A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Hostels provide lower-priced, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, private rooms may be available. In the 2010s, hostels have wifi access. Hostels are cheaper for both the operator and occupants than hotels. In India and South Africa, hostel refers to boarding schools or student dormitories in resident colleges and universities. In other parts of the world, the word hostel refers to properties offering shared accommodation to travellers or backpackers. In 1912, in Altena Castle in Germany, Richard Schirrmann created the first permanent Jugendherberge or "Youth Hostel." These first youth hostels were an exponent of the vision of the German Youth Movement to let poor city youngsters breathe fresh air outdoors. The youths were supposed to manage the hostel themselves as much as possible, doing chores to keep the costs down and build character, be physically active outdoors; because of this, many youth hostels closed during the middle part of the day.
There are several differences between hostels and hotels, including: Hostels tend to be budget-oriented. Hostels tend to have single beds in a shared room, rather than private rooms. For those who prefer an informal environment, hostels do not have the same level of formality as hotels. For those who prefer to socialize with their fellow guests, hostels have more common areas and opportunities to socialize; the dormitory aspect of hostels increases the social factor. Hostels are self-catering, with a shared kitchen that all the guests use to make their food. Hostels close during the day to keep down cost. Hostels lack the extra amenities provided in hotel rooms. There is less privacy in a hostel than in a hotel. Sharing sleeping accommodation in a dormitory is different from staying in a private room in a hotel or bed and breakfast, might not be comfortable for those requiring more privacy. For some hostel users, the shared accommodation makes it easier to meet new people; some hostels encourage more social interaction between guests due to the shared sleeping areas and communal areas such as lounges and internet cafes.
Lounges have sofas and chairs, coffee tables, board games, books and Internet access. The lounge provides a location for social activities. Washing machines and tumble driers are provided for cleaning and drying clothes, with pay machines used. Care should be taken with personal belongings, as guests may share a common living space, so it is advisable to secure guests' belongings against theft. Most hostels offer some sort of system for safely storing valuables, an increasing number of hostels offer private lockers. Noise can make sleeping difficult on occasions, whether from snoring and social activities in the lounge, people staying up to read with the light on, someone either returning late from bars, or leaving early, or the proximity of so many people. To mitigate this, some wear earplugs and/or eye-covering sleeping masks. In attempts to attract more visitors, many hostels nowadays provide additional services not available, such as airport shuttle transfers, internet cafés, swimming pools and spas, tour booking and carfree hire.
Some hostels may include food in the price. The traditional hostel format involved dormitory style accommodation; some newer hostels include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms, though to be considered a hostel they must provide dormitory accommodation. In recent years, the numbers of independent and backpackers' hostels have increased to cater for the greater numbers of overland, multi-destination travellers; the quality of such places has improved dramatically. While most hostels still insist on a curfew, daytime lockouts few require occupants to do chores apart from washing and drying up after food preparation. Richard Schirrmann's idea of hostels spread overseas and resulted in Hostelling International, an organisation composed of more than 90 different youth hostel associations representing over 4,500 youth hostels in over 80 countries; some HI Youth Hostels cater more to school-aged children and parents with their children, whereas others are more for travellers intent on learning new cultures.
