Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M
Champagne-Ardenne is a former administrative region of France, located in the northeast of the country, bordering Belgium. Corresponding to the historic province of Champagne, the region is known for its sparkling white wine of the same name; the administrative region was formed in 1956, consisting of the four departments Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne. On 1 January 2016, it merged with the neighboring regions of Alsace and Lorraine to form the new region Grand Est, thereby ceasing to exist as an independent entity, its rivers, most of which flow west, include the Seine, the Marne, the Aisne. The Meuse flows north. A4 connecting Paris and Strasbourg and serving the Reims metropolitan area A5 connecting Paris and Dijon and serving Troyes and Chaumont A26 connecting Calais and Troyes and serving Reims and Châlons-en-Champagne A34 connecting Reims and the Belgian border and serving Charleville-Mézières The rail network includes the Paris–Strasbourg line, which follows the Marne Valley and serves Épernay, Châlons-en-Champagne, Vitry-le-François.
The LGV Est TGV line connecting Paris and Strasbourg opened in 2007 and serves Reims with a train station in the commune of Bezannes. The region's canals include the Canal latéral à la Marne and Marne-Rhine Canal, the latter connecting to the Marne at Vitry-le-François; these are petit gabarit canals. The Vatry International Airport dedicated to air freight, has a runway 3,650 m long; the airport is in a sparsely populated area just 150 km from Paris. 61.4% of its land is dedicated to agriculture 1st in France for the production of barley and alfalfa 2nd in France for the production of beets and peas 3rd in France for the production of tender wheat and rapeseed. 282.37 km² of vineyards Champagne sales in 2001: 263 million bottles of which 37.6% were exported. 25% of French hosiery production 3rd metallurgic region in France Verreries Mécaniques de Champagne Produits Métallurgiques à Reims Vallou Champagne-Céréales France-Luzerne Béghin-Say The population of Champagne-Ardenne has been in steady decrease since 1982 due to a rural exodus.
With 1.3 million people and a density of 52/km², it is one of France's least populated regions. After a brief period of stabilization in the 1990s, the region's population is now among the fastest "dying" in Europe, with several municipalities losing people at a faster rate than a lot of Eastern European areas in the Haute-Marne department; the region is among the oldest in France, has a weak fertility rate, its immigrant population, while growing, is still minimal compared to the national average. Châlons-en-Champagne Charleville-Mézières Chaumont Épernay Reims Saint-Dizier Sedan Troyes Ardennes Champagne Riots Champagne Official website https://web.archive.org/web/20061013154125/http://www.cr-champagne-ardenne.fr/ Champagne-Ardenne at Curlie Champagne-Ardenne travel guide from Wikivoyage
King Arthur was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are composed of folklore and literary invention, his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians; the sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain; the legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh otherworld Annwn.
How much of Geoffrey's Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Although the themes and characters of the Arthurian legend varied from text to text, there is no one canonical version, Geoffrey's version of events served as the starting point for stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who established a vast empire. Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur, Arthur's conception at Tintagel, his final battle against Mordred at Camlann, final rest in Avalon; the 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table.
Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only in literature but in adaptations for theatre, television and other media; the historical basis for King Arthur has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae, sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons some time in the late 5th to early 6th century; the Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Badon. Recent studies, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum; the other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which link Arthur with the Battle of Badon.
The Annales date this battle to 516–518, mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have been used to bolster confidence in the Historia's account and to confirm that Arthur did fight at Badon. Problems have been identified, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonum's account; the latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it that early, they were more added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Badon entry derived from the Historia Brittonum; this lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him".
These modern admissions of ignorance are a recent trend. The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur. So, he found little to say about a historical Arthur. In reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's Age of Arthur prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". Gildas' 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written within living memory of Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Arthur is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820, he is absent from Bede's early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon. The historian David Dumville wrote: "I think.
He owes his place in our history books to a'no smoke without fire' school of thought... The f
Champagne (wine region)
The Champagne wine region is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine. EU law and the laws of most countries reserve the term "Champagne" for wines that come from this region located about 100 miles east of Paris; the viticultural boundaries of Champagne are defined and split into five wine producing districts within the historical province: Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, Vallée de la Marne. The towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area. Reims is famous for its cathedral, the venue of the coronation of the French Kings and a Unesco world heritage site. Located at the northern edges of France, the history of the Champagne wine region has had a significant role in the development of this unique terroir; the area's proximity to Paris promoted the region's economic success in its wine trade but put the villages and vineyards in the path of marching armies on their way to the French capital.
