Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke, or environmental tobacco smoke, by persons other than the intended "active" smoker. It occurs when tobacco smoke permeates any environment, causing its inhalation by people within that environment. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke causes disease and death; the health risks of second-hand smoke are a matter of scientific consensus. These risks have been a major motivation for smoke-free laws in workplaces and indoor public places, including restaurants and night clubs, as well as some open public spaces. Concerns around second-hand smoke have played a central role in the debate over the harms and regulation of tobacco products. Since the early 1970s, the tobacco industry has viewed public concern over second-hand smoke as a serious threat to its business interests. Harm to bystanders was perceived as a motivator for stricter regulation of tobacco products. Despite the industry's awareness of the harms of second-hand smoke as early as the 1980s, the tobacco industry coordinated a scientific controversy with the purpose of stopping regulation of their products.
Second-hand smoke causes many of the same diseases as direct smoking, including cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory diseases. These diseases include: Cancer: General: overall increased risk. Lung cancer: passive smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer. In the United States passive smoke is estimated to cause more than 7,000 deaths from lung cancer a year among non-smokers. Breast cancer: The California Environmental Protection Agency concluded in 2005 that passive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in younger premenopausal females by 70% and the US Surgeon General has concluded that the evidence is "suggestive," but still insufficient to assert such a causal relationship. In contrast, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded in 2004 that there was "no support for a causal relation between involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke and breast cancer in never-smokers." A 2015 meta-analysis found that the evidence that passive smoking moderately increased the risk of breast cancer had become "more substantial than a few years ago."
Pancreatic cancer: A 2012 meta-analysis found no evidence that passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Cervical cancer: A 2015 overview of systematic reviews found that exposure to second-hand smoke increased the risk of cervical cancer. Bladder cancer: A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that secondhand smoke exposure was associated with a significant increase in the risk of bladder cancer. Circulatory system: risk of heart disease, reduced heart rate variability. Epidemiological studies have shown that both active and passive cigarette smoking increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of stroke, this increased risk is disproportionately high at low levels of exposure. Lung problems: Risk of asthma. Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease According to a 2015 review, passive smoking may increase the risk of tuberculosis infection and accelerate the progression of the disease, but the evidence remains weak.
The majority of studies on the association between secondhand smoke exposure and sinusitis have found a significant association between the two. Cognitive impairment and dementia: Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over. Children exposed to second-hand smoke show reduced vocabulary and reasoning skills when compared with non-exposed children as well as more general cognitive and intellectual deficits. Mental health: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. During pregnancy: Low birth weight, part B, ch. 3. Premature birth, part B, ch. 3 Laws limiting smoking decrease premature births. Stillbirth and congenital malformations in children Recent studies comparing females exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and non-exposed females, demonstrate that females exposed while pregnant have higher risks of delivering a child with congenital abnormalities, longer lengths, smaller head circumferences, low birth weight.
General: Worsening of asthma and other conditions. A 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis found that passive smoking was associated with a increased risk of allergic diseases among children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes, it remains unclear whether the association between passive diabetes is causal. Risk of carrying Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. A possible increased risk of periodontitis. Overall increased risk of death in both adults, where it is estimated to kill 53,000 nonsmokers per year, making it the 3rd leading cause of preventable death in the U. S, in children; the World Health Organization states that passive smoking causes about 600,000 deaths a year, about 1% of the global burden of disease. As of 2017, passive smoking causes about 900,000 deaths a year, about 1/8 of all deaths caused by smoking. Skin conditions: A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that passive smoking was associated with a higher rate of atopic dermatitis. Sudden infant death syndrome.
In his 2006 report, the US Surgeon General concludes: "The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between exposure to secondhand smok
An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages; some countries ban such activities but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014. Alcohol is a depressant, which in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, improves sociability. In higher doses, it causes drunkenness, unconsciousness, or death. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, alcoholism. Alcohol is one of the most used recreational drugs in the world with about 33% of people being current drinkers; as of 2016 women on average drink 0.7 drinks and males 1.7 drinks a day. In 2015, among Americans, 86% of adults had consumed alcohol at some point, 70% had drunk it in the last year, 56% in the last month.
