandu, high in the Vindhya Range overlooking the Narmada River valley, his son and successor, Hoshang Shah, developed Mandu as an important city. Hoshang Shah's son, Ghazni Khan, ruled for only a year and was succeeded by Mahmud Khalji, the first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include parts of
The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan. Although the dynasty was of Central Asian Turkic origin, it was Persianised in terms of language, culture and habits and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty". Sabuktigin's son, Mahmud of Ghazni, declared independence from the Samanid Empire and expanded the Ghaznavid Empire to the Amu Darya, the Indus River and the Indian Ocean in the East and to Rey and Hamadan in the west. Under the reign of Mas'ud I, the Ghaznavid dynasty began losing control over its western territories to the Seljuq dynasty after the Battle of Dandanaqan, resulting in a restriction of its holdings to modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan.
In 1151, Sultan Bahram Shah lost Ghazni to the Ghurid king Ala al-Din Husayn. Two military families arose from the Turkic slave-guards of the Samanid Empire, the Simjurids and Ghaznavids, who proved disastrous to the Samanids; the Simjurids received an appanage in the Kohistan region of eastern Khorasan. The Samanid generals Alp Tigin and Abu al-Hasan Simjuri competed for the governorship of Khorasan and control of the Samanid Empire by placing on the throne emirs they could dominate after the death of Abd al-Malik I in 961, his death created a succession crisis between his brothers. A court party instigated by men of the scribal class — civilian ministers rather than Turkic generals — rejected the candidacy of Alp Tigin for the Samanid throne. Mansur I was installed instead, Alp Tigin prudently retired to south of the Hindu Kush, where he captured Ghazna and became the ruler of the city as a Samanid authority; the Simjurids enjoyed control of Khorasan south of the Amu Darya but were hard-pressed by a third great Iranian dynasty, the Buyid dynasty, were unable to survive the collapse of the Samanids and the subsequent rise of the Ghaznavids.
The struggles of the Turkic slave generals for mastery of the throne with the help of shifting allegiance from the court's ministerial leaders both demonstrated and accelerated the Samanid decline. Samanid weakness attracted into Transoxiana the Karluks, a Turkic people who had converted to Islam, they occupied Bukhara in 992. After Alp Tigin's death in 963, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, followed by his slave Sabuktigin, took the throne. Sabuktigin's son Mahmud of Ghazni made an agreement with the Kara-Khanid Khanate whereby the Amu Darya was recognised as their mutual boundary. Sabuktigin, son-in-law of Alp Tigin and founder of the Ghaznavid Empire, began expanding it by capturing Samanid and Kabul Shahi territories, including most of what is now Afghanistan and part of Pakistan; the 16th century Persian historian, records Sabuktigin's genealogy as descended from the Sasanian kings: "Subooktu-geen, the son of Jookan, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Ferooz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia."
However, modern historians believe this was an attempt to connect himself with the history of old Persia. After the death of Sabuktigin, his son Ismail claimed the throne for a temporary period, but he was defeated and captured by Mahmud in 998 at the Battle of Ghazni. In 997, another son of Sebuktigin, succeeded the throne, Ghazni and the Ghaznavid dynasty have become perpetually associated with him, he completed the conquest of the Samanid and Shahi territories, including the Ismaili Kingdom of Multan, Sindh, as well as some Buwayhid territory. By all accounts, the rule of Mahmud was the golden height of the Ghaznavid Empire. Mahmud carried out seventeen expeditions through northern India to establish his control and set up tributary states, his raids resulted in the looting of a great deal of plunder, he established his authority from the borders of Ray to Samarkand, from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna. During Mahmud's reign, the Ghaznavids settled 4,000 Turkmen families near Farana in Khorasan.
By 1027, due to the Turkmen raiding neighbouring settlements, the governor of Tus, Abu l'Alarith Arslan Jadhib, led military strikes against them. The Turkmen were scattered to neighbouring lands. Although, as late as 1033, Ghaznavid governor Tash Farrash executed fifty Turkmen chiefs for raids into Khorasan; the wealth brought back from the Mahmud's Indian expeditions to Ghazni was enormous, contemporary historians give glowing descriptions of the magnificence of the capital and of the conqueror's munificent support of literature. Mahmud died in 1030. Mahmud left the empire to his son Mohammed, mild and soft, his brother, Mas'ud, asked for three provinces that he had won by his sword, but his brother did not consent. Mas'ud had to fight his brother, he became king and imprisoning Mohammed as punishment. Mas'ud was unable to preserve the empire and following a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Dandanaqan in 1040, he lost all the Ghaznavid lands in Iran and Central Asia to the Seljuks, plunging the realm into a "time of troubles".
His last act was to collect all his treasures from his forts in hope of assembling an army and ruling from India, but his own forces plundered the wealth and he proclaimed his blind brother as king again. The two brothers now exchanged positions: Mohammed was elevated from prison to the throne, while Mas'ud was consigned to a dungeon after a r