However, while the exploration of different cultures and places is emphasised in many hostels in cities or popular tourist destinations, there are still many hostels providing accommodation for outdoor pursuits such as hillwalking and bicycle touring. In 2017, Hostelling International reported that it has added hotels and package resorts to their networks in addition to hostels. Despite their name, in most countries membership is not limited to youth. Independent hostels are not affiliated with one of the national bodies of Hostelling International, Youth Hostel Association or any other hostel network; the word independ
Lydia Welti Escher, was a Swiss patron of the arts and the daughter of Augusta Escher-Uebel and Alfred Escher, among others the founder of the Gotthardbahn. Lydia Escher was one of the richest women of Switzerland in the 19th century, patron of the arts and established the Gottfried Keller Foundation. Lydia Escher was born into the Escher vom Glas family, an old and influential Zürich family dynasty, as daughter of Augusta Escher-Uebel and Alfred Escher. A scandal surrounding Alfred Escher's immediate forebears had, damaged her family line's reputation. Hans Caspar Escher-Werdmüller had fathered a child out of wedlock with a maidservant in 1765 and emigrated, his son Hans Caspar Escher-Keller brought Zürich to financial ruin when he went bankrupt. Alfred Escher's father Heinrich Escher made a new fortune through speculative land deals and trading in Northern America. In 1814 Heinrich returned to Zürich and married Lydia Zollikofer in May 1815, having two children and Alfred. In 1857 Alfred Escher married Augusta Escher-Uebel: Lydia was born in 1858, but her sister Hedwig died while still a baby.
Lydia's suicide on 12 December 1891 brought the end to Alfred Escher's family line. Lydia Escher's grandfather Heinrich Escher had built the country house Belvoir on the left shore of Zürichsee in the village of Enge, as of today a district of the city of Zürich, where Lydia grew up and lived. Heinrich Escher was able to devote himself to his passion for botany and his entomological collection, cared by her father, by Lydia. At the age of four years, Lydia lost her younger sister, Lydia's mother died in 1864. So Alfred Escher was able to see his daughter several times a day, he rented for Lydia and her governess an apartment near his workplace in the city of Zürich. Since he is no longer married, Lydia is becoming a close friend and started to support his work actively. Alfred Escher tried as as possible to spend time with his daughter, they maintained a cordial relationship. Lydia Escher's youth differed from those of other young women of Zürich from bourgeois origin: Lydia conducted her father's correspondence, ran the household in the Belvoir estate, she grew into the role of the hostess and entertainer of the numerous guests of Alfred Escher, among them the Swiss poet Gottfried Keller, a fatherly friend.
Lydia Escher was a self-confident young woman, who read extensively, mastered several languages and gladly attended music and theatre performances. In her letters to her childhood friend, the painter Louise Breslau, she told to take singing and piano lessons, Lydia was inspired by her creative genius. In addition to personal attacks from political opponents, Lydia's father faced serious health problems, he suffered repeated bouts of ill health throughout his life and on many occasions was obliged to spend long periods in convalescence. During the critical phase of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel construction in the mid-1870s, Escher nearly worked himself to death. In 1878 he fell so badly ill, his life became a constant alternation between recovery. However, fulfilling his political and business obligations, in late November 1882 Alfred Escher fell badly ill again, in the morning of 6 December 1882 Alfred Escher died on his Belvoir estate. Throughout, Escher has been lovingly cared of his daughter, she was regarded to be his only confidante, who oversaw much of his correspondence and accompanied her father on his many travels.
Because the relationship between Alfred Escher and his former protege Emil Welti had deteriorated before, Escher was against Lydia's engagement with Welti's son Friedrich Emil. Since the engagement was published, Lydia married after her father's death on 4 January 1883. Friedrich Emil Welti was the son of the Swiss Federal Councillor Emil Welti, one of the most powerful people in Switzerland, former companion and opponent of Lydia's father. Welti rose in the Swiss economic circles thanks to his marriage with Lydia and sat on numerous board of directors. Meanwhile, Lydia Welti-Escher bored not fulfilled by the management of Welti's comparatively modest household, was missing interesting guests and stimulating conversations as she had in her father's household. Through her husband, she came in contact with his childhood friend Karl Stauffer-Bern, a known Swiss painter, in August 1885, henceforth Stauffer was on occasion of his travels to Zürich a guest at the Belvoir mansion. In his own atelier in the spacious park area, Stauffer portrayed Lydia Escher, but Lydia's fatherly friend Gottfried Keller.