Alcoholic drinks are divided into three classes—beers and spirits—and their alcohol content is between 3% and 50%. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. Many animals consume alcohol when given the opportunity and are affected in much the same way as humans, although humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic drinks intentionally. Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash, it is made from barley or a blend of several grains and flavored with hops. Most beer is carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled the drink becomes a spirit. In the Andean region, the most common beer is chicha, made from grain or fruits. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Cider or cyder is a fermented alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".
Mead is an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%; the defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drink's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. Pulque is the Mesoamerican fermented drink made from the "honey water" of maguey cacti; the drink distilled from pulque is mescal. Wine is a fermented beverage produced from sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process, resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. "Fruit wines" are made from fruits other than grapes, such as cherries, or apples. Sake is a popular example of "rice wine". Sparkling wine like French Champagne, Catalan Cava or Italian Prosecco can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. A distilled drink or liquor is an alcoholic drink produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.
Unsweetened, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%; the term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones. Vodka, baijiu, whiskey and soju are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with fusel alcohols in applejack. Fortified wine is wine, such as sherry, to which a distilled beverage has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, madeira, marsala and the aromatized wine vermouth. Rectified spirit called "neutral grain spirit", is alcohol, purified by means of "rectification"; the term neutral refers to the spirit's lack of the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity.
Rectified spirit lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation. Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV, it is used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants, it is used in mixed drinks and tinctures, as a household solvent. Alcohol has significant negative health effects, including increased risk of cancer. Negative effects are related to the amount consumed with no safe lower limit seen. Wine, distilled spirits and other alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and alcohol consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person; the effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine, beer or spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an indiv
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor polypeptides that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Nicotinic receptors respond to drugs, including the nicotinic receptor agonist nicotine, they are found in the central and peripheral nervous system and many other tissues of many organisms, including humans. At the neuromuscular junction they are the primary receptor in muscle for motor nerve-muscle communication that controls muscle contraction. In the peripheral nervous system: they transmit outgoing signals from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic cells within the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, they are the receptors found on skeletal muscle that receive acetylcholine released to signal for muscular contraction. In the immune system, nAChRs regulate inflammatory processes and signal through distinct intracellular pathways. In insects, the cholinergic system is limited to the central nervous system; the nicotinic receptors are considered cholinergic receptors.
Nicotinic receptors get their name from nicotine, which does not stimulate the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, but instead selectively binds to the nicotinic receptor. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gets its name from a chemical that selectively attaches to that receptor — muscarine. Acetylcholine itself binds to both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; as ionotropic receptors, nAChRs are directly linked to ion channels. New evidence suggests that these receptors can use second messengers in some cases. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are the best-studied of the ionotropic receptors. Since nicotinic receptors help transmit outgoing signals for the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, nicotinic receptor antagonists such as hexamethonium interfere with the transmission of these signals. Thus, for example, nicotinic receptor antagonists interfere with the baroreflex that corrects changes in blood pressure by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of the heart. Nicotinic receptors, with a molecular mass of 290 kDa, are made up of five subunits, arranged symmetrically around a central pore.
Each subunit comprises four transmembrane domains with both the N- and C-terminus located extracellularly. They possess similarities with GABAA receptors, glycine receptors, the type 3 serotonin receptors, or the signature Cys-loop proteins. In vertebrates, nicotinic receptors are broadly classified into two subtypes based on their primary sites of expression: muscle-type nicotinic receptors and neuronal-type nicotinic receptors. In the muscle-type receptors, found at the neuromuscular junction, receptors are either the embryonic form, composed of α1, β1, γ, δ subunits in a 2:1:1:1 ratio, or the adult form composed of α1, β1, δ, ε subunits in a 2:1:1:1 ratio; the neuronal subtypes are various homomeric or heteromeric combinations of twelve different nicotinic receptor subunits: α2−α10 and β2−β4. Examples of the neuronal subtypes include: 32, 23, 23, α4α6β32, 5, many others. In both muscle-type and neuronal-type receptors, the subunits are similar to one another in the hydrophobic regions. A number of electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography studies have provided high resolution structural information for muscle and neuronal nAChRs and their binding domains.
