Chaldia was a historical region located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia. Its name was derived from a people called the Chaldoi. Chaldia was used throughout the Byzantine period and was established as a formal theme, known as the Theme of Chaldia, by 840. During the Late Middle Ages, it formed the core of the Empire of Trebizond until its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1461. Anthony Bryer traces the origin of its name not to Chaldea, as Constantine VII had done, but to the Urartian language, for whose speakers Ḫaldi was the Sun God. Bryer notes at the time of his writing that a number of villages in the Of district were still known as "Halt". Other scholars, reject the Urartian connection. Χάλυψ, the tribe's name in Greek, means "tempered iron, steel", a term that passed into Latin as chalybs, "steel". Sayce derived the Greek name Chalybe from Hittite Khaly-wa, "land of Halys". More than an identifiable people or tribe, "Chalybes" was a generic Greek term for "peoples of the Black Sea coast who trade in iron".
The name Chaldia was consigned to the highland region around Gümüşhane, in northeast Anatolia, but in the middle Byzantine period, the name was extended to include the coastal areas, thus the entire province around Trapezus. Forming the easternmost area of the Pontic Alps, Chaldia was bounded to the north by the Black Sea, to the east by Lazica, the westernmost part of Caucasian Iberia, to the south by Erzincan and what the Romans and Byzantines called Armenia Minor, to the west by the western half of Pontus, its main cities were the two ancient Greek colonies and Trapezus, situated in the coastal lowlands. The mountainous interior to the south, known as Mesochaldia, was more sparsely inhabited and described by the 6th-century historian Procopius as "inaccessible", but rich in mineral deposits lead, but silver and gold; the mines of the region gave the name Argyropolis to the principal settlement. Byzantine sources provide evidence that the people of Chaldia and Tzanicha were descended from the indigenous inhabitants of the historical area of Chaldia.
Strabo describes them as rough and warlike. The first local inhabitants, the Chalybes, were counted among the earliest ironsmith nations by Classical writers. Indeed, the Greek name for steel is chalybas deriving from them; the first Greek colony was that of Trapezus, founded by Greek traders from Miletus, traditionally dated to 756 BC. Greek colonization was restricted to the coast, in ages Roman control remained only nominal over the tribes of the interior; the coastal regions, belonged to the Roman province of Pontus Polemoniacus. Only during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I were the warlike tribes, the Sannoi or Tzannoi, subdued and brought under central rule. Justinian included the entire region in the newly constituted province of Armenia I Magna with Trapezus as its capital. In the second half of the 7th century, with the establishment of the theme system, the region became part of the Armeniac Theme as the tourma of Chaldia, as a semi-distinct duchy or archontate. By 840, as early as 824, it was constituted as a theme in its own right.
Arab geographers of the 9th and 10th centuries report differently on the theme: Ibn Khordadbeh reports that it counted six fortified places, Qudama ibn Ja'far that its troops numbered 4,000, while Ibn al-Faqih writes that its governing strategos commanded 10,000 men and had two subordinate tourmarchai. According to 10th-century documents, the strategos of Chaldia received twenty pounds of gold as an annual salary, of which half was paid by the state treasury and the rest came from the tax proceeds of his province, including the kommerkion tax on the important trade routes from the East that converged on Trapezus. In the early 10th century, the theme's southern portion, the district of Keltzene, was detached and added to the newly established theme of Mesopotamia; until the eastern gains in the latter 10th century, Chaldia remained the northeastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire. During the periods 1091/1095–1098 and 1126–1140, the theme was autonomous from the Byzantine government. During the first period, under its doux, Theodore Gabras, the region had been cut off from the remaining Byzantine territories by the Seljuk Turks, while during the second period, doux Constantine Gabras had rebelled against Emperor John II Komnenos.
