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Chaim Soutine

Chaïm Soutine was a Russian-French painter of Jewish origin. Soutine made a major contribution to the expressionist movement while living in Paris. Inspired by classic painting in the European tradition, exemplified by the works of Rembrandt and Courbet, Soutine developed an individual style more concerned with shape and texture over representation, which served as a bridge between more traditional approaches and the developing form of Abstract Expressionism. Soutine was born Chaim Sutin, in Smilavichy in the Minsk Governorate of the Russian Empire, he was the tenth of eleven children. From 1910 to 1913 he studied in Vilnius at the Vilna Academy of Fine Arts. In 1913, with his friends Pinchus Kremegne and Michel Kikoine, he emigrated to Paris, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon, he soon developed a personal vision and painting technique. For a time, he and his friends lived at La Ruche, a residence for struggling artists in Montparnasse where he became friends with Amedeo Modigliani.

Modigliani painted Soutine's portrait several times, most famously in 1917, on a door of an apartment belonging to Léopold Zborowski, their art dealer. Zborowski supported Soutine through World War I, taking the struggling artist with him to Nice to escape the possible German invasion of Paris. After the war Paul Guillaume, a influential art dealer, began to champion Soutine's work. In 1923, in a showing arranged by Guillaume, the prominent American collector Albert C. Barnes, bought 60 of Soutine's paintings on the spot. Soutine, penniless in his years in Paris took the money, ran into the street, hailed a Paris taxi, ordered the driver to take him to Nice, on the French Riviera, more than 400 miles away. Soutine once horrified his neighbours by keeping an animal carcass in his studio so that he could paint it; the stench drove them to send for the police, whom Soutine promptly lectured on the relative importance of art over hygiene. There's a story that Marc Chagall saw the blood from the carcass leak out onto the corridor outside Soutine's room, rushed out screaming,'Someone has killed Soutine.'

Soutine painted 10 works in this series. His carcass paintings were inspired by Rembrandt's still life of the same subject, Slaughtered Ox, which he discovered while studying the Old Masters in the Louvre. Soutine produced the majority of his works from 1920 to 1929. From 1930 to 1935, the interior designer Madeleine Castaing and her husband welcomed him to their summer home, the mansion of Lèves, becoming his patrons, so that Soutine could hold his first exhibition in Chicago in 1935, he showed his works, but he did take part in the important exhibition The Origins and Development of International Independent Art held at the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume in 1937 in Paris, where he was at last hailed as a great painter. Soon afterwards France was invaded by German troops; as a Jew, Soutine had to escape from the French capital and hide in order to avoid arrest by the Gestapo. He moved from one place to another and was sometimes forced to seek shelter in forests, sleeping outdoors. Suffering from a stomach ulcer and bleeding badly, he left a safe hiding place for Paris in order to undergo emergency surgery, which failed to save his life.

On August 9, 1943, Chaim Soutine died of a perforated ulcer. He was interred in Paris. In February 2006, an oil painting of his controversial and iconic series Le Bœuf Écorché sold for a record £7.8 million to an anonymous buyer at a Christie's auction held in London—after it was estimated to fetch £4.8 million. In February 2007, a 1921 portrait of an unidentified man with a red scarf by Chaim Soutine sold for $17.2 million—a new record—at Sotheby's London auction house. In May 2015, Le Bœuf, circa 1923, oil on canvas, achieved a record price for the artist of $28,165,000 at the Christie's curated auction Looking forward to the past; some years after Soutine's death, Roald Dahl placed him as a character in his short story Skin. The Jewish Museum in New York has presented major exhibitions of Soutine's work in An Expressionist in Paris: The Paintings of Chaim Soutine and Chaim Soutine: Flesh. Kleeblatt, Norman L.. An Expressionist in Paris: The Paintings of Chaim Soutine. New York City: Prestel.