As with all ligand-gated ion channels, opening of the nAChR channel pore requires the binding of a chemical messenger. Several different terms are used to refer to the molecules that bind receptors, such as ligand, agonist, or transmitter; as well as the endogenous agonist acetylcholine, agonists of the nAChR include nicotine and choline. Nicotinic antagonists that block the receptor include mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, hexamethonium. In muscle-type nAChRs, the acetylcholine binding sites are located at the α and either ε or δ subunits interface. In neuronal nAChRs, the binding site is located at the interface of an α and a β subunit or between two α subunits in the case of α7 receptors; the binding site is located in the extracellular domain near the N terminus. When an agonist binds to the site, all present subunits undergo a conformational change and the channel is opened and a pore with a diameter of about 0.65 nm opens. Nicotinic AChRs may exist in different interconvertible conformational states.
Binding of an agonist stabilises the desensitised states. In normal physiological conditions, the receptor needs two molecules of ACh to open. Opening of the channel allows positively charged ions to move across it; the net flow of positively charged ions is inward. The nAChR is a non-selective cation channel, meaning that several different positively charged ions can cross through, it is permeable to Na+ and K+, with some subunit combinations that are permeable to Ca2+. The amount of sodium and potassium the channels allow through their pores varies from 50–110 pS, with the conductance depending on the specific subunit composition as well as the permeant ion. Many neuronal nAChRs can affect the release of other neurotransmitters; the channel opens and tends to remain open until the agonist diffuses away, which takes about 1 millisecond. However, AChRs can spontaneously open with no ligands bound or can spontaneously close with ligands bound, mutations in the channel can shift the likelihood of either event.
Therefore, ACh binding changes the probability of pore opening. The nAChR is unable to bind ACh. The
A cigarette known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material tobacco, rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled stems, scraps, collected dust, floor sweepings", to which are added glue and fillers; the cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, other health problems; the term cigarette, as used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, paper wrapping, white.
Cigar wrappers are composed of tobacco leaf or paper dipped in tobacco extract. Smoking rates have declined in the developed world, but continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive. About half of cigarette smokers lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by pregnant women has been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes causes many of the same health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 chemical compounds, including arsenic, cyanide, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire-standard compliant from 2011 onwards.
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes; the Maya, the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean and Central and South America until recent times; the North American, Central American, South American cigarette used various plant wrappers. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, El juego de la pelota a pala. By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France; the French word was adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but this was never widespread and is now abandoned; the first patented cigarette-making machine was invented by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847.
However, production climbed markedly when another cigarette-making machine was developed in the 1880s by James Albert Bonsack, which vastly increased the productivity of cigarette companies, which went from making about 40,000 hand-rolled cigarettes daily to around 4 million. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became widespread during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf; this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have been used in a manner similar to pipes and cigarillos and not inhaled; as cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U. S. was 54 cigarettes, consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time, about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691; the adverse health effects of cigarettes were known by the mid-19th century when they became known as coffins nails
Smoking in Greece
Smoking in Greece was at the highest rate of tobacco consumption in the European Union in 2010. In 2014, Greece had the highest rate of smoking in the European Union. According to a survey published by the European Commission Day for World No Tobacco Day in 2017, 37% of Greeks are smokers and only 44% of Greeks have never smoked a cigarette, the smallest percentage in the EU. After Greece and Bulgaria have the next largest number of smokers with 36%. At 7%, Sweden had the lowest rate. Since older legislation was not efficient, a new, stricter law was passed. Effective from 1 September 2010, this law banned smoking and consumption of tobacco products by other means, in all working places, transportation stations and passenger ships, as well as in all enclosed public places including restaurants, night clubs, etc. without any exception. Casinos and bars bigger than 300 sq m were given eight months to apply the law. Smoking is prohibited in atria and internal areas with removable roof covers or tents as well as in external seating areas that are surrounded by a tent and are not open from at least two sides.