After the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by Latin crusaders, two Byzantine successor states were established: the Empire of Nicaea, the Despotate of Epirus. A third, the Empire of Trebizond, was created after Alexios Komnenos, commanding the Georgian expedition in Chaldia a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople, found himself de facto emperor, established himself in Trebizond. Indeed, by the 14th century, the Empire was reduced to the territory of the old theme; the Empire of Trebizond managed to survive through successive upheavals by a combination of its inaccessible location, a small but capable army, a sound diplomacy based on marriage alliances, before falling to the Ottomans in 1461. Thereafter, isolated fortresses in the interior continued to resist. Only in 1479 was the region subdued, when the castle of Golacha, the last remaining Christian stronghold in
The World Monuments Watch is a flagship advocacy program of the New York-based private non-profit organization World Monuments Fund that calls international attention to cultural heritage around the world, threatened by neglect, conflict, or disaster. Every two years, it publishes a select list known as the Watch List of Endangered Sites that are in urgent need of preservation funding and protection; the sites are nominated by governments, conservation professionals, site caretakers, non-government organizations, concerned individuals, others working in the field. An independent panel of international experts select 100 candidates from these entries to be part of the Watch List, based on the significance of the sites, the urgency of the threat, the viability of both advocacy and conservation solutions. For the succeeding two-year period until a new Watch List is published, these 100 sites can avail grants and funds from the WMF, as well as from other foundations, private donors, corporations by capitalizing on the publicity and attention gained from the inclusion on the Watch List.
The 2018 World Monuments Watch List of Endangered Sites was announced on October 16, 2017 by WMF President Joshua David. The 2018 Watch List highlights the threats to cultural heritage sites posed by human conflict, natural disaster, climate change, urbanization
Danny William Watkins is a former American football offensive guard in the National Football League. He was drafted fourth overall by the BC Lions of the Canadian Football League in the 2010 CFL Draft, but played out his last year at Baylor University, the 2010 season. Watkins' father, Todd, is a road grader. In high school, Watkins played rugby and hockey as a defenseman, but became the "designated goon" because of his size, he became a junior firefighter when he was 16 after visiting the West Kelowna Rescue squad. Watkins enrolled at Butte College to study fire sciences in order to become a firefighter after a year as a junior firefighter; the school's football coach recruited him to play for their football team, at the age of 22 it was the first time Watkins had played football. He played football at Butte from 2007−2008, helping them to a perfect 11−0 record in 2008. Butte coaches sent game tape of his to Division I-A schools, California and Baylor were the schools interested. Watkins transferred to Baylor University, after head coach Art Briles was impressed with his game tape at Butte.
Watkins started at left offensive tackle as a junior in 2009 for the Bears. He replaced Jason Smith, drafted second overall by the St. Louis Rams in the 2009 NFL Draft. Watkins was selected with the fourth overall pick in the 2010 CFL Draft by the BC Lions. Prior to the 2011 NFL Draft, Watkins was projected to be drafted in the second round, he hired former NFL offensive lineman Joe Panos as his agent. Watkins invited five of his friends from the West Kelowna fire department to join him at the draft. On the morning of the draft and his firefighter friends visited a New York City firehouse that lost several members during the September 11 attacks. Watkins was selected with the 23rd overall pick by the Philadelphia Eagles in the 2011 NFL Draft, he became the oldest first-round selection since 1971 at the age of 26. He was the first Canadian to be drafted in the first rounds of both the CFL and NFL drafts since Mike Schad in 1986, he was projected to start as a rookie at right offensive guard and signed a four-year contract worth $7.9 million on August 1.