Despite the frequency of these military conflicts, the region developed a reputation for quality wine production in the early Middle Ages and was able to continue that reputation as the region's producers began making sparkling wine with the advent of the great Champagne houses in the 17th and 18th centuries. The principal grapes grown in the region include Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Pinot Meunier. Pinot noir is the most planted grape in the Aube region and grows well in Montagne de Reims. Pinot Meunier is the dominant grape in the Vallée de la Marne region; the Côte des Blancs is dedicated exclusively to Chardonnay. The Champagne province is located near the northern limits of the wine world along the 49th parallel; the high altitude and mean annual temperature of 10 °C creates a difficult environment for wine grapes to ripen. Ripening is aided by the presence of forests which helps to stabilize temperatures and maintain moisture in the soil; the cool temperatures serve to produce high levels of acidity in the resulting grape, ideal for sparkling wine.
During the growing season, the mean July temperature is 18 °C. The average annual rainfall is 630 mm, with 45 mm falling during the harvest month of September. Throughout the year, growers must be mindful of the hazards of fungal disease and early spring frost. Ancient oceans left behind chalk subsoil deposits. Earthquakes that rocked the region over 10 million years ago pushed the marine sediments of belemnite fossils up to the surface to create the belemnite chalk terrain; the belemnite in the soil allows it to absorb heat from the sun and release it during the night as well as providing good drainage. This soil contributes to the lightness and finesse, characteristic of Champagne wine; the Aube area is an exception with predominately clay based soil. The chalk is used in the construction of underground cellars that can keep the wines cool through the bottle maturation process; the Carolingian reign saw periods of prosperity for the Champagne region beginning with Charlemagne's encouragement for the area to start planting vines and continuing with the coronation of his son Louis the Pious at Reims.
The tradition of crowning kings at Reims contributed to the reputation of the wines that came from this area. The Counts of Champagne ruled the area as an independent county from 950 to 1316. In 1314, the last Count of Champagne assumed the throne as King Louis X of France and the region became part of the Crown territories; the location of Champagne played a large role in its historical prominence as it served as a "crossroads" for both military and trade routes. This made the area open to devastation and destruction during military conflicts that were waged in the area. In 451 A. D. near Châlons-en-Champagne Attila and the Huns were defeated by an alliance of Roman legions and Visigoths. This defeat was a turning point in the Huns' invasion of Europe. During the Hundred Years' War, the land was ravaged and devastated by battles; the Abbey of Hautvillers, including its vineyards, was destroyed in 1560 during the War of Religion between the Huguenots and Catholics. This was followed by conflicts during the Thirty Year War and the Fronde Civil War where soldiers and mercenaries held the area in occupation.
It was not until the 1660s, during the reign of Louis XIV, that the region saw enough peace to allow advances in sparkling wine production to take place. The region's reputation for wine production dates back to the Middle Ages when Pope Urban II, a native Champenois, declared that the wine of Aÿ in the Marne département was the best wine produced in the world. For a time Aÿ was used as a shorthand designation for wines from the entire Champagne region, similar to the use of Beaune for the wines of Burgundy; the poet Henry d'Andeli's work La Bataille des Vins rated wines from the towns of Épernay and Reims as some of the best in Europe. As the region's reputation grew and royalty sought to own pieces of the land with Pope Leo X, Francis I of France, Charles V of Spain, Henry VIII of England all owning vineyard land in the region. A batch of wine from Aÿ received in 1518 by Henry VIII's chancellor, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, is the first recorded export of wine from the Champagne region to England.
