Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region; the city lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plains on the Oreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland, bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Park covering the south-west corner of the South Island and the Catlins coastal region. Many streets in the city in the centre and main shopping district, are named after rivers in Great Britain Scotland; these include the main streets Dee and Tay, as well as those named after the Tweed, Tyne, Don, Yarrow and Eye rivers. The 2013 census showed. Southland was a scene of early extended contact between Europeans and Māori, notably whalers and missionaries – Wohlers at Ruapuke. In 1853, Walter Mantell purchased Murihiku from local Māori iwi, claiming the land for European settlement.
Otago, of which Southland was itself part, was the subject of planned settlement by the Free Church, an offshoot of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Settlement broadened with the discovery of gold in Central Otago in the 1860s. Today, traces of Scottish speech persist in Southland voices, with R pronounced with a rolling burr; this is more noticeable among country people. In 1856, a petition was put forward to Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of New Zealand, for a port at Bluff. Due to the Otago gold rush, the region's population grew during the 1860s with the settlement of Bluff. Browne gave the name Invercargill to the settlement north of the port. Inver comes from the Scottish Gaelic word inbhir meaning a river's mouth and Cargill is in honour of Captain William Cargill, at the time the Superintendent of Otago, of which Southland was a part; the settlement's chief surveyor was a British civil engineer. Under the influence of James Menzies, Southland Province seceded from Otago in 1861 following the escalation of political tensions.
However, rising debt forced Southland to rejoin Otago in 1870 and the provincial system, with it the province of Otago, was abolished in 1876. This debt was caused by a population decline stemming from poor returns from pastoral farming. In 1874, Invercargill's population was less than 2,500 which reflected the drift north to large centres. In the 1880s, the development of an export industry based on butter and cheese encouraged the growth of dairy farming in Southland. In December 1905, Invercargill voted in local prohibition of alcohol sales; this lasted for 40 years. Drinking continued meanwhile, thanks to hotels and liquor merchants in outlying districts, huge volumes of beer in kegs, brought to private homes, or sold by the glass by keggers at hiding spots round the City; when prohibition ended, a committee of citizens persuaded the Government to give the monopoly on liquor sales in Invercargill to the specially formed Invercargill Licensing Trust. Based on a scheme in Carlisle, England, it returns profits to city amenities.
Today, alcohol is not sold in supermarkets. In recent years, publicity has been brought to the southern city by the election of Tim Shadbolt, a colourful and outspoken former student activist and former mayor of Waitemata City, as mayor, he once appeared on a cheese advertisement stating "I don't mind where, as long as I'm Mayor". His supporters like the colour, his opponents refer to his controversial mayoral career in the Auckland suburbs and to his attitude to veterans during his opposition to the Vietnam War. Publicity and students have come to the city by the Southern Institute of Technology's "Zero Fees" scheme, which allows New Zealand citizens and permanent residents to study while only paying for material costs of their study, not tuition fees. Invercargill is the southernmost city in the Commonwealth of Nations. Invercargill is situated on the fertile and alluvial Southland Plains, amongst some of New Zealand's most fertile farmland. Southern Invercargill lies on the shore of the New River Estuary, while the northern parts lie on the banks of the Waihopai River.
10 kilometres west of the city centre lies Oreti Beach, a long expanse of sand stretching from the Sandy Point area to nearby Riverton. Invercargill has a temperate oceanic climate; the mean daily temperature ranges from 5.2 °C in July to 14 °C in January. The yearly mean temperature is 9.8 °C. Rainfall averages 1,112 millimetres annually, measurable snowfall is seen during the winter months of June to September, it is the cloudiest city in New Zealand with only 1,680 hours of sunshine per annum. Despite its cloudiness, a high frequency of rainy days, Invercargill receives less rain than either Auckland or Wellington. Invercargill is New Zealand's second windiest city, after Wellington; the average temperature high ranges from 18.7 °C in January to 9.5 °C in July, but temperatures do exceed 25 °C in summer. Invercargill's hottest temperature on record was 33.8 °C, recorded on 2 January 1948. Extended periods of heat are rare, however January 2018 was notable for the city recording three consecutive days above 30 for the first time in its recorded history, peaking with the city's second highest temperature on record of 32.3 °C on 14 January 2018.
