La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle
La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle is a station of the Paris Métro, at the interconnection of lines 6, 8 and 10 in the 15th arrondissement, near the 7th arrondissement. The station combines elevated platforms, it is named after the Avenue de la Motte-Picquet and the Boulevard de Grenelle, as the station is located at the intersection of these two streets. It is a major Paris Metro interconnection on the Rive Gauche, the most important west of Montparnasse; the elevated station first opened on 24 April 1906, as part of the extension of line 2 Sud from Passy to Place d'Italie. On 14 October 1907, line 2 Sud was incorporated into line 5. On 12 October 1942 the section of line 5 between Étoile and Place d'Italie, including La Motte-Picquet Grenelle, was transferred to Line 6. On 13 July 1913, underground platforms were opened as part of the original section of line 8 between Beaugrenelle and Opéra via La Motte-Picquet Grenelle; the section of line 8 from La Motte-Picquet Grenelle to Charles Michels and Porte d'Auteuil was transferred to line 10 on 27 July 1937 when line 8 was extended to Balard and an underground track for line 10 was opened linking La Motte-Picquet Grenelle with Duroc.
Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte was a Louis XV and Louis XIV era Admiral of the French Royal Navy, noted for his involvement in French naval support for the Americans during the American Revolutionary War, notably in the Battle of Grenada and the Siege of Savannah. The quartier of Grenelle was constituted as a peripheral commune to Paris during the second quarter of the 19th century and incorporated into the city in 1860 by the Baron Haussmann under Napoléon III. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Réseau Express Régional
The Réseau Express Régional abbreviated RER, is a hybrid suburban commuter/rapid transit system serving Paris and its suburbs. The RER combines the operations and roles of a local city-centre underground rail system and suburbs-to-city-center commuter rail. Inside the city center, the RER functions much like the Métro, but is faster as it has fewer stops; this has made it a model for proposals to improve transit within other cities. The network consists of five lines: A, B, C, D and E; the network has 257 stations and has several connections with the Paris Métro within the city of Paris. The lines are identified by letters to avoid confusion with the Métro lines, which are identified by numbers; the RER is still expanding: Line E, which opened in 1999, is planned for westward extension in two phases by 2020–2022. The RER contains 257 stations, 33 of which are within the city of Paris, runs over 587 km of track, including 76.5 km underground. Each line passes through the city exclusively underground and on dedicated tracks.
The RER is operated by RATP, the transport authority that operates most public transportation in Paris, by SNCF, the national rail operator. In spite of this, the system uses a single fare structure and no transfer is needed between sections run by the two operators. Total traffic on the central sections of lines A and B, operated by RATP, was 452 million people in 2006. RATP manages 65 RER stations, including all stations on Line A east of Nanterre-Préfecture and those on the branch to Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it operates stations on Line B South of Gare du Nord. Other stations on the two lines and those on lines C, D and E are operated by SNCF. Of the RER stations operated by RATP, 9 have interchanges with Métro lines, 9 allow transfer to SNCF's Transilien service; the origins of the RER can be traced back to the 1936 Ruhlmann-Langewin plan of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris for a "métropolitain express". The company's post-war successor, RATP, revived the scheme in the 1950s, in 1960 an interministerial committee decided to go ahead with the construction of an east-west line.
Subsequently, the central part of the RER was completed between 1962 and 1977 in a large-scale civil engineering project whose chief supervisor was Siavash Teimouri. As its instigator, RATP was granted authority to run the new link; the embryonic RER was not properly conceived until the 1965 Schéma directeur d'aménagement et d'urbanisme, which envisioned an H-shaped network with two north-south routes. Between 1969 and 1970 RATP purchased the Vincennes and Saint-Germain lines from SNCF, as the basis for the east-west link. Only a single north-south route crossing the Left Bank has so far come to fruition, although the Métro's line 13 has been extended to perform a similar function. In the first phase of construction, the Vincennes and Saint-Germain lines became the ends of the east-west Line A, the central section of, opened station by station between 1969 and 1977. On its completion, Line A was joined by the initial southern section of the north-south Line B. During this first phase, six new stations were built, three of which are underground.
