A (New York City Subway service)
The A Eighth Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored blue since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan; the A operates at all times. Daytime service operates between 207th Street in Inwood and Far Rockaway or Lefferts Boulevard in Richmond Hill, making express stops in Manhattan and Brooklyn and local stops in Queens. Limited rush hour service operates to or from Beach 116th Street in Rockaway Park, Queens. Late night service operates only between 207th Street and Far Rockaway, making local stops along its entire route; the A provides the longest one-seat ride in the system—at 32.39 miles, between Inwood and Far Rockaway—and has a weekday ridership of 600,000. The A and AA were the first services on the IND Eighth Avenue Line when it opened on September 10, 1932; the Independent Subway System used single letters to refer to express services and double letters for local services. The A ran express between 207th Street and Chambers Street/World Trade Center, the AA ran local between 168th Street and Chambers St/World Trade Center, known at the time as Hudson Terminal.
The AA used a pink bullet. During late nights and Sundays, the A did not run and the AA made all stops along the line; the A was extended to Jay Street–Borough Hall on February 1, 1933, when the Cranberry Street Tunnel to Brooklyn opened, to Bergen Street, when the extension opened on March 20. On July 1, the A began running express at all times, stopping at 155th Street and 163rd Street during late nights; the A was extended to Church Avenue on October 7. On April 9, 1936, the IND Fulton Street Line was opened to Rockaway Avenue; the 1936 extension played an integral part in the establishment of Bedford-Stuyvesant as Brooklyn's central African American community. The A train connected Harlem, Manhattan's central African American community, to areas of Bedford-Stuyvesant that provided residential opportunities for African Americans not found throughout the rest of New York City. On December 30, 1946, November 28, 1948, the line was extended to Broadway–East New York and Euclid Avenue, respectively.
On October 24, 1949, express service in Brooklyn to Broadway–East New York began with the A running express during rush hours, with the E extended to provide local service. On April 29, 1956, Grant Avenue was opened, the line was extended over the BMT Fulton Street Line to Lefferts Boulevard. On weekdays except midnights, alternate trains terminated at Lefferts Boulevard and at Euclid Avenue. During weekends, they terminated at Euclid Avenue with a shuttle to Lefferts Boulevard. Two months on June 28, 1956, the former Long Island Rail Road Rockaway Line was rebuilt to subway specifications, service began to Rockaway Park and Wavecrest. At this time, rush hour express. On September 16, 1956, the A was extended to the Rockaways, replacing the E. At the time, alternate trains continued running to Lefferts Boulevard. On January 27, 1957, non-rush hour through service to the Rockaways was discontinued and was replaced by a shuttle running between Euclid Avenue and Wavecrest. Non-rush hour A train service was now to Lefferts Boulevard.
This may be the time that the E replaced the A again in the Rockaways. On January 16, 1958, a new terminal was opened at Far Rockaway–Mott Avenue, the through connection to the Long Island Rail Road's Far Rockaway station was severed. On September 8, 1958, the A train replaced the E train in the Rockaways again. "Round-robin" service from Euclid Avenue to both Rockaway terminals began, non-rush hours, while through A service ran to Lefferts Boulevard. In September 1959, the A began to run local in Brooklyn at all times, as the E became express in Brooklyn. In 1963, the E train was extended to the Rockaways, the A train ran local to Euclid Avenue or Lefferts Boulevard at all times.. On July 9, 1967, the A train was extended to Far Rockaway middays and weekends, replacing the HH shuttle on that branch. Five years it was extended during rush hours. On January 2, 1973, the A train became the express service along Fulton Street and the E train became the local during rush hours. On August 30, 1976, the C became the Fulton Street Local during rush hours.