Fines are heavy for smokers who do not comply as well as for the working places or companies, i.e. restaurants, night clubs, etc.. For those companies that violate the law for the 5th time in a row, the law orders for the closure of the specific company; as the previous law, this new one is not implemented and smoking is permitted in the most public places in Greece. Posted signage indicating smoking ban legislation is ignored; the only exception to the law are airports. There, smoking is only permitted in special separated smoking booths equipped with separate ventilation systems and air filters. Only the Athens International Airport has installed such booths: one in the extra-Schengen arrival area before passport control and one in the intra-Schengen baggage claim area, both smoking booths are accessible only to arriving passengers. In all other Greek airports no smoking booths have been installed and smoking is prohibited inside terminal buildings. A website, now not in service, a telephone hotline for information as well as citizens to report any violations of the new law along with an extensive media campaign were created to promote the 1 September smoking ban in Greece.
Eight years after the second phase of the ban went into effect, in July 2011, there is little evidence of the culture changing. Based on a pamphlet distributed in January 2018 by the Ministry of Health, strict fines are in place for those smoking illegally; the manager of every space that violates the anti-smoking ban, for vendors selling tobacco products to students underage and for those violating the advertising laws for tobacco products could be fined 500- 10,000 EUR. On a store's fourth violation, its license is suspended for ten days, while after the fifth violation it is revoked permanently. Furthermore, the law includes that a driver may be fined up to 1,500 EUR for smoking with a minor on board, regardless of, smoking and it may be doubled if it is a public sector vehicle, such as a public bus. Drivers may have their licenses suspended for a month after each violation. However, these are never enforced, it is obvious that university buildings, cafes and hospital offices are not smoke-free areas.
According to the Municipality of Athens, they are not carrying out regular checks, due to limits in their staff. The municipality has received minimal complaints, because people are disappointed and do not believe that the law will be enforced, they would only investigate the issue further had more threats to sue been received. The government signed an agreement with Harvard University to help in developing the government's anti-tobacco policies and mounting publicity campaigns; the Harvard School of Public Health will help Greece conduct research, organize conferences and train all the officials who will be involved in imposing the ban. The Hellenic Action through Research Against Tobacco, known as HEART, has conducted clinical research on the impact of smoking on pregnant women, the effects of second-hand smoke and assessing whether creating a draft and ventilation or opening windows and doors does eliminate exposure to second hand smoke thus far; the initiative plans to raise awareness with children, as early as elementary school and create a smoke-free environment on all school grounds across the country
The Chainsmokers are an American DJ and production duo consisting of Alex Pall and Andrew Taggart. They started out by releasing remixes of songs by indie artists; the EDM-pop duo achieved a breakthrough with their 2014 song "#Selfie", which became a top twenty single in several countries. They are best known for their singles "Closer", "Don’t Let Me Down", "Roses", they have won a Grammy award, two American Music Awards, seven Billboard Music Awards and eight iHeartRadio Music Awards. Their debut EP, was released in October 2015 and featured the single "Roses" which reached the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100. "Don't Let Me Down", featuring American singer Daya, became their first top 5 single on the Billboard chart and won the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording at the 59th awards ceremony. Their single "Closer", featuring American singer-songwriter Halsey, became their first number-one single on the Billboard chart; the duo's second EP, was released in November 2016. Their debut studio album, Memories...
Do Not Open, was released in April 2017 and topped the US Billboard 200 chart. Their second album, Sick Boy, was released in December 2018; the Chainsmokers were made up of Pall and former DJ Rhett Bixler. The Chainsmokers were re-formed as an EDM DJ duo in 2012 under the management of Adam Alpert in New York City. Pall attended New York University for art history and music business while Taggart had been attending Syracuse University and was an intern at Interscope Records before the two met. Taggart had taken an interest in being a DJ and released some original songs on the website SoundCloud. Taggart was informed by someone working for Alpert that a duo, being managed by Alpert, had an open spot after Bixler left, which prompted Taggart to leave Maine in order to go to New York City. Pall, who had grown up as a DJ and had been working at an art gallery in Chelsea, Manhattan at the time, was introduced to Taggart by Alpert. In April 2013, The Chainsmokers released a remix of "Medicine" by Daughter and it reached number 1 on HypeMachine.
