Ligue 2 known as Domino's Ligue 2 due to sponsorship by Domino's Pizza, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the second division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 1, the country's top football division. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with both Ligue 1 and the third division Championnat National. Seasons run from August with teams playing 38 games each totalling 380 games in the season. Most games are played on Fridays and Mondays, with a few games played during weekday and weekend evenings. Play is suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January. Ligue 2 was founded a year after the creation of the first division in 1933 under the name Division 2 and has served as the second division of French football since; the name lasted until 2002 before switching to its current name. Since the league is a part of the LFP, it allows clubs who are on the brink of professionalism to become so.
However, if a club suffers relegation to the Championnat National, its professional status can be revoked temporarily until they return to Ligue 2. The second division of French football was established in 1933, one year after the creation of the all-professional first division; the inaugural season of the competition consisted of the six clubs who were relegated following the 1932–33 National season, as well as many of the clubs who opposed the creation of the first division the previous season. Clubs such as Strasbourg, RC Roubaix, Amiens SC all played in the second division's debut season despite having prior grievances with the subjective criteria needed to become professional and play in the first division; the first year of the second division consisted of twenty-three clubs and were divided into two groups. Fourteen of the clubs were inserted into the Nord section, while the remaining nine were placed in Sud. Following the season, the winner of each group faced each other to determine which club would earn promotion.
On 20 May 1934, the winner of the Nord group, Red Star Saint-Ouen, faced Olympique Alès, the winner of the Sud group. Red Star were crowned the league's inaugural champions following a 3–2 victory. Despite losing, Alès was promoted to the first division and they were followed by Strasbourg and Mulhouse, who each won a pool championship, after the first division agreed to expand its teams to 16. Due to several clubs merging, folding, or losing their professional status, the federation turned the second division into a 16-team league and adopted the single-table method for the 1934–35 season. Due to the unpredictable nature of French football clubs, the following season, the league increased to 19 clubs and, two years increased its allotment to 25 teams with the clubs being divided into four groups; because of World War II, football was suspended by the French government and the Ligue de Football Professionnel. Following the end of the war, the second division developed stability. Due to the increase in amateur clubs, the league intertwined professional and amateur clubs and allowed the latter to become professional if they met certain benchmarks.
In 2002, the league changed its name from Division 2 to Ligue 2. In November 2014, the presidents of Caen and Nîmes were amongst several arrested on suspicion of match fixing; the arrests followed a 1–1 draw between Caen and Nîmes in May 2014, a result beneficial for each club. There are 20 clubs in Ligue 2. During the course of a season from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion and promoted to Ligue 1. If points are equal, the goal difference and goals scored determine the winner. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position. If there is a tie for the championship or for relegation, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank; the second and third-place finisher are promoted to the first division, while the three lowest placed teams are relegated to the Championnat National and the top three teams from National are promoted in their place.
While a decision was made that during the season 2015-2016 only the best two teams would be promoted to Ligue 1 and the last two teams would be relegated to the National, that decision was overturned by an appeal to the Conseil d'État and the French Football Federation. 11 minutes: the time it took Sebastian Ribas to score the fastest hat trick in the history of Ligue 2. 5 times: the number of times Le Havre AC won the second division championship. Number of points won by a team in a single season, without being able to promote to the Ligue 1:77 points or 1.833 points per game for Toulouse FC. 72 points: or 1.71 points per game for Stade Lavallois. 69 points: or 1.82 points per game for Amiens SC.128 goals: The number of goals scored in 40 games by SCO Angers in 40 games. 55 goals: the number of goals scored in a season by Gerard Grizzetti, forward playing for AS Angoulême. 41 seasons: Number of seasons played by the RCFC Besançon and AS Cannes. The fastest goal in the history of Ligue 2 was marked on 26 September 2009 by Remi Nantais Maréval against Nîmes Olympique.