On August 27, 1977, the A began making local stops in Manhattan during late nights, when the AA was not running. On December 11, 1988, A trains began running local between 145th Street and 168th Street on weekends to replace the discontinued K service, express on the IND Fulton Street Line in Brooklyn during middays and rush hours, with the C providing local service during those times. On September 30, 1990, A trains began operating local between 145th Street and 168th Street during weekday evenings; until October 23, 1992, the A train ran to Lefferts Boulevard during late nights while the Far Rockaway section was served by a shuttle to Euclid Avenue. On that date this pattern was switched, with late-night A service running to Far Rockaway. Since an A shuttle provided service from Euclid Avenue to Lefferts Boulevard during late nights. In addition, special A service began running from Rockaway Park to 59th Street–Columbus Circle during the morning rush and from 59th Street–Columbus Circle to Rockaway Park during the evening rush.
On May 29, 1994, A trains began running express during between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m. between 145th Street, with C trains making l
The Old New York County Courthouse at 52 Chambers Street in Manhattan, New York City, more known as the Tweed Courthouse, was built in Italianate style with Romanesque Revival interiors, using funds provided by the corrupt William M. "Boss" Tweed, whose Tammany Hall political machine controlled the city and state governments at the time. The outer shell of the building was constructed from 1861–1872 by the architect John Kellum, with the political appointee Thomas Little. Construction was interrupted when the kickbacks and corruption involved in the construction of the building were disclosed to the public; the project was completed by architect Leopold Eidlitz who added the rear wing and interior renovations from 1877–1881, departing from Kellum's classicism with "an American version of organic architecture expressed through medieval forms". The building was designated a New York City landmark and added to the National Register of Historic Places, both in 1984, when it was called "one of the city's grandest and most important civic monuments".
It was named a National Historic Landmark in 1986 for its association with Boss Tweed, one of the nation's first big political machine operators. Modern restoration and historic preservation of the courthouse were completed in 2001, the building is now home to the New York City Department of Education; the Tweed Courthouse is the second oldest city government building in Manhattan, after City Hall. The building is composed of a central section with two projecting wings, with an addition in the center on the south facade; the entry portico on the main Chambers Street facade rises three and a half stories from a low granite curb, supported by four Corinthian columns. Panels of granite and Tuckahoe marble and Sheffield marbles are anchored to the outside of the brick structure, with rusticated stone at the basement level; this main wing was designed by Kellum in the style of the Renaissance palazzo, described as the "Anglo-Italianate" style to reveal the influence of British Victorian architecture, the foundation of the popular American Victorian style.
The southern wing of the courthouse was constructed in the Romanesque Revival style by the German-born architect and theoretician Leopold Eidlitz, who added the wide rotunda enclosing the central courtyard, which Kellum had intended to be capped with a dome, never built. On the east and west sides of the rotunda are sets of cast iron stairs that run from the first to the third floors; the pillars on the interior were faux painted to resemble marble pillars, the cast-iron handrails at the staircase were painted with a wood-grained finish. The location had been occupied by the public commons and a poorhouse. Tweed became one of the wealthiest New Yorkers of the day by using the construction of the building as a pretext to embezzle millions of dollars from the city government and the public. "Boss" Tweed stole an estimated 75 million dollars from New York City public funds. Tweed is considered one of the most corrupt politicians in United States history. Tweed assembled a ring of political allies who helped maintain his corrupt business all the while furthering his political agenda as well.
A series of disruptions culminated in the trial of "Boss" Tweed in an unfinished courtroom of this building in 1873. In 1876, Eidlitz was commissioned to complete an expanded design, redesigning the neoclassical interiors of Kellum with rich polychrome effects in Romanesque Revival style; the Tweed courthouse was finished in 1881, more than 20 years after work began. The total cost of construction was estimated in 1914 at $11 million to $12 million, but the amount of money pocketed by the Tammany Hall group is unknown; the expanded design provided thirty monumental courtrooms ranged round the central three-storey octagonal rotunda. John Kellum began his career as a house carpenter forming the firm King & Kellum in 1846 as the junior partner of Gamaliel King, architect of Brooklyn Borough Hall, the project for which he required an on-site partner; the firm designed commercial buildings, including the landmarked Cary Building at 105-107 Chambers Street, one of the earliest cast-iron facades in New York City.