Construction was inaugurated by Robert Buron Minister for Public Works, at the Pont de Neuilly on 6 July 1961, four years before the publication of the official network blueprint. The rapid expansion of the La Défense business district in the west made the western section of the first line a priority. Nation, the first new station, was opened on 12 December 1969 and temporarily became the new western terminus of the Vincennes line; the section from Étoile to La Défense was opened a few weeks later. It was subsequently extended eastward to the newly built Auber station on 23 November 1971, westward to Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 1 October 1972; the latter extension was achieved by a connection to the existing Saint-Germain-en-Laye line, the oldest railway line into Paris, at Nanterre. The RER network came into being on 9 December 1977 with the joining of the eastern Nation-Boissy segment and the western Auber-Saint-Germain-en-Laye segment at Châtelet – Les Halles; the southern Ligne de Sceaux was extended from Luxembourg to meet Line A at Châtelet – Les Halles, becoming the new Line B.
The system of line letters was introduced to the public on this occasion, though it had been used internally by RATP and SNCF for some time. A second phase, from the end of the 1970s, was carried out more slowly. SNCF gained the authorisation to operate its own routes, which became lines C, D and E. Extensive sections of suburban tracks were added to the network, but only four new stations were built. In this time period, the network was completed in the following stages: Line C was added in 1979, involving the construction of a link between Invalides and Musée d'Orsay. Line B was extended to Gare du Nord in 1981 with a new deep tunnel from Châtelet – Les Halles, it was subsequently extended further northward. Line D was completed in 1995 with the construction of a deep tunnel between Châtelet – Les Halles and Gare de Lyon. No new building work was necessary at Châtelet – Les Halles, as additional platforms for Line D had been built at the time of the station's construction 20 years earlier. Line E was added in 1999, connecting the north-east with Gare Saint-Lazare by means of a new deep
The Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is built the tower. Constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world; the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris, its base is square. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to lift to the first and second levels; the climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is accessible only by lift; the design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".
Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, the two engineers asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments; the new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin and Sauvestre had taken out, the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars..
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887; this was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years, he established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds; these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, painters, sculptors and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name
Invalides (Paris Métro and RER)
Invalides is a Metro & RER station on lines 8 and 13 of the Paris Métro and on RER line C in the 7th arrondissement, located near and named after les Invalides. The metro station was opened on 13 July 1913 as part of the original section of Line 8 between Beaugrenelle and Opéra; the line 13 platforms were opened on 20 December 1923 as part of the original section of line 10 between Invalides and Croix Rouge. On 27 July 1937 the section of line 10 between Invalides and Duroc was transferred to become the first section of old line 14, connected under the Seine and incorporated into line 13 on 9 November 1976; the Palais Bourbon, seat of the French National Assembly, is nearby. Métro 8 Métro 13 RER C The RER station was opened on 31 May 1902 by the Chemins de fer de l'Ouest, it was a terminus but was extended to Gare d'Orsay & the line converted to RER C in 1979. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER Invalides at Transilien, the official website of SNCF
Paris Métro Line 6
Line 6 is one of the sixteen lines of the Paris Métro rapid transit system. Following a semi-circular route around the southern half of the city above boulevards formed by the former wall of the'Fermiers généraux' built between 1784 and 1791, it runs between Charles de Gaulle – Étoile in the west and Nation in the east. Opened between 1900 and 1906 from Étoile to Place d'Italie, Line 6 was called 2 sud or circulaire sud, before being integrated for a long time with Line 5, while the section heading east to Nation opened in 1909. At that time, Line 6 took its current form. 13.6 km in length, of which 6.1 km are above ground, equipped with rubber-tyred rolling stock since 1974, it is one of the most pleasant lines on the Métro. This is due in part due to is numerous views, sometimes exceptional, of many of Paris' most famous landmarks and monuments. With more than 100 million riders in 2004, it is the sixth busiest line of the network. 2 October 1900: The section between Étoile and Trocadéro opened as an extension of line 1.
6 November 1903: The line was extended from Trocadéro to Passy and became known as line 2 Sud. 24 April 1906: Line 2 Sud was extended from Passy to Place d'Italie. 14 October 1907: Line 2 Sud from Étoile to Place d'Italie was incorporated into line 5. 1 March 1909: Line 6 was opened between Place d'Italie and Nation. 12 October 1942: The Étoile – Place d'Italie section was transferred from line 5 to the line 6 in order to separate the underground and elevated sections of the metro. 1974: The rails were converted for rubber-tyred trains Initially, the planners of the Métro envisaged a loop line similar to the Circle line of the London Underground that followed the route of the Wall of the Farmers-General. However, the difficulties of operating such a line forced a separation of the circle into two lines: the north and south circulators. An initial plan was to run trains from Gare d'Austerlitz to Gare de Lyon, from there operate along Line 1 to Nation; the abandonment of the project allowed designers to choose a new route via Place d'Italie to Nation.