ISBN 3-7913-1932-9. Mullin, Rick. Soutine: A Poem. Loveland, Ohio: Dos Madres Press. ISBN 978-1-933675-68-8. Tuchman, Maurice. Köln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag. Soutine: The power and the fury of an eccentric genius by Stanley Meisler Ifkovic, Ed. Soutine in Exile: A Novel. Createspace, 2017. Hecht Museum Amedeo Modigliani, "Chaim Soutine" New record price for Soutine Painting Chaim Soutine: Flesh Chaim Soutine Museum - Smilovichy

Danny Grainger

Daniel Leslie Grainger is a former English footballer who played as a left back. He started his career with the Scottish club Gretna, thereafter played for Dundee United, St Johnstone and Heart of Midlothian in the Scottish Premier League. After short spells with St Mirren and Dunfermline Athletic, he returned to England to sign for his home town club, Carlisle, in 2014. Born in Penrith, Grainger began his career with Gretna, joining as a schoolboy in the summer of 2002. Grainger made over a dozen appearances before a loan spell with Brechin City in early 2006. At the start of the 2006–07 season, Grainger became a first-team regular, playing in all but a handful of Gretna's matches. On 27 August 2006, Grainger scored his first goal for the club in a 3–0 win over Queen of the South. On 11 November 2006, Grainger scored his second goal for the club in a 2–1 win over Livingston. On in the 2006–07 season, Gretna were promoted from the First Division to the Scottish Premier League. At the start of the 2007–08 season, Grainger became a first-team regular for Gretna's campaign in the Scottish Premier League, making 17 appearances for them before being sold.

On 15 December 2007, Grainger made his last appearance for Gretna, in which he scored his third goal in a 3–3 draw against Kilmarnock. In the 2007–08 season, Gretna struggled in the SPL and were relegated, before being formally liquidated on 8 August 2008. Four years on, Grainger said that he had no regret leaving Gretna, departed because of the club's financial crisis. On 27 December 2007, he agreed terms to conclude his transfer to Dundee United when the transfer window reopened on 1 January 2008. One day after signing for the club, he made his debut in a 4–1 win against his future club Heart of Midlothian. Throughout the 2007–08 season, Grainger became a first-team regular at full back, playing in all but a handful of Dundee United's matches; the following season of 2008–09, Grainger struggled for first-team opportunities after the arrival of Paul Dixon restricted Grainger to just nine starts in the SPL. At the end of 2008–09 season, newly promoted side St Johnstone made an inquiry for Grainger after boss Craig Levein confirmed there was contact from the Saints.

On 15 July 2009, he signed for Scottish Premier League club St Johnstone on a two-year deal. Upon joining St Johnstone, Grainger said he will never make a mistake that will cost him his first team place. On 15 August 2009, Grainger made his debut for St Johnstone in a 2–2 draw against Motherwell. In the 2009–10 season, Grainger became a first-team regular at full back for 2 seasons until his departure. In a match against Hearts on 30 August 2009, Grainger was in a row with Suso Santana after claims Suso spat on Grainger in a touchline altercation during the first half, which Suso denied. Grainger, says he accepted his promise to never do it again. On 12 September 2009, Grainger provided an assist for captain Jody Morris to equalise in a 1–1 draw against St Mirren. On 3 October 2009, Grainger scored his first goal in a 2–0 win over Hamilton Academical. On 10 February 2010, Grainger provided a double assist for Graham Gartland and Peter MacDonald in a 3–2 loss against Kilmarnock. On 30 March 2010, Grainger provided a double assist for Cillian Sheridan and Chris Millar in a 4–1 win over Rangers.