The duo started out by making remixes of indie bands. In 2012, they collaborated with Indian actress and recording artist Priyanka Chopra on the single "Erase", followed by "The Rookie" in early 2013. During an October 2016 television interview, ABC News Nightline reporter Nick Watt asked Pall and Taggart "What's with the name?" Pall replied that, "At the time of conception, it was.. it was just like I was in college. You know I enjoyed smoking weed and you know it was just like such a'yeah the domain's open'. I don't have to have any, underscores." Taggart added "It's just a name." The duo's first live performance was opening for Timeflies at Terminal 5 in September 2014. Their single "#Selfie", released for free in December 2013, was picked up by Dim Mak Records who re-released it in January 2014 and streamed it to Republic Records; the duo achieved breakthrough success as the single charted internationally and peaked on the Dance/Electronic Songs chart. Pall has described the song as "life-changing" for the pair.
On August 5, 2014, the Chainsmokers released "Kanye", featuring sirenXX, the follow-up to "#Selfie". Seven months they released "Let You Go", featuring the American synthpop group Great Good Fine Ok, they signed with Disruptor Records, a joint venture label with Sony Music Entertainment by their manager Adam Alpert, in April 2015. On May 18, 2015, The Chainsmokers released the single "Good Intentions", their follow-up single, "Roses", was released a month on June 16. "Roses" became a commercial success and has been certified multiplatinum in several countries, including the duo's native United States where it reached the top 10 of the Billboard chart. Further singles included "Waterbed", a collaboration with Dutch DJ Tiësto entitled "Split", "Until You Were Gone", released on September 18, 2015; these songs, except "Split", were featured on the group's debut EP, released on October 23, 2015. A week the song "New York City" was released as the fifth and final single from the EP. On February 5, 2016, the duo released a new single, "Don't Let Me Down", featuring vocals from American singer Daya, which won a Grammy award.
Two months they released the single "Inside Out", featuring the Swedish singer Charlee. On March 19, 2016, the group played at Ultra Music Festival, where they publicly denounced presidential candidate Donald Trump. On July 29, 2016, they released "Closer", featuring American singer Halsey, which peaked at number one in the United States and United Kingdom, in addition to charts in eleven other countries; the track was performed at the 2016 MTV VMAs. The performance was met with negative reception; the New York Times, Rolling Stone and Us Weekly referred to the performance as the worst of the night. Taggart himself stated in an interview with Billboard that "It sounded like shit.""All We Know", featuring Phoebe Ryan, was released on September 29, 2016. In October 2016, the Chainsmokers were ranked 18th on DJ Magazine's annual list of the "Top 100 DJs" after debuting on the list at 97th in 2014, they released their second extended play Collage on November 4, 2016. On January 13, 2017, the duo released "Paris", certified gold in Canada and the US.
On the same day, they announced that they were working on their debut studio album, scheduled for release in April. The Memories Do Not Open Tour was announced on the same day, featuring 40 North American cities beginning in April alongside support from Kiiara and Emily Warren, they announced on Instagram that they would be taking a fan, Tony Ann, a Berklee College of Music student, with them on the tour because they were impressed with his piano cover of their song "Paris". The official vid
Smoking in Germany
Under federal law the manufacture, importation and advertisement of tobacco is regulated whilst the 16 federal states of Germany each have their own legislation regarding smoking in public places, which range from weak regulations to full smoking bans in all licensed premises, childcare facilities and governmental institutions. As of July 2016, nearly 40% of the German population live in a state which bans smoking in all restaurants, cafés and nightclubs; the other 13 states permit smoking in designated rooms or in bars with a floor area of less than 75 square meters. According to a 2013 micro-census survey, 24.5% of the German population aged fifteen years and over are smokers. Among the 18-25 age group, 35.2% are smokers. According to a 2013 microcensus, about one in four people aged 15 years and over was a smoker, 20.9% and only 3.6 occasionally. The rate of ex-smokers was 19.3%. The average age at which smokers begin is 17.8 years of age In 2010, an average of 229 million cigarettes were smoked every day, corresponding to 1,021 cigarettes per capita.