Kellum started his own practice in 1860, designed several buildings for Alexander T. Stewart, including his department store at Broadway and 10th Street, which burned down in 1956, the master plan for Garden City, Long Island. Thomas Little, a political appointee of the New York City Board of Supervisors, was given ex officio credit along with Kellum. Leopold Eidlitz is best known for his work on the New York State Capitol. Eidlitz was hired in 1876 to finish the courthouse after the initial architect, John Kellum, died before completion, he domed rotunda. The Romanesque style and his extensive use of brick and stone transformed the appearance of the courthouse, in contrast to Kellum's intricate cast-iron design. In 1927, the County Court moved from the Tweed Courthouse to the new New York County Courthouse a few blocks north on Centre Street. In the spring of 1999, John G. Waite Associates began the $85 million complete restoration of the building; the firm removed as much as 18 layers of paint to reveal the original brick walls and cast iron in order to recreate the original paint colors.
The skylights and structure of the roof over the rotunda were replaced and glass tiled floors were restored and additional detail was carved into the capitals of the exterior columns at the portico, where the sheared-away entrance steps were replaced. The original ventilation shafts in the building's walls were used for modern heating and air conditioning systems to maintain the appearance of the interior spaces. In addition, the front steps, remo
Tenth Avenue (Manhattan)
Tenth Avenue, known as Amsterdam Avenue between 59th Street and 193rd Street, is a north-south thoroughfare on the West Side of Manhattan in New York City. It carries uptown traffic as far as West 110th Street. Tenth Avenue begins a block below Gansevoort Street and Eleventh Avenue in the West Village / Meatpacking District. For the southernmost stretch, Tenth Avenue runs southbound. North of 14th Street, Tenth Avenue runs uptown for 45 blocks as a one-way street. At its intersection with West 59th Street it becomes Amsterdam Avenue but continues without interruption, continuing as a one-way street northbound until Cathedral Parkway, where two-way traffic resumes; as Amsterdam Avenue, the thoroughfare stretches 129 blocks north – narrowing to one lane in each direction as it passes through Yeshiva University's Wilf Campus, between 184th and 186th Streets – before connecting with Fort George Avenue south of Highbridge Park at West 193rd Street. On the north side of Highbridge Park, unconnected to Amsterdam Avenue on the south side, Tenth Avenue runs for less than a mile from the northern terminus of the Harlem River Drive at Dyckman Street, to the intersection of West 218th Street where it merges into Broadway.
Tenth Avenue runs through the Chelsea and Hell's Kitchen neighborhoods on the west side of the borough, as Amsterdam Avenue, through the Upper West Side and Washington Heights. Much of this areas was poor for much of the 20th century; the street has long been noted for its commercial traffic, had grade-level railroad lines through the early 20th century. The Hudson River Railroad's West Side Line ran along Tenth Avenue from its intersection with West Street to the upper city station at 34th Street, after which it veered to Eleventh Avenue. Over this part of the right-of-way, the rails were laid at grade along the streets, since by the corporation regulations locomotives were not allowed, the cars were drawn by a dummy engine, according to an 1851 description, consumed its own smoke. While passing through the city the train of cars was preceded by a man on horseback known as a "West Side cowboy" or "Tenth Avenue cowboy" who gave notice of its approach by blowing a horn. However, so many accidents occurred between freight trains and other traffic that the nickname "Death Avenue" was given to both Tenth and Eleventh Avenues.
Public debate about the hazard began during the early 1900s. In 1929, the city, the state, New York Central agreed on the West Side Improvement Project, conceived by Robert Moses; the 13-mile project eliminated 105 street-level railroad crossings and added 32 acres to Riverside Park. It cost more than $150 million (about $2 billion in 2017 dollars; the part of Tenth Avenue north of West 59th Street was renamed "Amsterdam Avenue" in 1890 at the request of local merchants seeking to distance themselves from "Death Avenue" and to increase the value of their properties in an area that had yet to "catch on". The name was intended to recall the Dutch roots of Manhattan's earliest colonization in the 17th century, when the city was known as New Amsterdam, they hoped that the area would become a "the New City" and a "new, New Amsterdam." The Board of Alderman approved the name change, but only after first considering "Holland Avenue". In their approval, the Board noted that other name changes in the area – such as that of Eleventh Avenue to "West End Avenue" – had "a marked and beneficial effect on property", said that they held such name changes "as second in importance only to the advantages of increased rapid transit."Tenth Avenue and Amsterdam Avenue were converted to carry one-way traffic northbound in two stages.