The still wines of the area were prized in Paris under the designation of vins de la rivière and vins de la montagne- wines of the river and wines of the mountain in reference to the wooded terrain and the river Marne which carried the wines down to the Seine and into Paris. The region was in competition with Burg
Champagne is sparkling wine. Many people use the term Champagne as a generic term for sparkling wine but in some countries, it is illegal to label any product Champagne unless it both comes from the Champagne region and is produced under the rules of the appellation. In the EU countries only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France can be labelled as Champagne. Where EU law applies, this alcoholic drink is produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes from specific parcels in the Champagne appellation and specific pressing regimes unique to the region; the grapes Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, Chardonnay are used in the production of all Champagne, but a tiny amount of pinot blanc, pinot gris and petit meslier are vinified as well. Champagne appellation law allows only grapes grown according to appellation rules in designated plots within the appellation to be used in the production of Champagne.
Champagne became associated with royalty in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. The leading manufacturers made efforts to associate their Champagnes with nobility and royalty through advertising and packaging, which led to popularity among the emerging middle class; the most prestigious Champagne cellars are located in the cities of Epernay. Still wines from the Champagne region were known before medieval times; the Romans were the first to plant vineyards in this area of north-east France, with the region being tentatively cultivated by the 5th century. In fact, cultivation was slow due to the unpopular edict by Emperor Domitian that all colonial vines must be uprooted; when Emperor Probus, the son of a gardener, rescinded the edict, a temple to Bacchus was erected, the region started to produce a red and fruity wine that contrasted with heavier Italian brews fortified with resin and herbs. Churches owned vineyards and monks produced wine for use in the sacrament of Eucharist. French kings were traditionally anointed in Reims, champagne was served as part of coronation festivities.
The Champenois were envious of the reputation of the wines made by their Burgundian neighbours to the south and sought to produce wines of equal acclaim. However, the northerly climate of the region gave the Champenois a unique set of challenges in making red wine. At the far extremes of sustainable viticulture, the grapes would struggle to ripen and would have bracing levels of acidity and low sugar levels; the wines would be lighter bodied and thinner than the Burgundy wines they were seeking to outdo. Contrary to legend and popular belief, Dom Pérignon did not invent sparkling wine, though he did make important contributions to the production and quality of both still and sparkling Champagne wines; the oldest recorded sparkling wine is Blanquette de Limoux, invented by Benedictine monks in the Abbey of Saint-Hilaire, near Carcassonne in 1531. They achieved this by bottling. Over a century the English scientist and physician Christopher Merret documented the addition of sugar to a finished wine to create a second fermentation, six years before Dom Pérignon set foot in the Abbey of Hautvillers.
Merret presented a paper at the Royal Society, in which he detailed what is now called méthode champenoise, in 1662. Merret's discoveries coincided with English glass-makers' technical developments that allowed bottles to be produced that could withstand the required internal pressures during secondary fermentation. French glass-makers at this time could not produce bottles of the required strength; as early as 1663 the poet Samuel Butler referred to "brisk champagne". In France the first sparkling champagne was created accidentally. At the time, bubbles were considered a fault. In 1844 Adolphe Jaquesson invented the muselet to prevent the corks from blowing out. Initial versions were inconvenient to remove; when it was deliberately produced as a sparkling wine, champagne was for a long time made by the méthode rurale, where the wine was bottled before the initial fermentation had finished. Champagne did not use the méthode champenoise until the 19th century, about 200 years after Merret documented the process.
The 19th century saw an exponential growth in champagne production, going from a regional production of 300,000 bottles a year in 1800 to 20 million bottles in 1850. In 2007, champagne sales hit an all-time record of 338.7 million bottles. In the 19th century champagne was noticeably sweeter than the champagnes of today; the trend towards drier champagne began when Perrier-Jouët decided not to sweeten his 1846 vintage before exporting it to London. The designation Brut Champagne was created for the British in 1876; the Champagne winemaking community, under the auspices of the Comité Interprofessionnel du vin de Champagne, has developed a comprehensive set of rules and regulations for all wine produced in the region to protect its economic interests. They include codification of the most suitable growing places; this includes pruning, vineyard yield, the degree of pressing, the time that wine must remain on its lees before bottling. It can limit the release of Champagne to market to maintain prices.