However, the Eagles claimed Kyle DeVan off waivers from the Indianapolis Colts before the start of the season and Watkins was benched. Watkins was inactive for the first two weeks of the season and was active for a week three game against the New York Giants, but did not play, he was inactive again in week four, but was promoted to the starting right guard on October 5, due to the ineffectiveness of DeVan through the first four games of the season. Watkins was released on August 31, 2013. Eagles general manager Howie Roseman said the "innate toughness" Watkins showed at Baylor never materialized; the Miami Dolphins signed Watkins to a one-year contract on September 3, 2013 after waiving backup lineman Josh Samuda. In 2014, it was reported that Watkins was a firefighter in Frisco, Texas. "Carlton: Burning desire drives Baylor's Danny Watkins". Dallasnews.com. August 9, 2010. Retrieved 2011-04-30. Philadelphia Eagles bio Baylor Bears football bio
The Yucatán Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel. The peninsula lies east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, a northeastern geographic partition separating the region of Central America from the rest of North America, it is 181,000 km2 in area, is entirely composed of limestone. The proper etymology of the word Yucatán is debated. 17th century Fransiscan historian Diego López de Cogolludo offers two theories in particular. In the first one, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, having first arrived to the peninsula in 1517, inquired the name of a certain settlement and the response in Yucatec Mayan was "I don't understand", which sounded like yucatán to the Spaniards. There are many possibilities of what the natives could have said, among which "mathan cauyi athán", "tectecán", "ma'anaatik ka t'ann" and "ci u t'ann"; this origin story was first told by Hernán Cortés in his letters to Charles V. 16th century historians Motolinia and Francisco López de Gómara repeat this version.
In some versions the expedition isn't the one captained by Córdoba but instead the one a year captained by Juan de Grijalva. The second major theory is. Others theories claim that that it is a derivative of Chontal Tabascan word yokat'an meaning speaker of the Yoko ochoco language, or an incorrect Nahuatl term yokatlan as "place of richness"; the Yucatán Peninsula is the site of the Chicxulub crater impact, created 66 million years ago by the impact of an asteroid of about 10 to 15 kilometers in diameter at the end of the Cretaceous Period. The Yucatán Peninsula comprises a significant proportion of the ancient Maya lowlands, was the center of the Mayan civilization. There are many Maya archaeological sites throughout the peninsula. Indigenous Maya and Mestizos of partial Maya descent make up a sizable portion of the region's population, Mayan languages are spoken there; the peninsula comprises the Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo, as well as large parts of Belize and Guatemala's Petén Department.
In the late historic and early modern eras, the Yucatán Peninsula was a cattle ranching, logging and henequen production area. Since the 1970s, the Yucatán Peninsula has reoriented its economy towards tourism in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Once a small fishing village, Cancún in the northeast of the peninsula has grown into a thriving city; the Riviera Maya, which stretches along the east coast of the peninsula between Cancún and Tulum, houses over 50,000 beds. The best-known locations are the former fishing town of Playa del Carmen, the ecological parks Xcaret and Xel-Há and the Maya ruins of Tulum and Coba; the peninsula is the exposed portion of the larger Yucatán Platform, all of, composed of carbonate and soluble rocks, being limestone although dolomite and evaporites are present at various depths. The whole of the Yucatán Peninsula is an unconfined flat lying karst landscape. Sinkholes, known locally as cenotes, are widespread in the northern lowlands. According to the Alvarez hypothesis, the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the transition from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene Period, recorded the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, 65 million years ago was caused by an asteroid impact somewhere in the greater Caribbean Basin.
The buried Chicxulub crater is centered off the north coast of the peninsula near the town of Chicxulub. The now-famous "Ring of Cenotes" outlines one of the shockwaves from this impact event in the rock of ~66 million years of age, which lies more than 1 km below the modern ground surface near the center, with the rock above the impact strata all being younger in age; the presence of the crater has been determined first on the surface from the Ring of Cenotes, but by geophysical methods, direct drilling with recovery of the drill cores. The Arrowsmith Bank is a submerged bank located off the northeastern end of the peninsula. Due to the extreme karst nature of the whole peninsula, the northern half is devoid of rivers. Where lakes and swamps are present, the water is marshy and unpotable. Due to its coastal location, the whole of the peninsula is underlain by an extensive contiguous density stratified coastal aquifer, where a fresh water lens formed from meteoric water floats on top of intruding saline water from the coastal margins.
