Edward James Corbett was a British hunter, tracker and author who hunted a number of man-eating tigers and leopards in India. Corbett held the rank of colonel in the British Indian Army and was called upon by the Government of the United Provinces, now the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, to kill man-eating tigers and leopards that were preying on people in the nearby villages of the Garhwal and Kumaon regions, he authored Man-Eaters of Kumaon, Jungle Lore, other books recounting his hunts and experiences, which enjoyed critical acclaim and commercial success. On in life, Corbett became an avid photographer and spoke out for the need to protect India's wildlife from extermination. Corbett was born of Irish ancestry in the town of Nainital in the Kumaon of the Himalaya, he grew up in a large family of sixteen children and was the eighth child of Christopher William Corbett and his wife Mary Jane who had married Dr Charles James Doyle of Agra, who died at Etawah in 1857. His parents had moved to Nainital in 1862, after Christopher Corbett had quit military service and been appointed the town's postmaster.
In winters the family used to move to the foothills, where they owned a cottage named "Arundel" in the village now known as Kaladhungi. Mary Jane was influential in Nainital social life among Europeans and she became a kind of real estate agent for European settlers. Christopher William retired from the position of postmaster in 1878, he died a few weeks after a heart attack on 21 April 1881. Jim was aged six and his eldest brother Tom took over as postmaster of Nainital. From a early age, Jim was fascinated by the forests and wildlife around his home in Kaladhungi. Through frequent excursions, he learned to identify birds by their calls. Over time he became a good hunter, he studied at Oak Openings School. Before he was nineteen he quit school and found employment with the Bengal and North Western Railway working as a fuel inspector at Manakpur in the Punjab, subsequently as a contractor for the trans-shipment of goods across the Ganges at Mokameh Ghat in Bihar. During his life Corbett shot a number of leopards and tigers.
Corbett provided estimates of human casualties in his books, including Man-Eaters of Kumaon, The Man-Eating Leopard of Rudraprayag, The Temple Tiger, More Man-Eaters of Kumaon. Calculating the totals from these accounts, these big cats had killed more than 1,200 men and children, according to Corbett. There are some discrepancies in the official human death tolls that the British and Indian governments have on record and Corbett's estimates; the first designated man-eating tiger he killed, the Champawat Tiger, was responsible for 436 documented deaths. Though most of his kills were tigers, Corbett killed at least two man-eating leopards; the first was the Panar Leopard in 1910, which killed 400 people. The second was the man-eating Leopard of Rudraprayag in 1926, which terrorized the pilgrims on the holy Hindu shrines Kedarnath and Badrinath for more than eight years, was said to be responsible for more than 126 deaths. Other notable man-eaters he killed were the Talla-Des man-eater, the Mohan man-eater, the Thak man-eater, the Muktesar man-eater and the Chowgarh tigress.
Analysis of carcasses and preserved remains show that most of the man-eaters were suffering from disease or wounds, such as porcupine quills embedded deep in the skin or gunshot wounds that had not healed, like that of the Muktesar Man-Eater. The Thak man-eating tigress, when skinned by Corbett, revealed two old gunshot wounds. In the foreword of Man Eaters of Kumaon, Corbett writes: The wound that has caused a particular tiger to take to man-eating might be the result of a carelessly fired shot and failure to follow up and recover the wounded animal, or be the result of the tiger having lost his temper while killing a porcupine Corbett preferred to hunt alone and on foot when pursuing dangerous game, he hunted with Robin, a small dog he wrote about in Man-Eaters of Kumaon. Corbett bought his first camera in the late 1920s and—inspired by his friend Frederick Walter Champion—started to record tigers on cine film. Although he had an intimate knowledge of the jungle, it was a demanding task to obtain good pictures, as the animals were exceedingly shy.