After eight seconds of play, the ball crossed the goal lin
Bourg-en-Bresse is a commune in eastern France, capital of the Ain department, the capital of the ancient province of Bresse. It is located 70 km north-northeast of Lyon; the inhabitants of Bourg-en-Bresse are known as Burgiens. Bourg-en-Bresse is located at the western base of the Jura mountains, on the left bank of the Reyssouze, a tributary of the Saône, it lies 70 kilometers northeast of 50 kilometers south-southwest of Lons-le-Saunier. Roman remains have been discovered at Bourg, it was pillaged by Goths in Late Antiquity. Raised to the rank of a free town in 1250, it was at the beginning of the 15th century the capital of the dukes of Savoy in the province of Bresse. In February 1535 it was conquered by France during a full-scale invasion of Savoy, but was restored to Duke Philibert Emmanuel in 1559, when he married Henri II's sister Marguerite; the duke built a strong citadel, which afterwards withstood a six-months' siege by the soldiers of Henry IV during the Franco-Savoyard War of 1600–1601.
The town was ceded to France in 1601. In 1814, the inhabitants, in spite of the defenseless condition of their town, offered resistance to the Austrians, who put the place to pillage; the church of Notre-Dame has a façade built in the Renaissance. In the interior there are stalls of the 16th century; the other public buildings, including a handsome prefecture, are modern. The town hall contains a library and the Lorin Museum with a collection of pictures, while another museum has a collection of old costumes and ornaments characteristic of Bresse. Among the statues in the town there is one of a native of Bourg; the church of Brou, a suburb of Bourg-en-Bresse, is of great artistic interest. Margaret of Bourbon, wife of Philip II of Savoy, had intended to found a monastery on the spot, but died before her intention could be carried into effect; the church was built early in the 16th century by her daughter-in-law Margaret of Austria, wife of Philibert le Beau of Savoy, in memory of her husband. The exterior the façade, is richly ornamented, but the chief interest lies in the works of art in the interior, which date from 1532.
The most important are the three mausoleums with the marble effigies of Marguerite of Bourbon, Philibert le Beau, Margaret of Austria. All three are remarkable for perfection of richness of ornamentation; the rood loft, the oak stalls, the reredos in the chapel of the Virgin are masterpieces in a similar style. In the early 20th century, the city manufactured iron goods, mineral waters, tallow and earthenware, there were flour mills and breweries; the Gare de Bourg-en-Bresse railway station offers connections to Paris, Strasbourg and Geneva by high-speed rail, several regional destinations. The A39 motorway connects the A40 with Mâcon and Geneva. Football Bourg-en-Bresse Péronnas 01 is based in the town. Bourg is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes, has a tribunal of first instance, a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, its educational establishments include lycées, training collèges. Bourg-en-Bresse was the departure of Stage 7 in the 2007 Tour de France.
Bourg-en-Bresse was the birthplace of: Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac, mathematician Julien Benneteau, tennis player Georges Blanc, chef Raymond Chevallier and archaeologist François Clerc, football player for Olympique Lyonnais and the French national team Alain Giletti, ice skater Jérôme Lalande, astronomer Daniel Morelon, cyclist Jean-Bernard Gauthier de Murnan, French officer for the Continental Army and general during the French Revolution Lionel Nallet, international rugby union player Jacques Pépin, chef Edgar Quinet and man of letters Bourg-en-Bresse is twinned with: Bad Kreuznach, Germany Additionally, it has established partnerships with: Bressan Arpitania Arpitan language Communes of the Ain department Pierre-Marie Poisson INSEE City council website
L’Union Sportive Avranches Mont Saint Michel is a French football club based in Avranches, in the department of Manche, founded in 1897. Since 2014 it plays in the third tier of French football; the club has been chaired by Gilbert Guérin since 1990. Football arrived in Avranches in the mid-19th century, due to an influx of British immigrants who brought their customs and lifestyle to the area. In 1895, Paul Lebedel and Auguste Desclos, with approval from Henri Goujon, formed the Association Sportive du Collège d'Avranches; the club had several sections of sport, which included gymnastics and shooting, but the club specialized in football. The ASCA recruited most of their players from students who attended the university and players who lived nearby; the club endured difficulties following a match against Stade Rennais Université, now Stade Rennais F. C. after the external players arrived home too late following the match. This caused a significant outrage from their parents and guardians and the ASCA were forced to abandon signing players from outside the university.