At the end of the season, Grainger said he was happy that St Johnstone had survived relegation from the SPL. In the 2010–11 season, Grainger soon suffered an injury after colliding with the post, on the opening game of the season, which he came off on the 21st minute after being stretched, in a 1–1 draw against Hearts. After the match, Hearts player Calum Elliot apologised to Grainger after clashing with him which led him collide with the post, he unexpectedly made his return in the next game when he went on as a substitute in the first half in a 1–0 loss against Aberdeen. He scored his second goal for St Johnstone in a 2–1 loss against Rangers on 28 August 2010. On 23 October 2010, Grainger scored his third goal for St Johnstone in a 2–1 win over Hamilton Academical, a winning goal from a direct free kick. After the match, Hamilton player Flávio Paixão claimed that Grainger assaulted him by punching him in the dugout. Manager Derek McInnes defended Grainger, insisting that Paixão should be embarrassed and ashamed over his claims.

On 27 October 2010, Grainger provided a double assist for Murray Davidson and Sam Parkin in a 3–2 loss over Celtic. On 30 October 2010, Grainger received the first red card of his career in a 3–0 loss against Celtic, after a second bookable offence. Towards end of the season, Grainger informed Derek McInnes that he would not be renewing his contract this summer as with his wife pregnant, he wanted to return to his Cumbrian roots to be nearer to his family. On 25 May 2011, Grainger left St Johnstone and joined John Sutton and Jamie Hamill, to join Hearts, on a two-year contract, he made his debut for the club against Rangers at Ibrox on 23 July. On 23 July 2011, Grainger made his debut for Hearts in a 1–1 draw against Rangers and provided an assist for David Obua. At Hearts, Grainger established himself at left back. In the Third qualifying round of UEFA Europa League second leg against Hungarian side Paksi SE, Grainger provided assist for Ryan Stevenson to score the first goal in the match as Heart went on to win 5–1 to go through to the next round.

Ahead of a match against his former club, St Johnstone, Grainger feared receiving a mixed reception from the fans over lies of not moving to Cumbria and his wife has given birth. After an October 2011 match between Kilmarnock and Hearts which resulted 1–0 win for Kilmarnock, Grainger was criticis


Leavenheath is a village and civil parish located on the Essex - Suffolk border. Located on the A134 between Sudbury and Colchester, it is part of Babergh district; the parish contains the hamlets of Cock Street and Honey Tye, in 2001 had a population of 1,373, falling to 1,370 at the 2011 Census. The village was named after the Leaven Heath, an area of open land between Boxford, Bures and Polstead, it does not have a village centre, but is separated into two parts around half a mile apart by Leaden Hall. The northern section is to the east of the southern section to the west; such is the dispersed nature of the village, that it did not have a church until St Matthew's> was built as a chapel of ease, in 1836, was not designated as a parish until 1952. The south-eastern part of the parish is covered by the Dedham Vale AONB, whilst the south-west contains a section of the Arger Fen SSSI. In the east of the parish are The Carrs, a set of four ponds that feed the River Stour. Breach Grove and Leadenhall Woods are both designated nature reserves.

An electoral ward in the same name exists. This ward has a total population of 1772 at the 2011 Census. Village website

Erich Ehrlinger

Erich Ehrlinger was a member of the Nazi Party and SS. As commander of Special Detachment 1b, he was responsible for mass murder in the Baltic states and Belarus, he was the commander of the Security Police and the Security Service for central Russia as well as a department chief in the Reich Main Security Office. He did not hold a doctorate degree, he would rise to the rank of SS-Oberführer. Ehrlinger was the son of the mayor of Giengen an der Brenz, a small town in southwestern Germany, in what is now the state of Baden-Württemberg. In 1928 he completed high school in Heidenheim studied law in Tübingen, Kiel and back at Tübingen; the nationalist and xenophobic atmosphere at the University of Tübingen fit in well with his legal career in the SD, the RSHA, the Einsatzgruppen. Ehrlinger was not only active at the university. According to his SA certificate of good conduct, "Ehrlinger was one of the few Tübingen-connected students, who before the seizure of power put himself where he was needed with the propaganda or other service."