A popular misconception is that Corbett never killed a tiger without confirmation of its killing people. However, Corbett killed the unusually large and most sought after Bachelor of Powalgarh though this tiger had never killed a human. Corbett took to lecturing groups of schoolchildren about their natural heritage and the need to conserve forests and their wildlife, he promoted the foundation of the Association for the Preservation of Game in the United Provinces and the All-India Conference for the Preservation of Wildlife. Together with Champion, he played a key role in establishing India's first national park in the Kumaon Hills, the Hailey National Park named after Lord Malcolm Hailey; the park was renamed in Corbett's honour in 1957. Corbett empathized with the poor living in and around the Corbett village or Kaladhoongi in the United Province; as a railway contractor, he employed scores of Indians at Mokameh Ghat. While dedicating his book My India to "...my friends, the poor of India", he writes "It is of these people
A professional hunter, less referred to as market or commercial hunter and regionally in Britain and Ireland, as professional stalker or gamekeeper, is a person who hunts and/or manages game by profession. Some professional hunters work in the private sector or for government agencies and manage species that are considered overabundant, others are self-employed and make a living by selling hides and meat, while still others are guiding big-game hunters. In Australia several million kangaroos are shot each year by licensed professional hunters in population control programmes, with both their meat and hides getting sold. German professional hunters work for large private forest estates and for state-owned forest administrations, where they control browsing by reducing the numbers of roe deer, etc. or manage populations of sought after trophy species like red deer and act as hunting guides for paying clients. British professional stalkers and gamekeepers work on large estates in Scotland, where they manage red deer, common pheasant, red grouse and French partridge.
In their heyday at the outset of the 20th century an estimated 25,000 professional stalkers and gamekeepers were employed in the UK, while today there are some three thousand. In a North American context the terms market and commercial hunter are used to refer the hunters of the 19th and early 20th century, who sold or traded the flesh, and/or skins and feathers of slain animals as a source of income; these hunters focused on species which gathered in large numbers for breeding, feeding, or migration and was organized into factory-like groups that would systematically depopulate an area of any valuable wildlife over a short period of time. The animals which were hunted included bison, deer and other waterfowl, geese and many other birds and walruses, river mussels, clams. Populations of large birds were depleted through the 19th and early 20th century. At the time of European discovery, migratory flocks a mile wide and hundreds of miles long contained billions of passenger pigeons flying so together that they darkened the sky for hours as they passed overhead.
In Michigan 25,000 pigeons were killed daily for a month in 1874 before the flocks disappeared at the end of the century. Migratory flocks of millions of Eskimo curlews were harvested up to 7,000 birds per day. Market hunters used punt guns in Long Island Sound, Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay to harvest Atlantic Flyway waterfowl; the last known breeding colony of great auks on Funk Island was destroyed for feathers sold to stuff pillows and mattresses. Herons and egrets were hunted for their long, filamentous nuptial plumage used in the millinery trade from 1840 until prices rose to $32 per ounce in 1903. Heath hens were exterminated from the mainland by 1835, were extinct within a century; the extermination of several species and the threatened loss of others caused popular legislation prohibiting this form of commercial hunting in the United States. Hunting seasons were established to conserve surviving wildlife and allow a certain amount of recovery and re-population to occur; the Migratory Bird Treaty Act signed in 1918 regulated hunting and prohibited all hunting of wood ducks until 1941 and swans until 1962.
Hunting Trapping Dickson, Barney. Hutton, Jonathan. Adams, W. M.. Recreational Hunting and Rural Livelihoods.. Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 9781444303179. Gissibl, B.. The conservation of luxury: Safari hunting and the consumption of wildlife in twentieth-century East Africa. In K. Hofmeester & B. Grewe, Luxury in Global Perspective: Objects and Practices, 1600–2000. Cambridge University Press. Doi:10.1017/9781316257913.011. Jacoby, Karl. Crimes against Nature: Squatters, Poachers and the Hidden History of American Conservation. Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 9780520282292. Lovelock, Brent. Tourism and the consumption of wildlife: hunting and sport fishing. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-93432-6. Van der Merwe, Peet. Game hunting tourism. African Sun Media. ISBN 978-0-9922359-1-8
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Champawat is a town and a Nagar Palika Parishad in Champawat district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Champawat district; the town was the former capital of the Kumaon Kingdom. Champawat is believed to be the place; these days there is a temple called Kranteshwar Mandir, dedicated to lord Shiva. It is believed that the head of'Ghatotkacha fell here after he died in battle the of Mahabharata; the Gahtku Mandir is the temple dedicated to Ghatotkacha. Champawat was the capital of the Chand dynasty rulers of Kumaon; the Baleshwar Temple built by the Chand rulers in the 12th century is an excellent monument with marvelous stone carving works. There is a Famous Temple Shaani Mandir in Maurari Village. Champawat lies in the southeast of the North Indian state of Uttarakhand, it is in the eastern part of the Kumaon Himalayas at an average elevation of 1,615 metres. It is located at 29.33°N 80.10°E / 29.33. The city of Champawat lies in the Champawat district of Uttarakhand, carved out from the Pithoragarh district by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in 1997.