The thousands of sinkholes known as cenotes throughout the region provide access to the groundwater system. The cenotes have long been relied on by contemporary Maya people. Short and tall tropical jungles are the predominant natural vegetation types of the Yucatán Peninsula; the boundaries between northern Guatemala and western Belize are still occupied by the largest continuous tracts of tropical rainforest in Central America. However, these forests are suffering extensive deforestation. Like much of the Caribbean, the peninsula lies within the Atlantic Hurricane Belt, with its uniformly flat terrain it is vulnerable to these large storms coming from the east; the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season was a bad season for Mexico's
R. Thomas Gaglardi is a Canadian business executive, the owner of the Dallas Stars of the National Hockey League. Gaglardi is president of Northland Properties Corporation, which his family own; the company employs more than 10,000 people. He serves as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Sandman Hotels, Inns & Suites and Moxie's Grill & Bar, he has been a Director of Leading Brands, Inc. since October 1998 and Secretary since June 1999. Gaglardi first showed interest in buying a National Hockey League team in 2004, when he and business partner Ryan Beedie made a bid to purchase fifty percent of the Vancouver Canucks from then-owner John McCaw, Jr.. A competing bid by a former partner of both Gaglardi and Beedie, Francesco Aquilini, was accepted by McCaw. In April 2010, Gaglardi proposed purchasing the Atlanta Thrashers and relocating the team to Hamilton, Ontario; this potential move, although it never drew the amount of opposition that Jim Balsillie's similar efforts have provoked, never happened, True North Sports & Entertainment purchased the team instead, moving it to Winnipeg to become the second and current incarnation of the Jets.
Gaglardi was formally introduced as the new owner of the Dallas Stars hockey team on November 18, 2011. He first expressed an interest in buying the Stars in 2009 and spent more than a year going through the process of completing the deal for the team, which went through a bankruptcy proceeding; as the new owner, Gaglardi's first move was bringing back former Stars president Jim Lites to once again take the reins as team President & CEO. A bankruptcy court judge approved the bid for an enterprise value of $240 million. First line creditors got about 75 cents on the dollar; the Stars lost $38 million during their last fiscal year and $92 million over the last three seasons. He is part of the ownership group of the Kamloops Blazers of the Western Hockey League and, as of 2014, owner of the Texas Stars, the Dallas Stars' AHL affiliate. Gaglardi is a lifelong hockey fan, his grandfather Philip Gaglardi was a politician in Canada. His mother is a native of Longview, Texas and he said he has “serious University of Texas relatives” who live west of Fort Worth, Texas
Dergahspor Nuremberg is a German football club based in Nuremberg. The club was founded on 26 August 1981 in the Bavarian city of Nuremberg by Turkish immigrants, is nowadays one of the main football clubs in the city, open to all nationalities. At the time of being founded, nobody could foresee the enormous success. However, as all clubs in Amateur leagues, Dergahspor suffered downs. Due to the great solidarity of its members the club and its first football team could celebrate some successful years; the first achievement was in 1987, as the team won the'Atatürk-Cup'. A competition between all Turkish clubs in Nuremberg, hosted by the Turkish consulate. At that time nobody would have imagined, that the club would win this competition on the national level between against other Turkish clubs in Germany. Since 2000 the main team of the club celebrated various ascends up to the second highest league in Bavaria, the Landesliga. In 2012 the ascend to the highest class, the Bayernliga was only failed in relegation games against FC Amberg.
Although Dergahspor was founded by Turkish immigrants, the club considers itself as a German club with its roots in Nuremberg. Politically neutral and undenominational. Young players, no matter their religion are welcome. In the Landesliga-Season 2106/2017 Dergahspor is competing in Landesliga Nordost in Bavaria; as of 1 September 2016Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Atatürk Cup: Champions 1987 Atatürk Cup: Champions 2007 Bayernliga: Participant ascention round 2012 Official website