After he completed an SA leadership training course in 1934, Ehrlinger gave up his legal career and became a full-time SA functionary. He was the leader of an SA sport school at Rieneck Castle and a "Training Chief". In May 1935, Ehrlinger was accepted into the SD. By September 1935, he had been assigned to the main office of the Berlin SD. Ehrlinger was with the SD in 1938 in April 1939 in Prague. Ehrlinger was with the headquarters staff of Einsatzgruppe IV during the German attack on Poland in September 1939. In August 1940 he went to Norway for the buildup of the Waffen-SS there under his chief, Franz Walter Stahlecker. In April 1941, he took over leadership of Special Commando 1b, part of Einsatzgruppe A, of which Stahlecker was overall commander. After the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union, on June 22, 1941, Ehrlinger's unit, 70 to 80 men strong, followed behind Army Group North in the Baltic states and the area south of Leningrad. Ehrlinger led the mass murder of Jews behind the front, in particular in the ghettos of Kovno, Dünaburg and Rositten.

For example, on 16 July 1941, the SD entered Dünaburg. Ehrlinger reported that "s of now the EK 1b has killed 1,150 Jews in Dünaburg." Ehrlinger himself oversaw these shootings, euphemistically called "actions", as a "hardened SS perpetrator who stood at the shoot pit and led the killers in the shooting."In December 1941, after the completion of the work of Einsatzkommando 1b, Ehrlinger was promoted to commandant of the Security Police and SD for central Russia and Belarus, where under his orders many executions were carried out. In September 1943 Ehrlinger was promoted to SS-Standartenführer and went to Minsk where he became the liaison man of SD chief Ernst Kaltenbrunner to the commanding generals of the security troops of Army Group Center, as well as taking over the offices of Einsatzgruppe B chief and Commander of the Security Police and the SD for central Russia and Belarus. There he was involved with the murder of the remaining Jews of Minsk. In 1944, Ehrlinger returned to Berlin. On 1 April 1944, he became chief of the Reich Main Security Office, Department I, replacing Bruno Streckenbach.

In November 1944 Ehrlinger became a special delegate from Ernst Kaltenbrunner to Heinrich Himmler. At the end of the war, Ehrlinger disguised himself as a Wehrmacht NCO and gave himself up to the British forces under a false name. After a few weeks as a POW, he was made his way to the Schleswig-Holstein area, he did not provide his whereabouts. In 1947, his wife discovered him under an assumed identity living with another woman with whom he was about to have a baby, they reached an agreement that Ehrlinger would continue to support the family, which he did until 1952. By Ehrlinger was using his real identity and making a comfortable living, he decided to reduce the alimony payments, making his wife concerned that he was about to emigrate and prompting her to denounce him to the police. Thus alerted, the authorities still took 6 years to arrest him. Ehrlinger was arrested in December 1958. Ehrlinger was convicted in a 1961 trial in connection with 1,045 cases of murder and was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment.

The case was appealed and returned to the public prosecutor's office. Due to disability, his sentence was remitted in 1969, four years after he was released from prison. Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD Bryant, Michael. Eyewitness to Genocide: The Operation Reinhard Death Camp Trials, 1955-1966, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2014 Ezergails, The Holocaust in Latvia 1941-1944: The Missing Center, ISBN 9984-9054-3-8 Ingrao, Christian. Believe and Destroy: Intellectuals in the SS War Machine. Malden, MA: Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-6026-4. Stadlbauer, Eichmanns Chef: Erich Ehrlinger. Exzellente SS-Karriere und unterbliebene strafrechtliche Sühne. Eine Fallstudie, unveröffentl. Magisterarbeit, Wien 2005 Wildt, Generation der Unbedingten – Das Führungskorps des Reichssicherheitshauptamtes. Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 200