The Round Table is King Arthur's famed table in the Arthurian legend, around which he and his knights congregate. As its name suggests, it has no head, implying that everyone; the table was first described in 1155 by Wace, who relied on previous depictions of Arthur's fabulous retinue. The symbolism of the Round Table developed over time. Though the Round Table is not mentioned in the earliest accounts, tales of Arthur having a marvelous court made up of many prominent warriors is ancient. Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his Historia Regum Britanniae says that, after establishing peace throughout Britain, Arthur "increased his personal entourage by inviting distinguished men from far-distant kingdoms to join it." The code of chivalry so important in medieval romance figures in as well, as Geoffrey says Arthur established "such a code of courtliness in his household that he inspired peoples living far away to imitate him."Arthur's court was well known to Welsh storytellers. The fame of Arthur's entourage became so prominent in Welsh tradition that in the additions to the Welsh Triads, the formula tying named individuals to "Arthur's Court" in the triad titles began to supersede the older "Island of Britain" formula.
Though the code of chivalry crucial to continental romances dealing with the Round Table is absent from the Welsh material, some passages of Culhwch and Olwen seem to reference it. For instance, Arthur explains the ethos of his court, saying "e are nobles as long as we are sought out: the greater the bounty we may give, the greater our nobility and honour."Though no Round Table appears in the early Welsh texts, Arthur is associated with various items of household furniture. The earliest of these is Saint Carannog's mystical floating altar in that saint's 12th century Vita. In the story Arthur tries unsuccessfully to use it as a table. Elements of Arthur's household figure into local topographical folklore throughout Britain as early as the early 12th century, with various landmarks being named "Arthur's Seat", "Arthur's Oven", "Arthur's Bed-chamber". A henge at Eamont Bridge near Penrith, Cumbria is known as "King Arthur's Round Table"; the still-visible Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon has been associated with the Round Table, it has been suggested as a possible source for the legend.
Following archaeological discoveries at the Roman ruins in Chester, some writers suggested that the Chester Roman Amphitheatre was the true prototype of the Round Table. The Round Table first appeared in Wace's Roman de Brut, a Norman language adaptation of Geoffrey's Historia finished in 1155. Wace says Arthur created the Round Table to prevent quarrels among his barons, none of whom would accept a lower place than the others. Layamon added to the story when he adapted Wace's work into the Middle English Brut in the early 13th century, saying that the quarrel between Arthur's vassals led to violence at a Yuletide feast. In response, a Cornish carpenter built an enormous but transportable Round Table to prevent further dispute. Wace claims; some scholars have doubted this claim. There is some similarity between the chroniclers' description of the Round Table and a custom recorded in Celtic stories, in which warriors sit in a circle around the king or lead warrior, in some cases feuding over the order of precedence as in Layamon.
There is a possibility that Wace, contrary to his own claims, derived Arthur's round table not from any Breton source, but rather from medieval biographies of Charlemagne—notably Einhard's Vita Caroli and Notker the Stammerer's De Carolo Magno—in which the king is said to have possessed a round table decorated with a map of Rome. The Round Table takes on new dimensions in the romances of the late 12th and early 13th century, where it becomes a symbol of the famed order of chivalry which flourishes under Arthur. In Robert de Boron's Merlin, written around the 1190s, the magician Merlin creates the Round Table in imitation of the table of the Last Supper and of Joseph of Arimathea's Holy Grail table; this table, here made for Arthur's father Uther Pendragon rather than Arthur himself, has twelve seats and one empty place to mark the betrayal of Judas. This seat must remain empty until the coming of the knight; the Didot Perceval, a prose continuation of Robert's work, takes up the story, the knight Percival sits in the seat and initiates the Grail quest.
The prose cycles of the 13th century, the Lancelot-Grail cycle and the Post-Vulgate Cycle, further adapt the chivalric attributes of the Round Table. Here it is the perfect knight Galahad, rather than Percival, who assumes the empty seat, now called the Siege Perilous. Galahad's arrival marks the start of the Grail quest as well as the end of the Arthurian era. In these works the Round Table is kept by King Leodegrance of Cameliard after Uther's death. Other versions treat the Round Table differently, for instance Arthurian works from Italy like La Tavola Ritonda distinguish between the "Old Table" of Uther's time and Arthur
Auvergne is a former administrative region of France, comprising the four departments of Allier, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal and Haute-Loire. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes; the administrative region of Auvergne is larger than the historical province of Auvergne, one of the seven counties of Occitania, includes provinces and areas that were not part of Auvergne. The Auvergne region is composed of the following old provinces: Auvergne: departments of Puy-de-Dôme, northwest of Haute-Loire, extreme south of Allier; the province of Auvergne is contained inside the Auvergne region Bourbonnais: department of Allier. A small part of Bourbonnais is contained inside the Centre-Val de Loire region. Velay: centre and southeast of department of Haute-Loire. Velay is contained inside the Auvergne region. A small part of Gévaudan: extreme southwest of Haute-Loire. Gévaudan is inside the Languedoc-Roussillon region. A small part of Vivarais: extreme southeast of Haute-Loire.
