Cham–Annamese War

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Cham–Đại Việt War of 1471
Date1471
LocationChampa, Đại Việt
Result Đại Việt victory
Belligerents
Champa Đại Việt
Commanders and leaders
P'an-Lo T'ou-Ts'iuan (POW)[1] Lê Thánh Tông
Strength
100,000 including elephant corps 300,000
Casualties and losses
60,000 -

The Cham-Đại Việt War of 1471 began when Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Đại Việt launched a military expedition that is widely regarded as an event that marked the downfall of Champa. The Đại Việt forces attacked and sacked the kingdom's capital Vijaya, and decimated the Cham army. As a result of the conflict, Champa was forced to cede territory to Annam and ceased to pose a threat to Annamese territory since then.

Invasion[edit]

The Cham and the Đại Việt has had a history of conflict. In the course of their wars, peace often came with economic exhaustion and once their economies recovered, these two kingdoms went to war again.[2] When fighting resumed in 1471, the Champa kingdom found itself weakened and isolated. It has experienced numerous civil wars and, at one point, had five different rulers.[3] For its earlier attack on Angkor, the Khmers ignored the Cham's request for assistance when Vietnam invaded.[4]

Statue of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông.

The Cham also requested Ming China to intervene by helping bring the Vietnamese back in line by force and demarcate the border between Champa and Vietnam. China, however, only verbally rebuked the Vietnamese for its incursion, which the Vietnamese ignored, proceeding with its attack and plan to destroy its rival.[5]

The Vietnamese then carried out its campaign. On November 28,[6] 1470, Le Thanh Tong formally launched his attack as a 100,000-strong Vietnamese naval expedition set out that day, followed by another Vietnamese army consisting of 150,000 men on December 8.[7]

The Vietnamese army was reorganized to copy the Chinese army, armed with gunpowder weapons. Le Thanh Tong raised a total of 300,000-strong army in the battlefied and, significantly outnumbering the 100,000-strong Cham army. This came at a massive financial cost since it drained the Vietnamese treasury of 1,000 gold liang each day.[8] However, it decisively won the war.

Aftermath[edit]

The Vietnamese conducted a genocide campaign against the Cham, slaughtering 60,000 when taking the capital. The Vietnamese committed arson and theft and burned massive parts of Champa, seizing the entire country.

The Cham representatives told the Chinese that "Annam destroyed our country". The Chinese Ming Dynasty records contain the extent of the Vietnamese destruction wrought on Champa. The Vietnamese enslaved several thousand Chams and enacted forced assimilation of Vietnamese culture onto Chams. The number included 50 members of the royal family.[9] The Chams informed China that they continued to fight against the Vietnamese occupation of their land, which had been turned into the 13th province of Vietnam.[10]

The Champa kingdom was destroyed by the invasion, leaving small rump states which lasted until 1832, when Vietnamese emperor Minh Mang initiated the final conquest of the remnants of Champa. The Vietnamese ceramics trade was severely affected due to impact suffered by the Cham merchants after the invasion.[11] The Chinese scholar 吳樸 Wu Pu recommended that to help stop the Vietnamese, China should help resuscitate the Champa Kingdom.[12]

The Chinese government sent a censor, Ch'en Chun, to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China.[13] Malacca sent envoys to China again in 1481 to inform the Chinese that while going back to Malacca in 1469 from a trip to China, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and also that the Vietnamese sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back due to lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked.[14][15]

Only a small Cham kingdom remained in the south but this did not persist. Around 162,000 Cham remain in Vietnam today.[16]

The victory allowed the Đại Việt a period of stability since it united the north under the Trinh dynasty. It also allowed the kingdom to consolidate its power in its later conflict with the Nguyen family that ruled the south.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nick Ray; Peter Dragicevich; Regis St. Louis (2007). Vietnam. Lonely Planet. pp. 278–. ISBN 978-1-74104-306-8.  Vietnam: A Travel Survival Kit. Lonely Planet Publications. 2007. p. 278.  Daniel Robinson; Robert Storey (September 1, 1993). Vietnam: a travel survival kit. Lonely Planet. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-86442-197-5. 
  2. ^ Moseley, Alexander (2002). A Philosophy of War. Algora Publishing. ISBN 1892941953. 
  3. ^ Kohn, George (1999). Dictionary of Wars. London: Routledge. p. 521. ISBN 9781135954949. 
  4. ^ Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  5. ^ Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  6. ^ Moose, Christina J. Great events from history: The Renaissance & early modern era, 1454–1600. Salem Press, 2005; pp. 4 & 83
  7. ^ Nhung Tuyet Tran, Anthony Reid. Vịêt Nam: borderless histories. University of Wisconsin Press, August 29, 2006; p. 100
  8. ^ Ben Kiernan (2009). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-300-14425-3. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  9. ^ Kohn, p. 521.
  10. ^ Ben Kiernan (2009). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-300-14425-3. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  11. ^ Angela Schottenhammer; Roderich Ptak (2006). The Perception of Maritime Space in Traditional Chinese Sources. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-447-05340-2. 
  12. ^ Yamazaki, Takeshi (April 22, 2014). "Tongking Gulf under Reconquest? Maritime Interaction Between China and Vietnam Before and After the Diplomatic Crisis in the Sixteenth Century". Crossroads - Studies on the History of Exchange Relations in the East Asian World. 8: 193–216 – via www.eacrh.net. 
  13. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 251. Retrieved January 9, 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  14. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 252. Retrieved January 9, 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  15. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved June 28, 2010. 
  16. ^ Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.