Lydia and Emil Welti-Escher enabled Stauffer to work in Rome. In October 1889 Lydia and her husband moved to Florence, but shortly after, Friedrich Emil Welti went for financial reasons back to Switzerland, left his wife in care of Karl Stauffer. Lydia and Stauffer fell in love, Lydia told to Stauffer's mother to marry him. In 1888, still under the sponsorship of his patrons, the Welti-Escher family, Karl Stauffer-Bern went to Rome to study sculpture. While there, the liaison of Lydia Welti-Escher with him got in the public focus, the Welti family was outraged, Lydia and Karl escaped to Rome; the divorce from her husband was proposed, but Welti contacted the Swiss Embassy in Rome and used his considerable influence to separate them. Lydia was placed in a public insane asylum in Rome, Stauffer-Bern was jailed after being charged with kidnapping and rape. While staying there, Lydia posted th
Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation; the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a great influence on the canton, which consists of the city and its hinterlands. Geneva was controlled by the Allobroges tribe until 121 BC, it was annexed to the Roman Empire in 121 BC and remained part of it until 443. In 443, Burgundians took over Geneva. In 532, the land controlled by Burgundians became part of the Frankish Empire. Geneva became a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy in 888. Geneva became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1032 and remained in it until the Peace of Westphalia; the Prince-Bishopric of Geneva was a Prince-Bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 1154, but from 1290, secular authority over the citizens was divided from the bishop's authority, at first only lower jurisdiction, the office of vidame given to François de Candie in 1314, but from 1387 the bishops granted the citizens of Geneva full communal self-government.
As from 1416, the Dukes of Savoy attempted to annex the city, both by claiming secular authority and by installing members of the Savoy dynasty as bishops, the city sought assistance in allying itself with the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, given a constitution in 1543; the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an "everlasting ally" in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, in February 1794, the Republic gave itself a new, revolutionary constitution which proclaimed the equality of all citizens. After the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. Robespierre's death prompted the French invasion of 1798, the annexation of Geneva which became the capital of the French département du Léman; the Napoleonic army left Geneva on December 30, 1813, on the next day the return of the Republic was proclaimed.
Geneva joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Congress of Vienna. The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers; the canton is surrounded on all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on the northeast. The adjoining French départements are Haute-Savoie; the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton. Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 13 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2017: Genève, 200,548 residents Vernier, 35,132 residents Lancy, 31,942 residents Meyrin, 24,144 residents Carouge, 22,336 residents Onex, 18,977 residents Thônex, 14,091 residents Versoix, 13,329 residents Le Grand-Saconnex, 12,131 residents Chêne-Bougeries, 11,862 residents Veyrier, 11,540 residents Plan-les-Ouates, 10,697 residents Bernex, 10,007 residents The constitution of the canton was established in 1847 and has, since been amended several times.
The cantonal government has seven members. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time; the last election was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, any change to the Constitution is subject to compulsory referendum. In addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, 10,000 persons may propose a new law; the Republique and Canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council. On 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was The Liberals which received three seats with 20.5% of the votes. The next two most popular parties were the Social Democratic Party with 3 seats, followed by UDC/SVP with two seats, the Christian Democratic People's Party, Green Party, the Geneva Citizens' Movement each with one seat. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 42.9%. On 8/16 November 2015, in the federal election, Councilor Liliane Maury Pasquier, member of the Social Democratic Party, was re-elected in the second round as Conseillère des États of the canton of Geneva with a majority of 44,215 votes.
She is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the second round with a majority of 42,075 votes, he is part of the Council of States since 2007. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Combined with the SD for this election The population of the canton is 495,249. As of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40.1% of the total population. The population of the canton, as of December
The river Arve flows for 100 km through France, in the département of Haute-Savoie, in Switzerland. It is a left tributary of the Rhône. Rising in the northern side of the Mont Blanc massif in the Alps, close to the Swiss border, it receives water from the many glaciers of the Chamonix valley before flowing north-west into the Rhône on the west side of Geneva, where its much higher level of silt brings forth a striking contrast between the two rivers; the Arve flows through Chamonix, Sallanches, Oëx, Bonneville and Geneva