Chalcedonian Christianity

Chalcedonian Christianity refers to the Christian denominations adhering to the christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451. Chalcedonian Christians follow the Definition of Chalcedon, a religious doctrine concerning the divine and human natures of Jesus Christ; the great majority of Christian communions and confessions in the 21st century are Chalcedonian, but from the 5th to the 8th centuries the ascendancy of Chalcedonian Christology was not always certain. Doctrinally, Chalcedonianism may be regarded as a subset of Nicene Christianity. Not shown: non-Nicene and some restorationist denominations The dogmatic disputes raised during the Council of Chalcedon led to the Chalcedonian Schism thus to the formation of the Non-Chalcedonian body of churches known as Oriental Orthodoxy; the Chalcedonian churches remained united with the Holy See of Rome, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Eastern Orthodox patriarchates of the Middle East.

Together, these five patriarchates were considered the pillars of orthodox catholic Christendom and of the Chalcedonian confession of faith. During the 6th-century reign of Emperor Justinian I, the five patriarchates were recognised as the Pentarchy, the official ecclesiastical authority of the Imperial Christian Church. Today, the great majority of Christian denominations can be considered descended from the Pentarchy, subscribing to Chalcedonian Christianity, broadly divided into the Roman Catholic Church in the predominantly Latin-speaking West, the Eastern Orthodox Church in the predominantly Greek-speaking East, the Protestant denominations created in the wake of the Protestant Reformation; the groups that rejected Chalcedon's Christological definition were the majority of the Armenian and Ethiopian Christians, together with a part of the Indian and Syriac Christians. Today, such groups are known collectively as the Non-Chalcedonian, Miaphysite, or Oriental Orthodox churches; some Armenian Christians in the region of Cappadocia and Trebizond inside the Byzantine Empire, accepted the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon and engaged in polemics against the Armenian Apostolic Church.

After the conclusion of Byzantine-Sasanian War of 572–591, direct rule of the Byzantine Empire was extended to all western parts of Armenia, soon after that emperor Maurice decided to strengthen his political control over the entire region by supporting the local pro-Chalcedonian faction of the Armenian Church. In 593, a regional council of western Armenian bishops was convened in the city of Theodosiopolis, proclaimed allegiance to the Chalcedonian Definition; the council elected John of Bagaran as the new Catholicos of the Chalcedonian Armenians. Those present at the Council of Chalcedon accepted Trinitarianism and the concept of hypostatic union, rejected Arianism and Ebionism as heresies; those present at the council rejected the Christological doctrines of the Nestorians and monophysites. The Chalcedonian understanding of how the divine and human relate in Jesus Christ is that the humanity and divinity are exemplified as two natures and that the one hypostasis of the Logos subsists in these two natures.

The Non-Chalcedonians hold the position of miaphysitism. Miaphysitism holds that in the one person of Jesus Christ and humanity are united in one nature, the two being united without separation, without confusion and without alteration; that led many members of the two churches to condemn each other: the Chalcedonians condemning the Non-Chalcedonians as Eutychian Monophysites, the Non-Chalcedonians condemning the Chalcedonians as Nestorians. Interpreters of the council held that Chalcedonian Christology rejected monothelitism and monoenergism; those who did not accept the Chalcedonian Christology now call themselves non-Chalcedonian. They called themselves Miaphysites or Cyrillians and were called by Orthodox Christians monophysites; those who held to the non-Chalcedonian Christologies called the doctrine of Chalcedon dyophysitism. Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Meyendorff, John. Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A. D; the Church in history.

2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press

Two Men Contemplating the Moon

Two Men Contemplating the Moon and Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon are a series of similar paintings by Caspar David Friedrich, the setting being among his best-known works. Friedrich painted at least three versions, with one variation featuring a woman; the 1819–20 version in the Galerie Neue Meister is thought to be the original. These German Romantic landscape paintings feature two figures in a dark forest silhouetted by a pastel sky; the works' dark foregrounds and lighter backgrounds create a sharp contrast. The sky suggests that the time is with the waxing crescent moon close to setting. A dead, uprooted tree's dark branches contrast with the sky; the jagged branches and stark contrasts seem to create a threatening environment for the figures, are reminiscent of the imposing Gothic style seen in the medieval era, but revived in the Romantic era. The same can be said of shadowy trees and rocks surrounding the couple; the figures themselves are dressed in dark colors and stiff, somewhat formal garments, which serve to signify their higher class.

