Sam Sen railway station
Sam Sen railway station is a railway station in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is owned by the State Railway of Thailand. It is served by the Northern and Southern lines. All passenger trains passing must stop at this station. Sam Sen Station is on Sam Sen Nai, Phaya Thai District. About 3,000-5,000 people use this station daily. Sam Sen Station is a Class 1 Station, number code: 1004, English alphabet code: SSN. There are two platforms. Platform 1 is for trains heading to further destinations along the routes. Platform 2 is for trains heading back to Bangkok railway station, it is 4.8 kilometres from Bangkok Station. Eighty-six trains serve this station daily including a few excursion trains to Nam Tok and Suan Son Pradipat and some special trains; the station building was mushroom-shaped, with originality and great beauty. However, it was torn down to make way for the Hopewell Project; the station was the site of one of the first PDRC protests against the amnesty bill in the 2013-2014 Thai political crisis, used between 31 October to 4 November 2013.
This was moved to Ratchadamnoen Avenue on the 4th. The following BMTA routes serve this station: No. 9 - Mo Chit 2-Phasi Charoen Pier Air-Conditioned No.9 - Chatuchak-Kalapraphruek Road No. 125 - Sam Sen Station-Salaya 柿崎一郎. 王国の鉄路 タイ鉄道の歴史. 京都大学学術出版会. ISBN 978-4-87698-848-8. 渡邉乙弘. タイ国鉄4000キロの旅. 文芸社. ISBN 978-4-286-13041-5
Southern Thailand is a southernmost cultural region of Thailand, separated from Central Thailand region by the Kra Isthmus. Southern Thailand is on the Malay Peninsula, with an area of around 70,713 km2, bounded to the north by Kra Isthmus, the narrowest part of the peninsula; the western part has steep coasts, while on the east side river plains dominate. The largest river of the south is the Tapi in Surat Thani, which together with the Phum Duang in Surat Thani drains more than 8,000 km2, more than 10 percent of the total area of southern Thailand. Smaller rivers include the Pattani, Saiburi and the Trang; the biggest lake of the south is Songkhla Lake. The largest artificial lake is the Chiao Lan, occupying 165 km2 of Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani. Running through the middle of the peninsula are several mountain chains, with the highest elevation at Khao Luang, 1,835 m, in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Ranging from the Kra Isthmus to Phuket Island is the Phuket chain, which connects to the Tanao Si Mountain Range further north.
Parallel to the Phuket chain, but 100 km to the east is the Nakhon Si Thammarat or Banthat chain, which begins with Samui Island, Ko Pha Ngan, Ko Tao in Surat Thani Province and ends at the Malaysian border at the Ko Ta Ru Tao archipelago. The border with Malaysia is formed by the Sankalakhiri range, sometimes sub-divided into the Pattani and Songkhla chain. At the Malaysian border the Titiwangsa chain rises up; the limestone of the west coast has been eroded into many steep singular hills. The parts submerged by the rising sea after the last ice age now form many islands, like the well-known Phi Phi Islands. Well known is the so-called James Bond Island in Phang Nga Bay, featured in the movie The Man with the Golden Gun; the population of the growing region is projected to be 9,156,000 in 2015, up from 8,871,003 in 2010, despite these figures are adjusted for citizens who have left for Bangkok or who have moved to the region from elsewhere, as well as registered permanent residents, the figure is still misleading.
There are still a huge number of migrant or informal workers, temporary workers, stateless people, a large expatriate population, not included. The Malay peninsula has been settled since prehistoric times. Archeological remains were found in several caves, some used for others as burial sites; the oldest remains were found in Lang Rongrien Cave, dating 38,000 to 27,000 years before present, in the contemporary Moh Khiew cave. In the first millennium Chinese chronicles mention several coastal city-states. No exact geographical locations were recorded, so the identification of these cities with settlements is difficult; the most important of these states were Langkasuka considered a precursor of the Pattani Kingdom. The cities were influenced by Indian culture, have adopted Brahman or Buddhist religion; when Srivijaya in Chaiya extended its sphere of influence, those cities became tributary states of Srivijaya. The city Chaiya in Surat Thani Province contains several ruins from Srivijaya times, was a regional capital of the kingdom.