Due to this, a man named Alexandre Legrand concluded that the people outside the university should form their own club. After discussions, the club was formed in April 1897 as L’Union Sportive Avranches'. Due to his input, Legrand was inserted as the club's treasurer; the club competed against local colleges in Avranches and played their first official match against AS du Collège de Vire. The club's performance during the 20th century was muted with the club hovering in between the 7th, 6th, 5th, 4th divisions until reaching the Championnat National during its inaugural season in 1993–94; the competition, at the time, involved two geographical areas and was the top amateur clubs. The club won its first match, a 2–0 victory over AS Cherbourg, went undefeated in their first nine matches. However, the club ended up finishing 9th, they remained in National for another three years before suffering relegation to the CFA, where they lasted only one year falling down to CFA 2 in 1998–99. After 10 years in CFA 2, the club returned to the CFA after their 2nd-place finish.
The club's kit are manufactured by the English sporting goods company Umbro. As of 10 April 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 30 March 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official club website
Stade de la Libération
Stade de la Libération is a multi-use stadium in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. It is used for football matches and is the home stadium of US Boulogne; the stadium is able to hold 15,034 people
Stade Marcel-Verchère is rugby union stadium located in Bourg-en-Bresse, Ain. It is the home ground of Union Sportive Bressane, promoted to Rugby Pro D2 for the 2013–14 season, it has a capacity of 11,400. Moreover, the team of Football Bourg-en-Bresse Péronnas 01 playing in this stadium and evolve in Championnat National; the stadium is named in memory of Marcel Verchère, a Bressane player who died following a violent tackle during a match against Oyonnax on 24 September 1937
Concarneau is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. Concarneau is bordered to the west by the Baie de La Forêt; the town has two distinct areas: the modern town on the mainland and the medieval Ville Close, a walled town on a long island in the centre of the harbour. The old town was a centre of shipbuilding; the Ville Close is now devoted to tourism with many shops aimed at tourists. However restraint has been shown in resisting the worst excesses of souvenir shops. In the Ville Close is the fishing museum; the Ville Close is connected to the town by a bridge and at the other end a ferry to the village of Lanriec on the other side of the harbour. In August the town holds the annual Fête des Filets Bleus; the festival, named after the traditional blue nets of Concarneau's fishing fleet, is a celebration of Breton and pan-Celtic culture. Such festivals can occur throughout Brittany but the Filets Bleus is one of the oldest and largest, attracting in excess of a thousand participants in traditional dress with many times that number of observers.
In 2005, the 100th festival was celebrated. Concarneau was the setting for Belgian mystery writer Georges Simenon's 1931 novel Le Chien jaune, featuring his celebrated sleuth Maigret. Fishing for tuna, has long been the primary economic activity in Concarneau; the Les Mouettes d'Arvor is one of the last traditional canning factories in Concarneau. Concarneau is one of the biggest fishing ports in France. Since the 1980s, other industries have arisen, such as summer tourism; the Ville Close separates the working port from the yacht basin. Inhabitants of Concarneau are called in French Concarnois. In 2008, 2.16% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools. The football club US Concarneau is based in the town. Michel Desjoyeaux, navigator Samantha Davies, sailor Guy Cotten, founder of a clothes factory Stéphane Guivarc'h, French footballer, won the FIFA World Cup 1998 with the French national side Théophile Deyrolle and Alfred Guillou, founders of the Concarneau Art Colony. Valérie Hermann President of Ralph Lauren Twinned towns: Bielefeld, Germany since 1969 M'bour, Senegal since 1974 Penzance, United Kingdom since 1982 Communes of the Finistère department Walled town of Concarneau Calypso Lionel Floch Fernand-Marie-Eugène Le Gout-Gérard Henri Alphonse Barnoin Henri Guinier INSEE Official website |Concarneau Cultural Heritage French Ministry of Culture list for Concarneau
UEFA Europa League
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their national leagues and cup competitions, it is the second-tier competition of European club football, ranking below the UEFA Champions League. Called the UEFA Cup, the competition has been known as the UEFA Europa League since the 2009–10 season, following a change in format. For UEFA footballing records purposes, the UEFA Cup and UEFA Europa League are considered the same competition, with the change of name being a rebranding. In 1999, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup was merged with the UEFA Cup. For the 2004–05 competition a group stage was added prior to the knockout phase; the 2009 re-branding included a merge with the UEFA Intertoto Cup, producing an enlarged competition format, with an expanded group stage and a change in qualifying criteria. The winner of the UEFA Europa League qualifies for the UEFA Super Cup and, since the 2014–15 season, the following season's UEFA Champions League, entering at the group stage.