South of its intersection with Broadway, the avenue was converted on November 6, 1948. The remainder, to 110th Street, was converted on December 6, 1951. Amsterdam Avenue continues to carry two-way traffic north of 110th Street. During the real estate boom of the late 20th century, Amsterdam Avenue from 59th Street to 96th Street became one of the city's most expensive residential districts; the M11 bus runs northbound along the avenue. North of 72nd Street, the M7 bus runs northbound on the avenue; as part of the 7 Subway Extension, the New York City Subway's 7 and <7> trains were extended to 34th Street in 2015. An intermediate stop, Tenth Avenue, was planned but was dropped from the official plans in 2008; the 1 train serves two stations along the Inwood portion of Tenth Avenue: 207th Street, 215th Street. A protected bike lane was installed in 2016 from 72nd Street to 110th Street; the Rodgers and Hart play On Your Toes included the comic dance number "Slaughter on Tenth Avenue", performed by Ray Bolger and Tamara Geva.
It was performed on stage and television. It has been performed by the New York City Ballet, was featured in the film version of On Your Toes, danced by Eddie Albert and Vera Zorina. In the biographical musical Words and Music, a "Slaughter on Tenth Avenue" ballet sequence is performed by Gene Kelly and Vera-Ellen. Slaughter on Tenth Avenue is the name of a 1957 crime film and the debut album of Mick Ronson in 1974. In Moscow on the Hudson, Robin Williams's character Vladimir Ivanoff lived on 1320 Amsterdam Avenue. In How I Met Your Mother, Ted Mosby is said to have lived near the corner of 75th Street and Amsterdam Avenue. In Donald E. Westlake's "Dortmunder" series of crime novels the
Manhattan Municipal Building
The David N. Dinkins Municipal Building the Municipal Building and the Manhattan Municipal Building, at 1 Centre Street in Manhattan, New York City, is a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 consolidation of the city's five boroughs. Construction began in 1907 and ended in 1914, marking the end of the City Beautiful movement in New York. William M. Kendall of the noted architectural firm McKim, Mead & White designed the building, the first to incorporate a subway station – the Chambers Street station, served by the J and Z trains – into its base. Enormously influential in the civic construction of other American cities, the building's architectural style has been "variously described as Roman Imperial, Italian Renaissance, French Renaissance, or Beaux-Arts." It served as the prototype for the Terminal Tower in Cleveland, the Wrigley Building in Chicago, in addition to the Seven Sisters in Moscow, of Stalin-era Soviet architecture. Located at the intersection of Chambers and Centre Streets, the Municipal Building stands 580 feet tall and is one of the largest governmental buildings in the world.
At present, the Municipal Building is home to "over 2,000 employees from a dozen municipal agencies in nearly 1 million square feet of office space." In the 1884 annual report of the City of New York, Mayor Franklin Edson declared that more space was badly needed for governmental functions. But he noted that City Hall was not expandable because its "style of architecture was such that without marring its present symmetry, it couldn't be enlarged to the required extent." The City's agencies rented space in various buildings strewn all the way from Downtown Manhattan up to Midtown Manhattan, with the number of such arrangements increasing by the year. The government, desiring to cut down the amount of rent paid to private landlords, held several design competitions for a new, massive building that would be suitable to house many agencies under one roof. Mayor Abram Hewitt appointed a commission to study suitable plans and plots of land in 1888, four competitions were held between that year and 1907.