Vivarais is inside the Rhône-Alpes region. A small part of Forez: extreme northeast of Haute-Loire. Forez is inside the Rhône-Alpes region. Velay, Gévaudan, Vivarais are considered to be sub-provinces of the old province of Languedoc. Forez is often considered to be a sub-province of Lyonnais. Therefore, the modern region of Auvergne is composed of the provinces of Auvergne, major part of Bourbonnais, parts of Languedoc and Lyonnais; the region is home to a chain of volcanoes known collectively as the "chaîne des Puys". The last confirmed eruption was around 4040 BCE; the volcanoes began forming some 70,000 years ago, most have eroded, leaving plugs of hardened magma that form rounded hilltops known as puys. Auvergne has an area of 26,013 square kilometres, 4.8% of France's total area. Auvergne is one of the smallest regions in France. Auvergne is known for dormant volcanoes. Together the Monts Dore and the Chaîne des Puys include 80 volcanoes; the Puy de Dôme is the highest volcano in the region, with an altitude of 1,465 metres.
The Sancy Massif in the Monts Dore is the highest point in Auvergne. The northern part is covered in hills, while the southern portion is mountainous and dotted with pastures; the Forest of Tronçais is the largest oak forest in Europe. Auvergne has two major rivers in Auvergne: the Loire runs through the southeast and borders the northeast, the Allier runs from north to south down the center of Auvergne, with branches going east and west. Over many years the Allier river has created. Auvergne has about 50 freshwater lakes; some have volcanic origins. Lac de Guéry is the highest lake in Auvergne. Auvergne is bordered to the north by the region of Centre-Val de Loire, by five former administrative regions: Rhône-Alpes to the east, Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées to the south, Limousin to the west, Burgundy to the north; the average annual temperature is 12 °C, the region receives 510–1,020 mm of rainfall annually. There are short summers; the region of Auvergne was named after one of the most powerful Gallic tribes.
It was composed of the Gabali, the Vellavi, the Cadurci, whose sphere of influence included the regions of Languedoc and Aquitaine. Vercingetorix was elected king in 52 BC, his father, his predecessor, had been killed by his companions who opposed Celtillos' goal of making the title hereditary. In the winter of 53/52 BC, Vercingetorix created alliances with all the Celtic tribes surrounding him by holding as hostages daughters or sons of the kings of each tribe. With this threat, he gained their guarantees of faithfulness and alliance. Based on reports in 2007 of excavations by archaeologists, the capital of the Arverni is believed to have been situated between Gergovie, Corent and several other significant areas within a 35 km range. Researchers estimate a population of 150,000 inhabitants living in the centre of this area, a total of more than 400,000 inhabitants living in the region of these towns; the Arverni were one of the most powerful and wealthy tribes in ancient Gaul: They were protected by their location in a mountainous area, which provided strong defenses from outside attackers They had resources: numerous mines of gold and other precious metals The uplands had pastures available for grazing of cattle and sheep herds Their artisans mastered metalworking and complex craftwork, Vercingetorix is described with "a big armor made of many assembled silver pieces, reflecting the sun", in particular copperwork They minted their own money, had strong trade with nearby tribes They had ceramic manufacture They had influence on nearby tribes and were able to rally the Aedui during the revolt of Vercingetorix.
A shrine in Auvergne marks the Battle of Gergovia. Based on scholars' interpretation of books by Caesar, it took place about 12 km from present-day Clermont-Ferrand. Vercingetorix beat. Roman troops won a victory in Alesia in Burgundy. Roman legionaries had established over several hundred metres, they took him to Rome, where he was imprisoned. Augustoneme