Champawat has a Humid subtropical climate with distinct dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Champawat enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year; the average temperature for the year in Champawat is 24.6 °C. The warmest month, on average, is June with an average temperature of 32.1 °C. The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 14.3 °C. The average amount of precipitation for the year in Champawat is 1,239.5 millimetres. The month with the most precipitation on average is July with 358.1 millimetres of precipitation. The month with the least precipitation on average is November with an average of 2.5 millimetres. There are an average of 43.8 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in August with 10.9 days and the least precipitation occurring in November with 0.6 days. Due to its cooler temperatures Champawat is a popular conduit for tourists visiting Pithoragarh, Dharchula and other mountain towns; the long winding sealed roads leading up to Champawat through Tanakpur are a popular route for motorcycle enthusiasts.
Champawat has multiple guesthouses for individuals visiting the town. Bal Mithai of Champawat is famous for its unique taste. Champawat had a population of 4801 in 2011 within its administrative limits on a land area of 5 km2, 21.3% up from 3958 in 2001. Out of the total Population, 2,543 are males while 2,258 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0–6 is 554, 11.54% of total population of Champawat. In Champawat, Female Sex Ratio is of 888 against state average of 963. Moreover Child Sex Ratio in Champawat is around 748 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890. Literacy rate of Champawat city is 91.69% higher than state average of 78.82%. The Male literacy is around 95.91% while female literacy rate is 87.04%. Schedule Caste constitutes 18.60 %. Out of total population, 1,356 were engaged in business activity. Of this 1,103 were males. Of total 1356 working population, 95.28% were engaged in Main Work while 4.72% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work.
Advaita Ashrama Champawat Tiger Gurudwara Reetha Sahib Champawat city, Official website Champwat website from Government of India Portal
Tigress of Jowlagiri
The Tigress of Jowlagiri was a man-eating Bengal tigress responsible for the deaths of 15 people over an area extending Jowlagiri in the extreme north, to Gundalam 30 miles to the south. She was killed by Kenneth Anderson; the tigress first made her presence known by calling in the vicinity of a village in the Jowlagiri Forest Range, after a poacher killed her mate. After a week, a young hunter named Jack Leonard arrived at the village and concealed himself behind an anthill at 5 in the afternoon. At 6:15, Leonard fired at her, wounding her shoulder; the tigress bounded off into the impenetrable jungle, where the terrain proved too harsh for Leonard to pursue her. A few months at the village of Sulekunta seven miles from Jowlagiri, the tigress claimed her first human victim. Kenneth Anderson was informed of the subsequent attacks by the Sub-Collector of Hosur. By this time, 15 people, including three girls, one just married, had been killed by the tigress. Anderson was unsuccessful. Anderson moved camp to Gundalam 23 miles away at the southern limit of the affected area, where the majority of attacks had been reported.
Seven herdsman had been taken in this area in the previous four months. Anderson received three domestic buffalo baits from the Sub-Collector. Anderson explored the forest with his.405 Winchester, finding fresh tracks two days on the sand of the Gundalam river. The buffalo was untouched; the next day, a group of men from a hamlet a mile south of Anchetty, saying that a man had been killed by the tigress in his cattle pen. Upon arriving at Anchetty, Anderson followed the tigress’ trail, where he found the victim’s body dragged deep into the surrounding jungle. Positioning himself above the corpse on a high ledge, Anderson hoped to catch the tigress when she returned to finish her meal. After waiting several hours in the dark, Anderson sensed the tigress’ presence, upon turning around, saw the tigress above him, ready to pounce. Anderson shot one of the tigress' ears off, causing her to retreat from the site. Anderson remained in the locality of Gundalam for a further 10 days with no success in tracking the tigress.
On the eleventh day, he left Gundalam for his home in Bangalore, promising the Sub-Collector that he would return should another attack be reported. Three months Anderson received a verified account of a tiger in Gundalam involving an old priest being killed at the door of a temple in Sulekunta. Anderson went to Gundalam to learn more of the attack. All eyewitnesses to the attack and others confirmed. Three days Anderson received news from Jowlagiri stating that the night-watchman of Jowlagiri Forest Reserve had been killed. Knowing that the tigress would not strike at the same place twice in a row, Anderson returned to the temple at Sulekunta with 12 men, where the tigress was heard calling. Anderson imitated the calls; when the tigress approached, Anderson recognized her by her missing ear. Before the tigress could realise the deception, Anderson fired his.405 into her forehead and finished the animal with a shot to the back of the neck. Anderson expressed regret at his strategy, having written.