Amount of smoked cigarettes per day by age per Sozio-oekonomische Panel. Average amount of cigarettes smoked daily, by year. Since 2003 it is illegal to label a tobacco product as "light", "mild", "low-tar” or any other misleading form of advertisement which could cause the impression that the product causes less damage than other tobacco products. All radio and television advertisement for tobacco products was banned in 1975; this regulation was extended by the "Rundfunkstaatsvertrag" on August 1, 1999, banning any kind of sponsoring of television and radio shows. In 2002, the "Protection of Young Persons Act" banned the advertising of tobacco products in cinemas before 6 p.m. On January 1, 2007, the European Tobacco advertisement directive came into effect, banning the advertising of tobacco products on the internet, in newspapers and magazines; the regulation banned sponsorship of any event, broadcast internationally. Germany is the only EU member state to still permit billboard and cinema advertising for tobacco products.
In accordance with EU Tobacco Products Directive II, all sold cigarettes, rolling tobacco and hookah tobacco manufacturers have to cover 65% of the packaging with combined pictorial and textual warning labels on both sides, in addition to additional warning labels on the any smaller sides since May 2017. In Germany the amount of tobacco and the value of the product is used to calculate the tax. In order to calculate the tobacco tax for each package the number of cigarettes and cigarillos or the quantity in grams and the retail selling price is required; the information is printed on the "Steuerbanderole" of each tobacco package in full Euro and cent values. In 2002 and 2003, the tobacco tax was increased to finance anti-terrorist measures. In 2004 and 2005 three increases followed to financially support health insurance. In 2010 tax increases were decided for the next 5 successive years starting May 1, 2011 over January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015; as of 2015, the tobacco tax rate was 9.82 cents per cigarette and 21.69 percent of the retail price, which makes a minimum sum of 19.636 cents per cigarette minus the sales tax of the retail selling price.
Under Germany's "Protection of Young Persons Act" it is unlawful to sell or supply any tobacco product to anyone, under eighteen years of age. It is illegal to permit minors to smoke in any public place. Although it is not a crime for minors to purchase, attempt to purchase or consume tobacco products it is unlawful for any retailer or other responsible person to sell, supply or tolerate the consumption of tobacco by a person underage. If a minor is found smoking in public, the police have a duty to seize the tobacco products. Protection of Young Persons Act - Section 10 Smoking in public, tobacco products Tobacco products may not be sold to children or adolescents nor may the latter be permitted/allowed to smoke in restaurants, shops or other public places. Tobacco products may not be made available from vending machines unless the following conditions are satisfied: The vending machine is installed at a location where it is not accessible to children or adolescents; the vending machine is fitted with mechanical means of ensuring or is permanently guarded to ensure that children and adolescents cannot buy tobacco products from them.
Prior to September 1, 2007 the minimum age for purchasing and smoking tobacco products had been 16 years. Until January 1, 2009 all tobacco vending machines had to be removed or refitted to ensure that minors could not purchase tobacco products from them. Since all vending machines require some form of identification before dispensing tobacco an Electronic cash bank card, German identity card or European driving licence, to verify that the buyer is at least 18 years of age, it is unlawful to sell any tobacco product in a package containing less than 19 cigarettes or 30 grams of loose fine-cut tobacco. To ensure this is the case, retailers may not destroy a tax strip on tobacco packaging; the law provides an exception for cigars under certain conditions. Selling tobacco products for more or less than the retail sale price set by the manufacturer and printed on the tax strip is unlawful; the only exception is. Tobacco products may not be used as a prize in any form of commercial gambling. Adding or supplying anything else than the tobacco product to a package of cigarettes, cigars or cigarillos except for change is unlawful.
The "Federal non-sm