Some Thai historians claim that it was the capital of the kingdom itself for some time, but this is disputed. After Srivijaya lost its influence, Nakhon Si Thammarat became the dominant kingdom of the area. During the rule of King Ramkhamhaeng the Great of Sukhothai, Thai influence first reached Nakhon Si Thammarat. According to the Ramkhamhaeng inscription, Nakhon Si THammarat was a tributary state of Sukhothai. During most of periods, Nakhon became a tributary of Ayutthaya; the deep south belonged to the Malay sultanates of Pattani and Kedah, while the northernmost part of the peninsula was under the control of Bangkok. During the Thesaphiban reforms at the end of the 19th century, both Nakhon Si Thammarat and Pattani were incorporated into the central state; the area was subdivided into 5 monthon. Minor mueang were merged into larger ones. With the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 the boundary to Malaysia was fixed. Kedah came under British control; the main language is Southern Thai known as Pak Thai or Dambro, a southwestern Tai language spoken in the 14 changwat of southern Thailand as well as by small communities in the northernmost Malaysian states.
It is spoken by five million people, as a second language by the 1.5 million speakers of Patani Malay. Third language is Central Thai which speak by local non-Peranakan Chinese origin, Central Thai speak large city such as Hat Yai and Bandon districts, it's common in Betong District, however most of people in Southern Thailand are fluent or understand the Central Thai dialects; the south is identified as 14 provinces Southern Thailand has around 8.734 million inhabitants and its population density is around 126 per square kilometre. The bulk of the southern population relies on agriculture for 27 percent of its gross regional product in 2014, it is followed by industry, transportation and construction and property. Southern Thailand is connected with Bangkok by railway as well as highway. S
Bang Sue Junction railway station
Bang Sue Junction, is a railway station and junction located in Bangkok. It is situated on Chatuchak District, it is owned by the State Railway of Thailand, serves the Northern and Southern Line and is a junction for the North/Northeast and South Lines. Bang Sue Junction is separated into 2 station buildings, one for the North and Northeast lines and another for the Southern Line; the distance between the buildings are about 200 metres apart, with an overpass that links and used when a train is parked at the platform. This station has 72 tracks. 8 tracks are linked to the locomotive depot and the remaining 60 are rail sidings. Transport links include the Bangkok MRT, the BMTA. Bang Sue Junction is the location of Phahonyothin Cargo Yard. With an expanse to about 50 rails, it is the largest rail yard, in the whole of Thailand, it is located about 1.5 kilometres from the station and is the main cargo yard for freight services around Thailand. The State Railway of Thailand and the Ministry of Transportation have decided to build a large main station here and move all train destinations for Bangkok railway station to end here instead.
In addition to adding a few commuter services, the high-speed rail and Suvarnabhumi Airport Link will be available for service and use. As of May 2018 construction is over 50% complete; the following BMTA routes serve this station
State Railway of Thailand
The State Railway of Thailand is the state-owned rail operator under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Transport in Thailand. As of 2018, the network serves around 35 million passengers annually; the passenger count is expected to double by 2027 when expansion plans are realised and the network grows to serve 61 provinces. The SRT was founded as the Royal State Railways of Siam in 1890. King Chulalongkorn ordered the Department of Railways to be set up under the Department of Public Works and Town and Country Planning. Construction of the Bangkok-Ayutthaya railway, the first part of the Northern Line, was started in 1890 and inaugurated on 26 March 1896; the Thonburi-Phetchaburi line the Southern Line, was opened on 19 June 1903. The first railway commander of the RSR was Prince Purachatra Jayakara The Northern Line was built as 1,435 mm standard gauge, but in September 1919 it was decided to standardize on 1,000 mm meter gauge and the Northern Line was regauged during the next ten years. On 1 July 1951, RSR changed its name to the present State Railway of Thailand.