Owing to its high latitude, the city enjo
Stoats in New Zealand
Stoats were introduced into New Zealand to control introduced rabbits and hares, but are now a major threat to the native bird population. The natural range of the stoat is limited to parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Before human settlement, New Zealand did not have any land-based mammals apart from bats, but Polynesian and European settlers introduced a wide variety of animals; the rabbit was introduced by European settlers as a food and game animal, by the 1870s it was becoming a serious threat to the newly developed farming economy. Farmers began demanding the introduction of mustelids to control the rabbit plague. Warnings about the dangers to bird life from stoats were given by scientists in New Zealand and Britain, including the New Zealand ornithologist Walter Buller; the warnings were ignored and stoats began to be introduced from Britain in the 1880s. Within six years, drastic declines in bird populations were noticed; the translocation efforts of New Zealand's pioneering conservationist Richard Henry were undone when stoats swam to Resolution Island.
Stoats were eradicated from Chalky Island and other Fiordland islands in the early 2000s, scientists assumed that they would be unable to cross a 300 m water barrier, but stoats turned out to be able to reinvade: DNA testing confirmed that stoats swim towards islands in summer in beech mast years, prefer long coastlines. In December 2010, a stoat was seen on what was thought to be the stoat-free Kapiti Island, by August the next year the New Zealand Department of Conservation had managed to kill three, it seems unlikely that a stoat could cross the five-kilometre stretch of open sea from the Kapiti Coast but they are accomplished swimmers: in an experiment in a flume tank, a stoat paddled against a moderate current for two hours without stopping, the equivalent of swimming 1.8 km. New Zealand has a high proportion of ground-nesting and flightless birds, due to its long geographical isolation and a lack of mammal predators. Native birds have evolved to fill niches. Stoats are the greatest threat to these ground-nesting and hole-nesting birds, which have limited means of escaping stoat predation.
In some areas the whio population is now 70% male, from stoats attacking female ducks incubating eggs. In addition to birds, stoats eat insects and rats. During "beech masts", when southern beech trees produce a far greater amount of seed than normal, the stoat population undergoes changes in predation behaviour. With high beech-seed numbers and mice become more plentiful, the increase in prey encourages stoat breeding; the higher stoat numbers reduce the rodent population and the stoats prey on birds. For instance, the wild population of the endangered takahe dropped by a third between 2006 and 2007, after a stoat plague triggered by the 2005–2006 mast wiped out more than half the takahe in areas where stoat numbers were not limited by trapping. Stoats are difficult to control since they are bait-shy, trap-wary, have high fecundity. In some areas where there are populations of endangered birds, a programme of stoat-trapping has been implemented; the most common method of trapping is to use a stoat tunnel – a wooden box with a small entrance at one end to allow the stoat to enter.
The bait is an egg and a trap is placed in the tunnel to kill the stoat. Recent trials of a new design of self-resetting stoat traps for remote areas have been encouraging."Mainland Islands", protected areas on the mainland of New Zealand that employ intensive control of introduced pests, have stoat trapping on their perimeter. Predator-proof fences, using fine wire-mesh netting, are used to keep stoats out of protected areas. Methods of restricting stoat breeding have been investigated. Although stoats were recognised as a potential pest before being introduced into New Zealand, they were given protection as late as 1936; as a means of preventing a loss of biodiversity, there are now severe penalties for introducing stoats into protected areas. Conservation in New Zealand Birds of New Zealand Invasive species in New Zealand Stoats at the Department of Conservation Ferret and Stoat Research at Landcare Research Wild about New Zealand - Stoats Stoats and cats at Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Otakou is a settlement within the boundaries of the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. It is located 25 kilometres from the city centre at the eastern end of Otago Peninsula, close to the entrance of Otago Harbour; the settlement is the modern center and traditional home of the Ōtākou runanga of Ngai Tahu. In 1946 Otakou Fisheries was started based out of the township, this was to become a major part of the Otago fishing industry. Though a small fishing village, Otakou is important in the history of Otago for several reasons; the name'Ōtākou' is thought to come from Māori words meaning either "single village" or "place of red earth". Prior to the standardisation of Māori spelling in the 1840s, the name was written as'Otago', reflecting its pronunciation in a local southern Māori dialect; this prestandardised form was adopted by European settlers as the name for the surrounding area, the Otago region, it is mistaken as a European corruption of'Otakou'. The name referred to the channel off Wellers Rock but was transferred to the lower harbour as a whole, the port, the nearby Māori settlements and the Weller brothers' whaling establishment, one of the region's oldest European settlements, founded in 1831.