The northern circulator, now Line 2, opened in 1903, while the tracks from Étoile to Trocadéro opened on 2 October 1900 as part of a branch of Line 1 meant to serve the World Expo of that year. The line was extended southward to Passy three years but was not opened and only allowed four-car trains. Work on the line was not difficult, apart from the occasional sewer displacements and land stabilisation around Denfert-Rochereau due to old mines. On the other hand, the crossing of the Seine at Passy was much trickier; the original bridge, built in 1878, was replaced with one made of metal supporting the railway viaduct above. To the east, another bridge had to be built above the Pont de Bercy. Finished in 1864, it was enlarged by 5.5 m in order to hold the Métro and is the only viaduct in the system made of stone. Both the overpasses and underground stations in this section were designed to those of Line 2 Nord, although elevated stations on the southern half are covered with side-walls made of brick, not glass.
On 24 April 1906, the line from Étoile to Place d'Italie opened. In October of the next year, it was decided to merge the circulaire sud with Line 5, as a result running trains between Étoile and Gare du Nord via Austerlitz; this consolidation eliminated the 2 Sud designation. Following the bombardment of Paris during World War I, elevated rapid transit lines became a defence system. Trains were no longer lit at night from February to July 1918. However, underground trains became dark and resulted in complaints from passengers and employees. La compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, which operated Line 5, was authorised to make electrical and lighting changes. At the time, Line 6 was confined to the railway between Place Nation. Infrastructure works were completed in 1906, but the CMP was in no hurry to open what was perceived as a low-profiting stretch of track. Upon the urging of the City of Paris, the CMP opened Line 6 on 1 March 1909 and remained this way until 1931, when the need for a link across the southern part of the city was needed to provide access to a cultural exhibition at the Bois de Vincennes.
Engineers decided upon Line 6 taking over the section west of Place d'Italie so as to create a line from Étoile to Nation, with Line 5 ending at Place d'Italie. After the exhibit closed, the old service pattern returned. On 6 October 1942, at the height of the German occupation of the city, Line 6 was continually operated; the northern extension of Line 5 to Pantin elongated the line. A change in Line 6's operation occurred during the 1970s: Kléber station was expanded to four tracks with two island platforms, a rare arrangement in the Paris Métro, converted to the line's control terminal, with Étoile acting as a simple turn-around stop. After doing the same to Lines 1, 4, 11, the RATP decided in 1971 to convert Line 6 to rubber-tyres for the sake of noise and vibration reduction not only to passengers but residents near the elevated portions of the line. Work began the next year and finished in May 1974. During this time, a temporary yard was created with 810 m of track to facilitate vehicle movement.
American Church in Paris
The American Church in Paris is the first American church established outside the United States. It traces its roots back to 1814, the present church building - located at 65 Quai d'Orsay in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France - dates to 1931; the closest métro station is Invalides In 1814, American Protestants started worshiping together in homes around Paris and at the Oratoire du Louvre temple. The first American sanctuary was built on rue de Berri; the American Church in Paris was as now, an interdenominational fellowship, for all those adhering to the historic Christian tradition as expressed in the Apostles' Creed. It served both the expatriate American community, a wide variety of other English-speaking people from different countries and denominational backgrounds; the American Church continues to minister to many Anglophone Protestants in Paris, with multicultural programming, a congregation coming from some 40 nations and 35 Christian denominations. The church is led in worship by the senior pastor, associate pastor, youth pastor and a retired guest pastor who handles weddings.
Its staff is diverse in terms of background and denomination. It is run by a church council represented by a committee of ministries namely: Communications, Community Life, Christian Education and Property, Finance and Stewardship, Human Resources and Evangelism, Mission Outreach, Worship and Music; the building hosts two bilingual nursery schools, a variety of Twelve-step program recovery groups, fitness classes, kung fu, basketball leagues, a free concert series, an ad board for housing and job opportunities. Many more community-based services are housed in the church building; the church spire and the Eiffel Tower Views of the Church American Cathedral in Paris American Church in Berlin American Church in Rome The Scots Kirk Cochran, Joseph W.. Friendly Adventurers a Chronicle of the American Church of Paris. Paris: Brentano's. ASIN B000J0NSKA. Official website A Glimpse of Heaven a Documentary Film on the American Church in Paris