As of 2014 SRT had 4,043 km of track, all of it meter gauge except the Airport Link. Nearly all is single-track, although some important sections around Bangkok are double or triple-tracked and there are plans to extend this. By comparison, Thailand has 390,000 km of highways. In 2017, the SRT lost 17 billion baht; the SRT has suffered a loss every year since it was turned into a state-owned enterprise under the Transport Ministry in 1951. The SRT has debts amounting to nearly 100 billion baht, its annual operating losses are estimated at a minimum of 10 billion baht. In 2017 the military government budgeted more than 76 billion baht for SRT infrastructure investments; the funding is to be used for double-track rail expansions, an extension of Bangkok's elevated railway, construction of bridges and track improvements. In the fiscal year ending 30 September 2016, the SRT had managed to disburse only 53 percent of its allotted investment budget of 60 billion baht; this compares with an average disbursement rate of 80 percent by Thailand's other 55 state-owned enterprises.
Disbursement rate is seen as an indicator of efficient management. "If you look at the SRT they are a bit like a patient in and everyone is saying to him'you are the future' and trying to kick him out of bed when he is still moaning and groaning," said Ruth Banomyong, a logistics and transport expert at Thammasat University. The worst financially performing state enterprise, the SRT operates at a loss despite being endowed with large amounts of property—the SRT is one of Thailand's largest land holders, owning an estimated 39,840 hectares— and receiving large government subsidies, it reported a preliminary loss of 7.58 billion baht in 2010. Recurring government attempts at restructuring and/or privatization throughout the 2000s have always been opposed by the union and have not made any progress. SRT's failings are reflected in passenger numbers, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit have dropped from 88 million in 1994 to 44 million in 2014; the SRT has long been popularly perceived by the public as resistant to change.
Trains are late, most of its equipment is old and poorly maintained. Under the auspices of the Transport Ministry, the SRT has submitted a rehabilitation plan that will be presented to the State Enterprise Policy Commission on 30 July 2018; the commission, chaired by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha is expected to approve the plan. The plan calls for SRT to become the largest railway state enterprise in ASEAN. By 2027, anticipating income growth from asset management and cost management, SRT foresees profits of over 20 billion baht. Rail freight, cheaper—only half the cost of road transport—safer, more environmentally-friendly than road transport, accounted for only 1.4 percent of freight tonnage carried in 2015. SRT aims to boost its share of cargo transport to six percent with its double track expansion by 2022. Expansion of SRT's freight service, which could earn more money than the subsidized passenger service, has been neglected for decades in favour of Thailand's roads; the SRT's poor financial performance and resistance to reform, coupled with the Asian financial crisis of 1997, resulted in stringent restraints being placed on SRT staffing.
In July 1998, the Thai cabinet issued an order that the SRT could only hire five new employees for every 100 retirees. As of 2018, the order remains in effect. SRT officials estimated in 2017 that the enterprise needed to boost staff by 20 percent to 12,000. In 2018 SRT claims that it needs 18,015 employees to operate efficiently, but only has 10,035 on staff. To make up the shortfall, the SRT hires around 4,000 "daily workers" on daily wages of 300 baht, it has caused the SRT to pay massive amounts of overtime pay to current employees. For example, one station master in Pattani was paid 61,210 in monthly salary, but an additional 102,271 baht in overtime pay. To address a long list of complaints accusing SRT of a lack of transparency in bids for projects and procurement deals, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha fired the governor and board of the State Railway of Thailand in February 2017, using his special powers under Section 44 of the interim constitution. On the Southern Line, between Hat Yai Junction and Su-ngai Kolok railway station, in the south of Songkhla Province, Pattani Province, Yala Province and Narathiwat Province there have been regul
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Su-ngai Kolok railway station
Sungai Golok railway station is a railway station in Sungai Golok Sub-district, Su-ngai Kolok District, Narathiwat. It is a class 1 railway station 1,142.993 km from Thon Buri railway station. Sungai Golok Station is the furthest railway station from Bangkok, the terminus of the Southern Line, it opened in September 1921 as part of the Southern Line Tanyong Mat-Su-ngai Kolok section. Su-ngai Kolok borders Malaysia. In the past, rail services used to extend to Rantau Panjang, across the Harmony Railway Bridge, over the Golok River. Thai DMUs took up the entire schedule, up to Tumpat, this soon led to protests and the disuse of this link. Nowadays, rail cross-border services at this checkpoint are closed. There have been talks about re-establishing this rail border crossing. Thaksin Special Express train No. 37 / 38 Bangkok - Su-ngai Kolok - Bangkok Rapid train No. 171 / 172 Bangkok - Su-ngai Kolok - Bangkok Rapid train No. 175 / 176 Hat Yai Junction - Su-ngai Kolok - Hat Yai Junction Local train No. 447 / 448 Surat Thani - Su-ngai Kolok - Surat Thani Local train No. 451 / 452 Nakhon Si Thammarat- Su-ngai Kolok- Nakhon Si Thammarat Local train No. 453 / 454 Yala - Su-ngai Kolok - Yala Local train No. 463 / 464 Phatthalung-Su-ngai Kolok-Phatthalung "".