The final competition was held by the Commissioner of Bridges, who had secured a new plot of land to be used for a new trolley hub at the Manhattan base of Brooklyn Bridge. Twelve architectural firms entered the last competition, the winning entry was received from William Mitchell Kendall, a young partner of McKim, Mead & White, urged to enter the contest by Mayor George B. McClellan, Jr. McKim, Mead was at the time the largest architectural firm in the world, with a staff numbering over 100. Despite their standing in the architectural community, the Manhattan Municipal Building would be their first skyscraper; the building was first occupied in January 1913, the majority of the building's offices were opened to the public by 1916. The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1966, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. On October 14, 2015, the building was renamed after former mayor David N. Dinkins; the building features various types of relief. The New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services reports: The central arch is decorated with sculpture in the Roman manner as was used in the Arch of Constantine.
Over the side arches are rectangular allegorical panels. At the left, Civic Duty is represented by a woman personifying the City, accompanied by a child holding the seal of the city. On the right of the arch, Civic Pride shows the female personification of the city receiving tribute from her citizens. Adolph Weinman, the sculptor of Civic Fame designed the shields that were used in the elevators, on the molding above the colonnade and again on the false colonnade above the 22nd floor, they represent New Amsterdam, the Province of New York, the City of New York, the County of New York and the State of New York. The central arch is large enough that automobile traffic once went through it, although in modern times the shortened Chambers Street no longer continues through to the eastern side. A screen of Corinthian columns flanks the arch; the terra-cotta vault was modeled on the entrance of the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, the south arcade has a ceiling of white Guastavino tiles. The facade of the building was restored in 1990 by Wank Adams Slavin.
At the top of the Municipal Building is the statue Civic Fame, installed in March 1913. The statue is a gilded copper figure, made from about 500 pieces of hammered copper; the statue is variously reported to be made over a steel frame. The statue was designed by Adolph Alexander Weinman, it was commissioned by New York City at a cost of $9,000 to celebrate the consolidation of the five boroughs into the City of New York. The figure -- described as "graceful and unusually charming" -- balances upon a globe, she carries various symbolic items: a shield bearing the New York City coat of arms, a branch of leaves, a mural crown, which she holds aloft. The mural crown has five crenellations or turrets, which evoke city walls and represent the five boroughs; the crown includes dolphins as a symbol of "New York's maritime setting". It is reported to be either 580 feet or 582 feet above street level. Audrey Munson posed for the figure. Munson posed for a large number of other important allegorical Beaux-Arts sculptures in New York, including those at the Alexander Hamilton U.
S. Custom House, New York Public Library, Manhattan Bridge, USS Maine National Monument at Columbus Circle; the statue has been variously described as the largest or second-largest statue in Manhattan, depending on whether t
Eleventh Avenue (Manhattan)
Eleventh Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the far West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, located near the Hudson River. Eleventh Avenue originates in the Meatpacking District in the Greenwich Village and West Village neighborhoods at Gansevoort Street, where Eleventh Avenue, Tenth Avenue, West Street intersect, it is considered part of the West Side Highway between Gansevoort Streets. Between 59th and 107th Streets, the avenue is known as West End Avenue. Both West End Avenue and Eleventh Avenue are considered to be part of the same road. Between Gansevoort Street and West 22nd Street, Eleventh Avenue is part of the West Side Highway, a wide expressway. At a split with Twelfth Avenue/West Side Highway at West 22nd Street, Eleventh Avenue continues as a standard-width avenue. Following the split, Eleventh Avenue is two-way traffic for access to 23rd Street, as well as for 24th Street to access Chelsea Piers. North of 24th Street, Eleventh Avenue is one-way southbound from 24th to 34th Streets, where two-way traffic resumes for access to the Lincoln Tunnel.