St Issui's Church, Partrishow

The Church of St Issui, Powys, Wales, is a parish church dating from 1060. The existing building was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries and was sensitively restored in 1908–1909; the church is most famous for its rood screen which dates from 1500. It is a Grade I listed building. Issui was an early Welsh saint. Following his murder, the well became a place of pilgrimage and the church was founded with the offerings of pilgrims in 1060. Gerald of Wales is reputed to have preached at the church in 1188 while on his tour of Wales; the church was undamaged during the Reformation, the dual altars being spared by the order of Edward VI in 1550. The church escaped any large-scale Victorian reconstruction and was restored by W. D. Caröe in 1908–1909; the church remains an active church in the parish of the Vale of Gwrynne. The church comprises a nave and porch with a separate shrine-chapel to the West; the walls are of the roofs of slate. The style throughout is Gothic; the wall to the right of the porch has a rare stone bench facing the preaching cross in the churchyard.

The bellcote is a stone replacement by Caröe for the timber original. The nave has a roof of the 16th century, it is windowless to the North, with windows of a Tudor date inserted in the South wall. The wagon roof of the chancel is a replacement by Caröe; the rood screen is the highlight of the interior. In the Powys volume of The Buildings of Wales series, the architectural historians Richard Scourfield and Robert Haslam record a description of it as, "the most perfect and elegant now standing in the kingdom", it was sensitively restored by Caröe. It stretches the entire nave, has a frieze of dragons or wyverns expectorating vines; the writer Simon Jenkins describes it as "exquisitely wrought". In addition to the rood screen, the church has a significant collection of wall paintings, they comprise four groups: a Stuart Coat of Arms which the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales considers are those of James I. The church is a Grade I listed building. A number of structures in the vicinity of the church have their own Grade II listings including St Issui's Well, the churchyard cross, the former stable, the lych gate.

Jenkins, Simon. Wales: Churches, Castles. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-713-99893-1. Scourfield, Robert. Powys: Montgomeryshire and Breconshire; the Buildings of Wales. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18508-9

Rottnest Island Airport

Rottnest Island Airport is a small airport for light aircraft, situated about 800 m from the main settlement at Thomson Bay, Rottnest Island and 10 nautical miles northwest of Fremantle. Daily air services operate to the island. In the past these have been from Perth Airport, but in recent years have been from Jandakot; the single 1,290 m × 18 m runway runs east-west and is situated behind Thomsons Bay and south of Government House Lake. Part of the lake was resumed for the construction of the airport runway; the Oliver Hill railway line runs south of and parallel to the runway. The airport opened in November 1930 and has been used since for private and small commercial operations, ferrying workers and holiday makers between Perth and the island. At one stage, the 32 km Perth to Rottnest flight was the world's shortest scheduled air route. Woods Airways, run by pioneer aviator Jimmy Woods, operated the Perth to Rottnest service from about 1948 with two war-surplus Royal Australian Air Force Avro Anson aircraft.

The service closed in 1961 after concerns about the safety of the ageing aircraft and recurring conflict with the Department of Civil Aviation over minor infringements of regulations. In 14 years of operations, it had made more than 13,000 crossings. Other services continued after Woods Airways departed and at various stages facilities were upgraded. Woods Airways and its owner were considered synonymous with the airport and in 1987 State Tourism Minister Pam Beggs opened the renamed and upgraded Jimmy Woods Air Terminal in recognition. MacRobertson Miller Airlines took over services after Wood's Airways using both DC-3 and Fokker F27 Friendship, until the route became uneconomical. Rottnest Airlines operated the service until 1999 when it was taken over by Frank Stynman who operates a four and six-seater daily service from Jandakot called Rottnest Air-Taxi. Flying time is from 12 to 15 minutes. On 12 November 2006 a light twin engine charter aircraft carrying the pilot and five passengers crashed on the edge of the salt lake adjoining the airport.

The plane split in two from the impact and two passengers were hospitalised. All escaped with minor injuries, it is believed that the aircraft suffered an engine failure, the pilot was not able to maintain control. List of airports in Western Australia