The old Māori names for the Māori settlements were Te Ruatitiko, Tahakopa and Ohinetu. Otakou was also the "city of Otago" burnt by Captain Kelly in December 1817 as an indiscriminate reprisal in the ongoing "Sealers' War" feud. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the place was a prominent Māori settlement, it is still the site of Otago's most important marae. By the early 19th century, the three Māori iwi of Ngāi Tahu, Kāti Māmoe and Waitaha had blended into a single tribal entity; the Treaty of Waitangi was signed nearby in 1840 on the H. M. S Herald by two important chiefs, who were descended from all three tribes. Otakou remains an important centre of Ngāi Tahu life. Otakou is located close to Taiaroa Head, the site of an albatross colony and other wildlife such as seals and penguins. Local Māori still call Taiaroa Head by its original name, the name of the pā established there around 1750 and still occupied by Māori in the 1840s, before the land was taken by the Government under the Public Works Act for building the lighthouse and the fortifications used during the Russian Scare of the 1880s.
Ōtākou Marae marae is located in Otakou. It is a marae of Ngāi Tahu and the branch of Te Rūnanga o Ōtākou, includes the Tamatea wharenui
The killer whale or orca is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations specialize in particular types of prey; some feed on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and other species of dolphin. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators. A cosmopolitan species, they can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas, absent only from the Baltic and Black seas, some areas of the Arctic Ocean. Killer whales are social, their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of animal culture. The International Union for Conservation of Nature assesses the orca's conservation status as data deficient because of the likelihood that two or more killer whale types are separate species.
Some local populations are considered threatened or endangered due to prey depletion, habitat loss, capture for marine mammal parks, conflicts with human fisheries. In late 2005, the southern resident killer whales, which swim in British Columbia and Washington state waters, were placed on the U. S. Endangered Species list. Wild killer whales are not considered a threat to humans, but there have been cases of captive orcas killing or injuring their handlers at marine theme parks. Killer whales feature in the mythologies of indigenous cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers. Orcinus orca is the only recognized extant species in the genus Orcinus, one of many animal species described by Linnaeus in 1758 in Systema Naturae. Konrad Gessner wrote the first scientific description of a killer whale in his Piscium & aquatilium animantium natura of 1558, part of the larger Historia animalium, based on examination of a dead stranded animal in the Bay of Greifswald that had attracted a great deal of local interest.
The killer whale is one of 35 species in the oceanic dolphin family, which first appeared about 11 million years ago. The killer whale lineage branched off shortly thereafter. Although it has morphological similarities with the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale and the pilot whales, a study of cytochrome b gene sequences by Richard LeDuc indicated that its closest extant relatives are the snubfin dolphins of the genus Orcaella. Although the term "orca" is used, English-speaking scientists most use the traditional name "killer whale". Indeed, the genus name Orcinus means "of the kingdom of the dead", or "belonging to Orcus". Ancient Romans used orca for these animals borrowing Greek ὄρυξ, which referred to a whale species. Since the 1960s, "orca" has grown in popularity; the term "orca" is euphemistically preferred by some to avoid the negative connotations of "killer", because, being part of the family Delphinidae, the species is more related to other dolphins than to whales. They are sometimes referred to as "blackfish", a name used for other whale species.
"Grampus" is a former name for the species, but is now used. This meaning of "grampus" should not be confused with the genus Grampus, whose only member is Risso's dolphin; the three to five types of killer whales may be distinct enough to be considered different races, subspecies, or even species. The IUCN reported in 2008, "The taxonomy of this genus is in need of review, it is that O. orca will be split into a number of different species or at least subspecies over the next few years." Although large variation in the ecological distinctiveness of different killer whale groups complicate simple differentiation into types, research off the west coast of Canada and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s identified the following three types: Resident: These are the most sighted of the three populations in the coastal waters of the northeast Pacific. Residents' diets consist of fish and sometimes squid, they live in complex and cohesive family groups called pods. Female residents characteristically have rounded dorsal fin tips.