The works emphasize spirituality in nature and the presence of the sublime, which are major themes of Friedrich. Playwright Samuel Beckett, standing before Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon, said "This was the source of Waiting for Godot, you know." The paintings depicts a foreground scene of two people on a mountain path, which leads up from the centre bottom of the picture to the left. The man on the right is wearing a grey-green cape and the black beret of the altdeutsche Tracht and has a stick in his right hand; the man on the left is leaning on his companion's shoulder. They are both looking at the sickle of the evening star; the moon's night side is lit by earthshine. The scene is framed by an uprooted and moss-grown oak on their right, whose branches reach out to those of a spruce on their left. In the background the landscape falls away. In the immediate foreground are a tree stump and a large dry branch lying on the ground; the painting is monochromatic in shades of brown and grey, depicting nightfall.

The Dresden version is held to be the original, because it most exemplifies the golden section in the ratios between the central vertical axis, the perpendicular axis between it and the star, the other axis running through the older man's eye. The German art historian Werner Busch sees the geometric layout as signalling the transcendent message of the two figures' experience of nature; as in many paintings by Friedrich, there is no middle ground. The composition places these in a harmonious relationship, it has been described as a defining image of German Romanticism. The two men depicted may be Friedrich himself, on the right, his pupil August Heinrich on the left. Dahl agreed that the younger man was Heinrich but identified the older as Christian Wilhelm Bommer, the brother of Friedrich's wife Caroline. In the variant with a man and a woman, Caroline Friedrich would be the woman. Two art historians of the early twentieth century proposed locations. Max Semrau located Friedrich and his friend Benjamin Friedrich Gotthelf Kummer on a cliff on the island of Rügen.

In this painting, the man and woman face away from the viewer, centered vertically, located left of center horizontally. The woman's arm is resting on the man's shoulder; the serene and contemplative pose of the couple contrasts with the contortions of the half uprooted oak tree, itself in opposition with the verticality of the lush pine tree on the left. This irregular and asymmetrical pictorial construction—one linked with the post-Baroque aesthetic of the previous century—was rare in Friedrich's work characterized by regular geometric arrangements. According to Johan Christian Dahl, the first owner of the earliest version, Friedrich painted an unknown number of copies, others copied the picture. Several versions are extant today, but their dating and authorship has not been positively determined. Apart from Dahl's copy there is a version in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, dated 1825–1830. In addition to the closer adherence to the golden section, the Dresden version is truer to Friedrich's preparatory sketches from nature.

Paintings of the variant image of a man and woman observing the moon, dated between 1818 and 1835, are located in the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin and in a private collection in Switzerland. The art historian Kaspar Monrad suggests that this may be the first version of the theme, thus would predate early 1818, when the Danish writer Peder Hjort reported obtaining such a painting from Friedrich. In addition to substituting the figure of a woman for the man on the left, the Berlin version differs from

Pål Hausken

Pål Hausken is a Norwegian Jazz musician, most known from bands like the jazz trio In The Country where he plays together with Morten Qvenild and Roger Arntzen, but for his collaboration with artists like Susanna Wallumrød, Bull of the Year and Music for a While together with Tora Augestad. Hausken was a music student at the Norwegian Academy of Music when he together with fellow students Morten Qvenild and Roger Arntzen initiated the band In The Country. Here he play a central role as drummer and with five releases this is the most productive of his projects. At the Umea Jazz Festival 2012 they received brilliant critiques and followed up with the fifth album Sunset Sunrise in 2013. 2004: Jazzintro Newcomer Award at Moldejazz, with in the Country 2012: "Independent Music Awards" with in the Country, for their latest full length art concert film In The Country2005: This Was The Pace of My Heartbeat 2006: Losing Stones, Collecting Bones 2009: Whiteout 2011: Sounds And Sights 2013: Sunset Sunrise Susanna Wallumrød2007: Sonata Mix Dwarf Cosmos 2008: Flower of Evil Zahl2007: Nice for a Change Music for a While2007: Weill Variations 2012: Graces That Refrain Bull of the year2009: Four Horns Hilde Marie Kjersem TUB Quartet2004: Red Shoes Diary Kaada2004: MECD Gebhardt & Mjøs2005: Alt For Norge Christer Knutsen2005: Would You Please Welcome 2006: Grand Hotel With Tora Augestad's Music for a While including Mathias Eick, Stian Carstensen and Martin Taxt2007: Weill Variations 2012: Graces That Refrain 2014: Canticles of Winter Randi Tytingvåg2012: Grounding Finland including with Morten Qvenild, Jo Berger Myhre, Ivar Grydeland2015: Rainy Omen