Pasadena is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city's population is 149,043, making it the seventeenth most populous city in the state of Texas, as well as the second-largest city in Harris County; the area was founded in 1893 by John H. Burnett of Galveston, who named the area after Pasadena, because of the perceived lush vegetation; the Pasadena Volunteer Fire Department is the largest of all volunteer municipal fire departments in the United States. Prior to European settlement the area around Galveston Bay was settled by the Karankawa and Atakapan tribes the Akokisa, who lived throughout the Gulf coast region. Spanish explorers such as the Rivas-Iriarte expedition and José Antonio de Evia charted the bay and gave it its name; the pirate Jean Lafitte established a short-lived kingdom based in Galveston in the early 19th century with bases and hide-outs around the bay and around Clear Lake. Lafitte was forced to leave in 1821 by the U.
S. Navy. Following its declaration of independence from Spain the new nation of Mexico moved to colonize its northern territory of Texas by offering land grants to settlers both from within Mexico and from the nearby United States; the colony established by Stephen F. Austin and the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company of New York began a wave of settlement around the bay. Following a coup in the Mexican government by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Texas revolted against Mexican rule in 1835. After several battles and skirmishes the final battle of the Texas Revolution took place near modern Pasadena on April 21, 1836. Santa Anna was captured at Vince's Bayou; because this was the last conflict that led to the Mexican surrender and neighboring Deer Park have adopted the nickname "Birthplace of Texas". Sam Allen started a ranch in 1843 with 350 acres; this became the Allen Ranch which occupied what is now western Pasadena all the way to Harrisburg, Texas. By 1888, the ranch contained 15,000 acres in Harris County, 10,000 acres in Brazoria County, Texas with grazing lands in Galveston and Fort Bend Counties.
The Galveston, Houston & Henderson Railroad ran through the Allen ranch. There was a problem of cattle being killed on the tracks and in 1875, Allen built a 19-mile fence along the east side of the railway right of way to keep the cattle off the tracks; the fence ran from Harrisburg to League City and had four rails and a top rail wide enough to walk on. A gate was placed in the fence at the Harrisburg-Lynchburg Road with a large sign above instructing that it should be closed at all times; the area east of this railroad fence running from Buffalo Bayou to the tracks on Sims Bayou ran all the way to Galveston Bay. It contained 100,000 acres of grazing land for cattle. "Proposed" towns in or near present-day Pasadena were set up but short lived and either abandoned or never got off the ground. In 1892 Colonel John H. Burnett of Galveston established an unnamed townsite on the Vince Survey just east of the Allen Ranch. Burnett was involved in both construction and promotion of railroads and knew their impact on the value of property.
The land was sold in 10 acres lots. He had established the nearby towns of Deepwater and Genoa to be incorporated into Pasadena and Houston; the 1900 hurricane that destroyed Galveston damaged Pasadena, as well. The city received a population boost from some Galveston refugees who relocated to the mainland following the catastrophe. Donations by the newly created Red Cross, including millions of strawberry plants to Gulf Coast farmers, helped revive the community; this and the subsequent establishment of a major strawberry farm in the area by Texaco founder Joseph S. Cullinan made Pasadena a major fruit producer for many years afterward; as the community recovered major tracts of the Allen Ranch were liquidated opening up new development. Rice farmers from Japan settled in the community further diversifying its agriculture. Champion Coated Paper Company of Ohio opened a paper mill in 1937. Other businesses began to develop. In 1901 the Texas Oil Boom began with the gusher at Spindletop; the discovery of the oil field at Goose Creek led to increasing petroleum exploration around Galveston Bay.
By 1917–1920 refinery operations had appeared in Pasadena and continued to expand thereafter (Pasadena Refining System... The world wars brought further industrial development, with Pasadena's growth rate surpassing neighboring Houston. Pasadena voted to incorporate in 1923, but residents decided to cancel the incorporation one year later. Pasadena incorporated in 1928; because of the 1928 incorporation, Houston did not incorporate Pasadena's territory into its city limits, while Houston annexed surrounding areas that were unincorporated. By the mid-20th century Pasadena's economy had become tied to petroleum and other heavy industry. NASA's Johnson Space Center was established near Pasadena in 1963 with the residential community of Clear Lake City under Pasadena's jurisdiction, established nearby; these developments helped to diversify the town's economy significantly. Former Pasadena City Council member and State Representative Ray Barnhart described the city at the time as "a lovely community but politically corrupt."