They visit the same areas consistently. British Columbia and Washington resident populations are amongst the most intensively studied marine mammals anywhere in the world. Researchers have named over 300 killer whales over the past 30 years. Transient: The diets of these whales consist exclusively of marine mammals. Transients travel in small groups of two to six animals, have less persistent family bonds than residents. Transients vocalize in less complex dialects. Female transients are characterized by more triangular and pointed dorsal fins than those of residents; the gray or white area around the dorsal fin, known as the "saddle patch" contains some black colouring in residents. However, the saddle patches of transients are uniformly gray. Transients roam along the coast. Transients are referred to as Bigg's killer whale in honor of cetologist Michael Bigg; the term has become common and may replace the transient label. Offshore: A third population of killer whales in the northeast Pacific was discovered in 1988, when a humpback whale researcher ob
The kakapo called owl parrot, is a species of large, nocturnal, ground-dwelling parrot of the super-family Strigopoidea, endemic to New Zealand. It has finely blotched yellow-green plumage, a distinct facial disc, a large grey beak, short legs, large feet, short wings and tail. A combination of traits make it unique among its kind, it is possibly one of the world's longest-living birds. Its anatomy typifies the tendency of bird evolution on oceanic islands, with few predators and abundant food: a robust physique at the expense of flight abilities, resulting in reduced wing muscles and a diminished keel on the sternum. Like many other New Zealand bird species, the kakapo was important to Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, appearing in many of their traditional legends and folklore. Kakapo were occasionally kept as pets; the kakapo is critically endangered. Because of the introduction of predators such as cats, rats and stoats during European colonisation, the kakapo was wiped out. Conservation efforts began in the 1890s, but they were not successful until the implementation of the Kakapo Recovery Programme in 1995.
Most kakapo are kept on two predator-free islands, Codfish / Whenua Hou and Anchor, where they are monitored, Little Barrier / Hauturu Island is being trialled as a third home for the species. The common English name "kakapo" comes from the Māori "kākāpō", from kākā + pō. "Kākāpō" is written in New Zealand English with the macrons that indicate long vowels. The kakapo was described by English ornithologist George Robert Gray in 1845 and named Strigops habroptilus, its generic name Strigops is derived from the Ancient Greek strix, genitive strigos "owl", ops "face", while its specific epithet habroptilus comes from habros "soft", ptilon "feather". The bird has so many unusual features that it was placed in its own tribe, Strigopini. Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the unique position of this genus as well as the closeness to the kākā and the kea, both belonging to the New Zealand parrot genus Nestor. Together, they are now considered a separate superfamily within the parrots, the most basal of all living parrots.
Within the Strigopoidea, the kakapo is placed in Strigopidae. The common ancestor of the kakapo and the genus Nestor became isolated from the remaining parrot species when New Zealand broke off from Gondwana, around 82 million years ago. Around 30 million years ago, the kakapo diverged from the genus Nestor. Earlier ornithologists felt that the kakapo might be related to the ground parrots and night parrot of Australia due to their similar coloration, but this is contradicted by recent studies; the kakapo is a rotund parrot. Males are larger than females. Twenty-eight males were found to average 2 kg in one study, 39 males were found to average 2.06 kg in another. In the same studies, 28 females were found to average 1.5 kg and 18 females were found to average 1.28 kg, respectively. Kakapo are the heaviest living species of parrot and on average weigh about 400 g more than the largest flying parrot, the hyacinth macaw; the kakapo cannot fly, having short wings for its size and lacking the keel on the sternum, where the flight muscles of other birds attach.
It uses its wings for balance. Unlike many other land birds, the kakapo can accumulate large amounts of body fat; the upper parts of the kakapo have yellowish moss-green feathers barred or mottled with black or dark brownish grey, blending well with native vegetation. Individuals may have varying degrees of mottling and colour tone and intensity – museum specimens show that some birds had yellow colouring; the breast and flank are yellowish-green. The belly, undertail and face are predominantly yellowish streaked with pale green and weakly mottled with brownish-grey; because the feathers do not need the strength and stiffness required for flight, they are exceptionally soft, giving rise to the specific epithet habroptilus. The kakapo has a conspicuous facial disc of fine feathers resembling the face of an owl; the beak is surrounded by delicate feathers which resemble vibrissae or "whiskers". The mandible is variable in colour ivory, with the upper part bluish-grey; the eyes are dark brown. Kakapo feet are large, and, as in all parrots, zygodactyl.
The pronounced claws are useful for climbing. The ends of the tail feathers become worn from being continually dragged on the ground. Females are distinguished from males as they have a narrower and less
Puysegur Point is located in the far southwest of the South Island of New Zealand. It lies within Fiordland National Park on the southern head of Preservation Inlet, it lies 145 kilometres west-northwest of Invercargill. It is the site of a lighthouse station now automated but for many years the home of 3 married permanent lighthouse keepers; the original wooden lighthouse was burnt down in 1943 by a man who had left a psychiatric hospital and made his way down to Coal Island across the fjord from the lighthouse. He decided the light was a deliberate plot to keep him awake at night by shining in his window so took matters into his own hands, he held all the keepers hostage with a rifle, smashed the radio telephone and set fire to the lighthouse. The concrete lighthouse which replaced it has now in turn been replaced by two automated beacons. A large earthquake in this region on 15 July 2009 pushed Puysegur Point closer to Australia by 30 cm. Humpback whales pass the point during annual migrations.