The segment between 39th and 59th Streets is home to the largest concentration of auto dealerships in Manhattan. Eleventh Avenue again becomes one-way southbound between 44th Streets; the portion north of 59th Street is called West End Avenue, which has mixed commercial and residential use. The northern 2 miles are a sedate Upper West Side residential street ending at Straus Park, 107th Street, Broadway. Traffic is bidirectional, north of 106th Street; the West Side Line of the New York Central Railroad once had on-street running along part of Eleventh Avenue, along with Tenth Avenue, become known as "Death Avenue" because of the large number of deaths that occurred due to train–pedestrian collisions. In 1929, the city, the state, New York Central agreed on the West Side Improvement Project, conceived by Robert Moses), allocated funds for an elevated railway which would eliminate the grade crossings and alleviate the problems along Tenth and Eleventh Avenues. Meanwhile, the avenue's West End Avenue section was created in the 1880s as the northern extension of Eleventh Avenue, was intended to be a commercial street serving the residents of the mansions to be constructed along Riverside Drive.
When West End Avenue was named in the 1880s, the Upper West Side was sparsely populated, that upper portion of the avenue, was called the "West End" because of its separation from the core of the city. Seeking to distinguish the area from the factories and tenements below 59th Street, a group of real estate developers renamed the northern portions of the West Side's avenues. Portions of both West End Avenue and Eleventh Avenue were run down in the mid-20th century, with single room occupancy hotels and drug addicts a common sight; the city's economic comeback in the 1980s brought gentrification. The upper portion of the avenue retains stretches of late nineteenth-century town houses and several handsome churches and synagogues, but is entirely made up of handsome residential buildings about twelve stories tall built in the first decades of the twentieth century; the near total absence of retail on that part of the street marks its quiet, residential character, as opposed to the high-traffic, noisy character of Eleventh Avenue.
The architecture of buildings on Eleventh and West End Avenues differs significantly. West End Avenue is noteworthy for its unbroken street wall of handsome apartment buildings punctuated by brief stretches of nineteenth-century townhouses and several handsome churches and synagogues. Notable architecturally historicist houses of worship include: Ansche Chesed, in Byzantine Revival style Saint Ignatius of Antioch Episcopal Church in English Gothic revival style West End Collegiate Church in Dutch Colonial, a subset of Renaissance Revival style Annunciation Greek Orthodox ChurchAmong the more notable apartment buildings are: The Apthorp Cleburne Building at 105th Street 520 West End Avenue, the former Leech mansion, now landmarkedEleventh Avenue, meanwhile, is lined with new-age residential buildings – such as 100 Eleventh Avenue – adjacent to warehouses and car dealerships. Between 34th and 59th Streets there are a lot of car dealerships: Mercedes-Benz is located across from the westbound Lincoln Tunnel portal, BMW and Lexus at the intersection with West 57th Street.
Manhattan Motorcars at 270 Eleventh Avenue sells many brands of luxury and sports cars. Other companies with dealerships on the avenue include Audi, Jaguar, Jeep/Chrysler/Dodge, Nissan, Toyota; as well, numerous vehicle service stations, car washes, car rental lots are found along this stretch. This area has served the transport trade for more than a hundred years, it is not uncommon to hear the clip clop of horses as a result. The carriage horses live in historic stables built in the 19th century, but today boast the latest in barn design, such as fans, misting systems, box stalls, state-of-the-art sprinkler systems; as horses always have in densely populated urban areas, the carriage horses live upstairs in their stables while the carriages are parked below on the ground floor. One historic district lies on Eleventh Avenue, the West Chelsea Historic District, designated in 2008. Two segments of West End Avenue lie within designated New York City historic districts: both sides of the avenue from West 87th to West 94th Streets can be found in the Riverside-West End His
John Jay was an American statesman, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, the first Chief Justice of the United States. He directed U. S. foreign policy for much of the 1780s and was an important leader of the Federalist Party after the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788. Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and New York City government officials of French and Dutch descent, he became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence, organizing opposition to British policies in the time preceding the American Revolution. Jay was elected to the Second Continental Congress, served as President of the Congress. From 1779 to 1782, Jay served as the ambassador to Spain, he served as a negotiator of the Treaty of Paris, in which Britain recognized American independence. Following the end of the war, Jay served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, directing United States foreign policy under the Articles of Confederation government.