The title has been won by 28 clubs. The most successful club in the competition is Sevilla, with five titles; the current champions are Atlético Madrid, after defeating Marseille in the final to win the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League. The UEFA Cup was preceded by the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, a European football competition played between 1955 and 1971; the competition grew from 11 teams during the first cup to 64 teams by the last cup, played in 1970–71. It had become so important on the European football scene that in the end it was taken over by UEFA and relaunched the following season as the UEFA Cup; the UEFA Cup was first played in the 1971–72 season, with an all-English final of Wolverhampton Wanderers against Tottenham Hotspur, with Spurs taking the first honours. The title was retained by another English club, Liverpool, in 1973, who defeated Borussia Mönchengladbach in the final. Borussia would win the competition in 1975 and 1979, reach the final again in 1980. Feyenoord Rotterdam won the cup in 1974 after defeating Tottenham Hotspur with 4-2 in aggregate.
Liverpool won the competition for the second time in 1976 after defeating Club Brugge in the final. During the 1980s, IFK Göteborg and Real Madrid won the competition twice each, with Anderlecht reaching two consecutive finals, winning in 1983 and losing to Tottenham Hotspur in 1984; the year 1989 saw the commencement of the Italian clubs' domination, when Diego Maradona's Napoli defeated Stuttgart. The 1990s started with two all-Italian finals, in 1992, Torino lost the final to Ajax on the away goals rule. Juventus won the competition for a third time in 1993 and Internazionale kept the cup in Italy the following year; the year 1995 saw a third all-Italian final, with Parma proving their consistency, after two consecutive Cup Winners' Cup finals. The only final with no Italians during that decade was in 1996. Internazionale reached the final the following two years, losing in 1997 to Schalke 04 on penalties, winning yet another all-Italian final in 1998, taking home the cup for the third time in only eight years.
Parma won the cup in 1999. Liverpool won the competition for the third time in 2001. In 2002 Feyenoord Rotterdam won it for the 2nd time in the club history by defeating Borussia Dortmund during the final in their own stadium, Stadion Feijenoord in Rotterdam with 3-2. Porto triumphed with the latter against Portuguese team Braga. In 2004, the cup returned to Spain with Valencia being victorious, Sevilla succeeded on two consecutive occasions in 2006 and 2007, the latter in a final against fellow Spaniards Espanyol. Either side of Sevilla's success, two Russian teams, CSKA Moscow in 2005 and Zenit Saint Petersburg in 2008, had their glory and yet another former Soviet club, Ukraine's Shakhtar Donetsk, won in 2009. Atlético Madrid would themselves win twice in three seasons, in 2010 and 2012, the latter in another all-Spanish final. In 2013, Chelsea would become the first Champions League holders to win the UEFA Cup/Europa League the following year. In 2014, Sevilla won their third cup in eight years after defeating Benfica on penalties.
Just one year in 2015, Sevilla won their fourth UEFA Cup/Europa League and, in an unprecedented feat, they defended their title a third year in a row beating Liverpool FC in the 2016 final, making Sevilla FC the most successful team in the history of the competition with 5 titles. Since the 2009–10 season, the competition has been known as the UEFA Europa League. At the same time, the UEFA Intertoto Cup, UEFA's third-tier competition, was discontinued and merged into the new Europa League. UEFA had considered adding a third-tier competition since at least 2015, believing that a bottom-level tournament could act as a means of giving clubs from lower-ranked UEFA member countries to have a chance of progressing to the stages beyond the stages they traditionally would be eliminated in the Champions League and Europa League. In mid-2018 talk of an announcement intensified, with news sources claiming an agreement had been reached for the competition to be launched and that the 48-team Europa League group stage would be split into two, with the lower-half forming the nucleus of what would be the new event.
On 2 December 2018, UEFA announced that the competition – provisionally known as "Europa League 2" or just "UEL2" – was to be launched as part of the 2021–24 three-year competition cycle, with UEFA announcing that the new tournament would bring "more matches for more clubs and more