Page on newzealandlighthouses site
Little spotted kiwi
The little spotted kiwi, or little gray kiwi, Apteryx owenii, is a small flightless bird in the kiwi family Apterygidae. It is the smallest species of kiwi, at about 0.9 to 1.9 kg, about the size of a bantam. It is endemic to New Zealand, in pre-European times occurred in both main islands, but is now restricted to a number of small offshore islands and mainland reserves protected by pest-exclusion fences; the little spotted kiwi is a ratite and belongs to the Apterygiormes Order, the Apterygidae Family. Their binomial name Apteryx owenii breaks down to without wings and owenii, named after Sir Richard Owen. Today, only the nominate subspecies A. o. owenii exists. A subspecies, A. o. iredalei, from the North Island has been described. It became extinct in the late 19th century; the little spotted kiwi was first described in 1847 by John Gould from a specimen obtained by F. Strang; the locality is not recorded but it came from Nelson or Marlborough. In 1873, Henry Potts published an account of its habits and about this time specimens were collected in South Westland and sent to England.
The little spotted kiwi has a length of 35 to 45 cm and the weight of the male is 0.9 to 1.3 kg and the female weighs 1 to 1.9 kg, making it the smallest species of kiwi. Their feathers are pale-mottled gray, with fine white mottling, are shaggy looking, they lack barbules. They have large vibrissae feathers around the gape, they have a small pygostyle. Their bill is ivory and long and their legs are pale. Studies on Kapiti Island show that they prefer flax and older forest habitats. Lower numbers are found in rough grassland and scrub, indicating that either they prefer other habitats or they need a larger territory to support themselves in these areas. Little spotted kiwis eat grubs and other small insects that are found underground, eat berries. Hence the sharp talons and long beak, it digs into the ground with its talons shoves its long beak down the soft ground. Since they can't fly to get to insects or food on trees and their eyesight is poor they depend on a keen sense of smell, long beak and talons.
They dug by both birds and sometimes line the nest with plant material. The clutch size is one to two eggs, are incubated by the male for a period of 63–76 days. After hatching they require feeding for 4 weeks; the largest egg in comparison with the size of the bird is laid by the little spotted kiwi. Its egg accounts for 26 percent of its own weight—the equivalent of a human woman giving birth to a six-year-old child. At the time it was described, the species was common on the western side of the South Island and in Marlborough. A regular trade in skins sprang up and large numbers were collected for European museums. Further, with the advance of European settlement, birds were killed by prospectors and others for food and their attendant dogs and cats took their toll; the species was extinct on the North Island by 1938 when the last four South Island birds were moved from d'Urville Island to the population, established on Kapiti Island. After they were released on Kapiti Island, they were moved to Red Mercury Island, Hen Island, Tiritiri Matangi Island, Long Island in the Queen Charlotte Sound.
In 2000, about 20 little spotted kiwis were released into Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. This was the first time since the 19th century that little spotted kiwis could be found on the mainland of the North Island; as the smallest species of kiwi, the little spotted kiwi would be vulnerable to the main kiwi predators like cats and stoats, however it is now restricted to several off-shore island reserves which are free of introduced predators. The little spotted kiwi's conservation status is listed as "range restricted", with a growing population. Classified as "vulnerable" by the IUCN, it was suspected to be more numerous than assumed. Following the evaluation of its population size, this was found to be correct, it was downlisted to "near threatened" status in 2008 as, although not rare, its small range puts it at risk; the lack of predators, apart from weka, is important to its increasing numbers. It has an occurrence range of 31 km2, a population of 1600 was estimated in the year 2012. BirdLife International.
"Little Spotted Kiwi - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 6 Feb 2009. BirdLife International. "What's New". IUCN RedList. Archived from the original on 2007-08-28. Retrieved 4 Feb 2009. Davies, S. J. J. F.. "Kiwis". In Hutchins, Michael. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Ratites to Hoatzins. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Pp. 89–90, 92–93. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. Gotch, A. F.. "Kiwis". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. London: Facts on File. p. 181. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3. "Little Spotted Kiwi". Kiwis for Kiwi. Retrieved 11 December 2012. BirdLife Species Factsheet. Kiwis For Kiwi