He served as the first Secretary of State on an interim basis. A proponent of strong, centralized government, Jay worked to ratify the United States Constitution in New York in 1788, he was a co-author of The Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, wrote five of the 85 essays. After the establishment of the new federal government, Jay was appointed by President George Washington the first Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1789 to 1795; the Jay Court experienced a light workload. In 1794, while serving as Chief Justice, Jay negotiated the controversial Jay Treaty with Britain. Jay received a handful of electoral votes in three of the first four presidential elections, but never undertook a serious bid for the presidency. Jay served as the Governor of New York from 1795 to 1801. Long an opponent of slavery, he helped enact a law that provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves, the institution of slavery was abolished in New York in Jay's lifetime. In the waning days of President John Adams's administration, Jay was confirmed by the Senate for another term as Chief Justice, but he declined the position and retired to his farm in Westchester County, New York.
The Jays were a prominent merchant family in New York City, descended from Huguenots who had come to New York to escape religious persecution in France. In 1685 the Edict of Nantes had been revoked, thereby abolishing the rights of Protestants and confiscating their property. Among those affected was Jay's paternal grandfather, Augustus Jay, he moved from France with his sister Saint Jay to the Virginia Colonies and New York, where he built a successful merchant empire. Jay's father, Peter Jay, born in New York City in 1704, became a wealthy trader in furs, wheat and other commodities. Jay's mother was Mary Van Cortlandt, in the Dutch Church, they had ten children together. Mary's father, Jacobus Van Cortlandt, had been born in New Amsterdam in 1658. Cortlandt served on the New York Assembly, was twice mayor of New York City, held a variety of judicial and military offices. Two of his children married into the Jay family. Jay was born on December 1745, in New York City. Jay spent his childhood in Rye.
He was educated there by his mother until he was eight years old, when he was sent to New Rochelle to study under Anglican priest Pierre Stoupe. In 1756, after three years, he would return to homeschooling in Rye under the tutelage of his mother and George Murray. In 1760, Jay attended King's College, now known as Columbia University, as an undergraduate, he entered college at the age of 14. During this time, Jay made many influential friends, including his closest, Robert Livingston, the son of a prominent New York aristocrat and Supreme Court justice. Jay took the same political stand as a staunch Whig. In 1764 he graduated from King's College and became a law clerk for Benjamin Kissam, a prominent lawyer and sought-after instructor in the law. In addition to Jay, Kissam's students included Lindley Murray. In 1768, after reading law and being admitted to the bar of New York, with the money from the government, established a legal practice and worked there until he created his own law office in 1771.
He was a member of the New York Committee of Correspondence in 1774 and became its secretary, his first public role in the revolution. Jay represented the conservative faction, interested in protecting property rights and in preserving the rule of law, while resisting what it regarded as British violations of American rights; this faction feared the prospect of "mob rule". He believed the British tax measures were wrong and thought Americans were morally and justified in resisting them, but as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774, Jay sided with those who wanted conciliation with Parliament. Events such as the burning of Norfolk, Virginia, by British troops in January 1776 pushed Jay to support independence. With the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he worked tirelessly for the revolutionary cause and acted to suppress the Loyalists. Jay evolved into first a moderate, an ardent Patriot, because he had decided that all the colonies' efforts at reconciliation with Britain were fruitles
J/Z (New York City Subway service)
The J Nassau Street Local and Z Nassau Street Express are two rapid transit services in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Their route emblems, or "bullets", are colored brown since they use the BMT Nassau Street Line in Lower Manhattan; the J operates at all times while the Z, operating internally as its rush-hour variant, runs with six trips in each peak direction on weekdays. When the Z operates, the two services form a skip-stop pair between Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK Airport and Marcy Avenue. On weekdays during midday and rush hours, J/Z trains run express in each peak direction in Brooklyn between Myrtle Avenue and Marcy Avenue, bypassing three stations. At all other times, only the J operates; the current J/Z descends from several routes, including the JJ/15 between Lower Manhattan and 168th Street in Queens. The current skip-stop pattern was implemented in 1988; the Jamaica Line – known as the Broadway Elevated – was one of the original elevated lines in Brooklyn, completed in 1893 from Cypress Hills west to Broadway Ferry in Williamsburg.