Barnhart recalled that a half dozen Pasadena officials were indicted in the late 1950s and early 1960s for public corruption. In 1965, Houston Post reporter Gene Goltz Received the Pulitzer Prize for his exposure of government corruption in Pasadena, which resulted in widespread reforms. In the 21st century, Pasadena emerged as a working-class suburb of Houston, with a 60 percent Hispanic population. In 2015, Pasadena voted to alter the com
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Pulp and paper industry
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper and other cellulose-based products. The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. Whereas, when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead. Drying involves using heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam heated can dryer; the commercial planting of domesticated mulberry trees to make pulp for papermaking is attested as early as the 6th century. Due to advances in printing technology, the Chinese paper industry continued to grow under the Song dynasty to meet the rising demand for printed books.
Demand for paper was stimulated by the Song government, which needed a large supply of paper for printing paper money and exchange certificates. The first mechanised paper machine was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill, Hertfordshire in 1803, followed by another in 1804; the site operates as a museum. The pulp and paper industry has been criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest; the industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences, companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest. On the other hand, the situation is quite different where forest growth has been on the increase for a number of years, it is estimated for instance that since 1990 forests have grown in Europe by a size equivalent to that of Switzerland, supported through the practice of sustainable forest management by the industry.
In Sweden, for every tree, felled, two are planted. The industry is dominated by northern European and East Asian countries. Australasia and Brazil have significant pulp and paper enterprises; the industry has a significant presence in a number of European countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009. According to statistic data by RISI, main producing countries of paper and paperboard, not including pulp, in the world are as follows: The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows.: In 2008, the top 10 forest and packaging products companies were, according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers: Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include: Valmet Bellmer Andritz Metso Voith Kadant American Forest & Paper Association List of paper mills Converters Paper pollution Pulp and Paper Pulp and paper industry in Canada Pulp and paper industry in Europe Confederation of European Paper Industries Pulp and paper industry in Japan Pulp and paper industry in the United States Roll hardness tester Wood industry Forestry industry Environmental impact of paper Confederation of European Paper Industries American Forest & Paper Association Forest Products Association of Canada
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Handbook of Texas
The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association. The original Handbook was the brainchild of TSHA President Walter Prescott Webb of The University of Texas history department, it was published as a two-volume set in 1952, with a supplemental volume published in 1976. In 1996, the New Handbook of Texas was published, expanding the encyclopedia to six volumes and over 23,000 articles. In 1999, the Handbook of Texas Online went live with the complete text of the print edition, all corrections incorporated into the handbook's second printing, about 400 articles not included in the print edition due to space limitations; the handbook continues to be updated online, contains over 25,000 articles. The online version includes entries on general topics, such as "Texas since World War II", biographies such as notable Texans Samuel Houston and W. D. Twichell, ranches such as the Matador, geographical entries such as "Waco, Texas".
Many Texas scholars and professors, such as Robert A. Calvert and Art Martinez de Vara, have contributed to the Handbook. Texas State Historical Association Handbook of Texas 1952 2 volume edition at HathiTrust
The International Paper Company is an American pulp and paper company, the largest such company in the world. It has 56,000 employees, is headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee; the company was incorporated January 31, 1898, upon the merger of 17 pulp and paper mills in the northeastern United States. Its founders and first two presidents were William Augustus Russell, who died in January 1899, Hugh J. Chisholm; the newly formed company supplied 60 percent of all newsprint in the country. The Hudson River Mill in Corinth, New York, where the Sacandaga River joins the Hudson River, was a pioneer in the development of the modern paper industry in the late 19th century; the first wood-based newsprint paper mill in New York, it was built by Albrecht Pagenstecher in 1869. In the early 20th century, the Hudson River Mill was one of the company's largest plants and served both as its principal office, a place where paper workers helped shape the direction of the industry's early labor movement. After World War II, Hudson River Mill workers developed and perfected the production of coated paper for the company.
Shifting economic forces resulted in the mill's closure in November 2002. The historic mill was slated for partial demolition during 2011; the work including asbestos removal was completed by Northstar Group Services. Given the nature of their products, paper plants are flammable. Therefore, International Paper Company used asbestos insulation in its walls and roofs as a protective measure. Asbestos insulation was used on pipes and boilers throughout International Paper plants; this material intended to protect people turned out to damage their health The producers did not reveal that their asbestos products were dangerous though asbestos was known to cause illnesses as far back as the 1920s. Many former employees of International Paper have been diagnosed with mesothelioma following decades of service. In 1987, the company's paper mill workers went on strike at a number of its U. S. plants. In 1986, the company acquired the Hammermill Paper Company, founded in 1898, which managed eleven papermills nationwide, had its corporate offices based in Erie, PA.