“The Man-Eater of Jowlagiri”, from Nine Man-Eaters and One Rogue, Kenneth Anderson, Allen & Unwin, 1955
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Guild Wars 2
Guild Wars 2 is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed by ArenaNet and published by NCSOFT. Set in the fantasy world of Tyria, the game follows the re-emergence of Destiny's Edge, a disbanded guild dedicated to fighting the Elder Dragons, a Lovecraftian species that has seized control of Tyria in the time since the original Guild Wars; the game takes place in a persistent world with a story. Guild Wars 2 claims to be unique in the genre by featuring a storyline, responsive to player actions, something, common in single player role-playing games but seen in multiplayer ones. A dynamic event system replaces traditional questing, utilising the ripple effect to allow players to approach quests in different ways as part of a persistent world. Of note is the combat system, which aims to be more dynamic than its predecessor by promoting synergy between professions and using the environment as a weapon, as well as reducing the complexity of the Magic-style skill system of the original game.
As a sequel to Guild Wars, Guild Wars 2 features the same lack of subscription fees that distinguished its predecessor from other commercially developed online games of the time, though until August 2015 a purchase was still required to install the game. As reported by NCsoft and ArenaNet, by September 13, despite temporarily halting first-party sales, the game has sold over 2 million copies. By August 2013, the peak player concurrency had reached 460,000. By August 2015, over 5 million copies had been sold, at which point the base game became free-to-play. Guild Wars 2 uses a modified version of the proprietary game engine developed for Guild Wars by ArenaNet; the modifications to the engine include real-time 3D environments, enhanced graphics and animations and the use of the Havok physics system. The developers say the engine now does justice to the game's critically acclaimed concept art, that concept art will be integrated into the way the story is told to the player. Guild Wars 2 allows a player to create a character from a combination of five races and eight professions, the five races being the humans and charr, introduced in Prophecies, the asura and norn, introduced in Eye of the North, the sylvari, a race exclusive to Guild Wars 2.
The professions, three of which do not appear in Guild Wars, are divided into armor classes: "scholars" with light armor, "adventurers" with medium armor, "soldiers" with heavy armor. There is no dedicated healing class as the developers felt that making it necessary for every party to have a healer was restrictive; the race and profession of the player determines the skills. Guild Wars 2, like Guild Wars, uses a skill-based combat system, whereby players must select only 10 skills from a much larger pool, introducing an element of strategy. However, unlike Guild Wars, skill slots have predefined roles: the first five are determined by player's weapon and profession, the sixth is for healing, the seventh through ninth will be skills with no defined roles that are unlocked as the game progresses, the tenth slot will be for an "elite" skill, initially locked. In a departure from the high number of skills present in Guild Wars, Guild Wars 2 will focus on quality of skills over quantity and will reduce the overall number of game modes to reduce balancing complexity — one of the most common issues present in MMORPGs.
The low level cap of Guild Wars has been replaced with one at 80, which the developers state strikes the correct balance between allowing for character development and avoiding forcing players into the grind-based gameplay that too accompanies a high level cap, the elimination of, a core design principle of the original Guild Wars. Player versus environment features a scaling system that lowers the players level and stats to reflect the levels of monsters, thereby maintaining a global level of difficulty. In player versus player, a player will have access to all skills and items, compete at the fixed level 80, so that all players will be on a level playing field. In addition to the small-scale, tactical combat described above, the game features "World versus World", large scale combat taking place in a persistent world independent of the main world. Players are able to drop in and out "on the fly" and possess the ability to construct siege weapons, with rewards commensurate with their success.
Guild Wars 2 offers eight crafting disciplines, allowing the player to practice two at a time, with a fee for switching. While there are basic recipes to follow, the player can experiment with different combinations of ingredients to discover new recipes; as the game is set 250 years after its predecessor, players are unable to carry over their characters. However, the achievements and honors accumulated by all the characters on players' Guild Wars accounts; each achievement earns points which confer certain bonuses in Guild Wars 2. The accounts of both games must be linked in order to acquire these bonuses. Guild Wars 2 takes place in the high fantasy world of Tyria, 250 years after the players' defeat of the Great Destroyer in the Eye of the North expansion. Five so-called Elder Dragons sleeping beneath the continent have awoken in the time since Guild Wars, causing widespread destruction to Tyria and corrupting its inhabitants; the once dominant humans of Tyria are in decline, supplanted from most of their land by natural disasters and war with the Charr, who have reclaimed the last vestiges of their ancestral homeland of Ascalon from the humans.
To the north, the Norn, a proud race of Nordic hunters, have been forced south by the rise of Jormag, the elder dragon of ice. In the west, the technologically advanced Asura have been forced to establish permanent home