State Railway of Thailand. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. 岡本和之. タイ鉄道旅行. めこん. ISBN 4-8396-0080-5. 杉本聖一. 魅惑のタイ鉄道. 玉川新聞社. ISBN 4-924882-29-1. 柿崎一郎. 王国の鉄路 タイ鉄道の歴史. 京都大学学術出版会. ISBN 978-4-87698-848-8. 渡邉乙弘. タイ国鉄4000キロの旅. 文芸社. ISBN 978-4-286-13041-5
Ban Phachi Junction
Ban Phachi Junction is a railway junction located in Phachi District, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. It is a Class 1 Station and serves as a junction for the North and Northeastern Line of the State Railway of Thailand. Ban Phachi Junction had to be rebuilt after the Second World War after being hit by Allied Bombing; some super express and express trains do not call at this station. There is a specialty at this station, recommended for those who pass this station; that is the "Phachi" Coconut Ice Cream sold by hawkers with trays walking along platforms and is eaten using a plastic straw. The dessert has been mentioned on some Thai shows, but since the beginning of August 2018 Phachi Coconut Ice Cream was sold at this junction, sales ended permanently. Ban Phachi Junction serves 47 trains daily; the trains that stop here are of the following: Commuter 303/304 Bangkok-Lopburi-Bangkok Commuter 339/340 Bangkok-Kaeng Khoi Junction-Bangkok Rapid 135/140 Bangkok-Ubon Ratchathani-Bangkok Rapid 111/108 Bangkok-Den Chai-Bangkok Express 75/78 Bangkok-Nong Khai-Bangkok Express 77/76 Bangkok-Nong Khai-Bangkok Ordinary 201/202 Bangkok-Phitsanulok-Bangkok Express 71/72 Bangkok-Ubon Ratchathani-Bangkok Ordinary 209/210 Bangkok-Ban Takhli-Bangkok Ordinary 233/234 Bangkok-Surin-Bangkok Rapid 109/102 Bangkok-Chiang Mai-Bangkok Ordinary 211/212 Bangkok-Taphan Hin-Bangkok Ordinary 207/208 Bangkok-Nakhon Sawan-Bangkok Rapid 145/136 Bangkok-Ubon Ratchathani-Bangkok Commuter 315/316 Bangkok-Lopburi-Bangkok Commuter 301/302 Bangkok-Lopburi-Bangkok Commuter 313/314 Bangkok-Ban Phachi-Bangkok Commuter 341/342 Bangkok-Kaeng Khoi-Bangkok Commuter 343/344 Bangkok-Kaeng Khoi-Bangkok Commuter 317/318 Bangkok-Lopburi-Bangkok Rapid 139/146 Bangkok-Ubon Ratchathani-Bangkok Rapid 107/112 Bangkok-Den Chai-Bangkok Rapid 105/106 Bangkok-Sila At-Bangkok Rapid 133/134 Bangkok-Nong Khai-Bangkok Express 67/68 Bangkok-Ubon Ratchathani-Bangkok Rapid 141/142 Bangkok-Ubon Ratchathani-Bangkok "สถานีรถไฟชุมทางบ้านภาชี"..
Rotfaithai.com. "การรถไฟแห่งประเทศไทย". State Railway of Thailand. "คนชอบนั่งรถไฟเศร้า ไอติมกะทิบ้านภาชี เลิกขายแล้ว ปิดตำนานหวานเย็น 5 บาท". Khao Sod. August 7, 2018