In 1996, it purchased Federal Paper Board. In 1999, the company purchased Union Camp Corporation, in June of 2000 Champion International. Additionally, it owns shares in the Chilean company Copec. Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills Rajahmundry, now an International Paper company, is one of the biggest integrated paper and pulp manufacturing centers in India; the company produces writing and copier papers and paper boards for foreign and domestic markets. APPM's production facilities are two mills in Rajahmundry and Kadiam with a total production capacity of 240,000 TPD; the company is becoming a driving force in sustainability in the paper manufacturing arena through focused social and community programs, including pioneering work in raw material generation through social farm forestry. International Paper owns a majority interest in APPM, the remaining shares are publicly traded on the Bombay and National Stock Exchange of India. In 2012, International Paper, through the merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Metal Acquisition Inc. with and into Temple-Inland, acquired Temple-Inland in a deal valued at $4.5 billion.
Temple-Inland became a wholly owned subsidiary of International Paper. At the time of sale, Temple-Inland's corrugated packaging operation consisted of 7 mills and 59 converting facilities as well as the building products operation. In 2005 and 2006, the company undertook a significant restructuring, selling over 6,000,000 acres of forestland in the U. S. along with its coated paper, kraft paper, wood products, beverage packaging businesses, as well as subsidiaries Arizona Chemical and New Zealand-based Carter Holt Harvey. The coated paper business were sold to Apollo Management and now operate as Verso Paper; the kraft paper business was sold to Kapstone Paper and Packaging and operates as Kapstone Kraft Paper. The beverage packaging business, now called Evergreen Packaging, was purchased by Carter Holt Harvey, following the purchase of CHH by Graeme Hart; the company sold its wood products division to West Fraser Timber, based in Vancouver, British Columbia. This included 13 sawmills, making West Fraser the second-largest producer of lumber in North America, after Weyerhaeuser Company.
Under pressure from budget sequestration in 2013, the federal government of the United States has moved from physical checks to cheaper electronic transactions. John Runyan, former head of federal government relations for IP, has become executive director of Consumers for Paper Options, a paper industry funded group that advocates for the use of paper documents for clients of the federal government who are Internet challenged; the company's logo was designed by American graphic designers Lester Beall and Richard Rogers in 1960. The logo features the letters "I" and "P" which form a stylized arrow resembling a tree surrounded by a circle. A primary constraint in the design process was the need for a logo simple enough that it could be stenciled onto trees and lumber intended for paper production. International Paper owns Tower I and occupies the entire property and leases 50,000 square feet in Tower II and all of Tower III. In 2000, International Place Tower III was designed and rests amid the two exi
The Decatur Daily
The Decatur Daily is a daily newspaper serving Decatur and the Tennessee Valley in the North Alabama area of the United States. As of September 30, 2006, it had an average daily circulation of 20,824 and a Sunday circulation of 23,840. Along with The Anniston Star, it is one of only two family-owned daily newspapers remaining in Alabama. For over 100 years, The Decatur Daily has played a major role in the economic and community development of the Tennessee Valley, it was first published on February 26, 1912 under the banner of The Decaturs Daily, serving the towns of Decatur and New Decatur. After 1916, when New Decatur was renamed Albany, the paper was called The Albany-Decatur Daily; when the two towns were consolidated in 1927, it assumed its present title. The newspaper is published by the Tennessee Valley Printing Co. Inc. formed in 1911. William R. Shelton was first publisher, he served in this capacity until his death in 1924, was succeeded by his son Barrett C. Shelton, Sr. Barrett C. Shelton, Jr. has been publisher since 1984, Barrett C.
"Clint" Shelton III today serves as general manager. On April 1, 2009, The Tennessee Valley Printing Company purchased the TimesDaily newspaper in Florence, from the New York Times Regional News Group. In 2018, facing challenges from the switch to digital media and sharp increases in newsprint costs due to a tariff imposed on Canadian newsprint,'The Decatur Daily' stopped printing editions on Saturdays and Mondays; the Decatur Daily Online Edition. "A Brief History of THE DECATUR DAILY". Fleischauer, Eric. "Family-owned papers — more than bottom line: DAILY, Anniston Star unique among Alabama publications." The Decatur Daily, August 30, 2004, online edition. Audit Bureau of Circulations eCirc. Official website Today's The Decatur Daily front page at the Newseum website