It was a two-track line, with a single local service between the two ends, a second east of Gates Avenue, where the Lexington Avenue Elevated merged. This second service became the 12, was eliminated on October 13, 1950 with the abandonment of the Lexington Avenue Elevated; the second major service on the Broadway Elevated ran between Canarsie and Williamsburg via the BMT Canarsie Line, started on July 30, 1906, when the Broadway and Canarsie tracks were connected at East New York. As part of the Dual Contracts, an extension from Cypress Hills east to Jamaica was completed on July 3, 1918, a third track was added west of East New York, express trains began running on it in 1922; the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation numbered its services in 1924, the Canarsie and Jamaica services became 14 and 15. Both ran express during rush hours in the peak direction west of East New York. Express trains would only stop at Myrtle Avenue, Essex Street and Canal Street, before making local stops afterwards.
Additional 14 trains, between Eastern Parkway or Atlantic Avenue on the Canarsie Line and Manhattan provided rush-hour local service on Broadway. When the 14th Street–Eastern Line and Canarsie Line were connected on July 14, 1928, the old Canarsie Line service was renamed the Broadway Line, providing only weekday local service over the Broadway Elevated west of Eastern Parkway; the Atlantic Avenue trips remained, rush-hour trains continued to serve Rockaway Parkway, though they did not use the Broadway express tracks. The 14 was cut back to only rush-hour service. On the Manhattan end, the first extension was made on September 16, 1908, when the Williamsburg Bridge subway tracks opened. Broadway and Canarsie trains were extended to the new Essex Street terminal, further to Chambers Street when the line was extended on August 4, 1913; when the BMT Nassau Street Line was completed on May 30, 1931, the 15 was extended to Broad Street, the 14 was truncated to Canal Street. Some 14 trains began terminating at Crescent Street on the Jamaica Line in 1956.
Manhattan–bound rush hour skip-stop service between Jamaica and East New York was implemented on June 18, 1959, with trains leaving 168th Street on weekdays between 7 AM and 8:30 AM. Express 15 trains served "A" stations, while the morning 14 became the Jamaica Local, running between Jamaica and Canal Street, stopped at stations marked "B". Express 15 trains continued to run express between Eastern Parkway and Canal Street, making only stops at Myrtle Avenue, Essex Street, Canal Street; these stations were as follows: All trains: 168th Street • Sutphin Boulevard • 75th Street–Elderts Lane • Eastern Parkway • Myrtle Avenue • Essex Street • Canal Street "A" stations: 168th Street • Sutphin Boulevard • 121st Street • 111th Street • Woodhaven Boulevard • 85th Street–Forest Parkway • Elderts Lane • Crescent Street • Cleveland Street • Eastern Parkway "B" stations: 168th Street • 160th Street • Sutphin Boulevard • Queens Boulevard • Metropolitan Avenue • 104th Street • Elderts Lane • Cypress Hills • Norwood Avenue • Van Siclen Avenue • Alabama Avenue • Eastern ParkwayLetters were assigned to most BMT services in the early 1960s.
The BMT Jamaica services retained their numbers until November 1967. The 15 became the QJ, the 14 became the JJ; when the Chrystie Street Connection opened on November 26, 1967, many services were changed. The two local services - the JJ and KK - were combined as the JJ, but without any major routing changes, thus non-rush hour JJ trains ran between Jamaica and Broad Street, while morning rush hour JJ trains ran to Canal Street, afternoon rush hour JJ trains ran between Canal Street and Atlantic Avenue or Crescent Street. The rush-hour express J was combined with the weekday QT Brighton Local via tunnel to form the weekday QJ, running between Jamaica and Brighton Beach via the Jamaica Line, BMT Nassau Street Line, Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Brighton Line; the RJ was a special peak-direction rush-hour service, running local on the Jamaica Line, Nassau Street Line, Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Fourth Avenue Line to 95th Street in Fort Hamilton. This was an extension of a former rush-hou