Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Thorigny is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. The commune has: A public elementary school, École publique Jacques Golly de Thorigny One private school, Ecole Privée Jeanne D'ArcCollège public Jean RENOIR, a public junior high school in La Roche Sur-Yon, serves the commune. Nearby private schools: Ecole Privée Saint Joseph is in nearby Fougeré. Collège privé RICHELIEU in La Roche Sur-YonThere is a public library in Thorigny. Communes of the Vendée department INSEE Home page
Noisiel is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the eastern suburbs of 20.5 km from the center of Paris. The commune of Noisiel is part of the Val Maubuée sector, one of the four sectors in the "new town" of Marne-la-Vallée. Inhabitants of Noisiel are called Noisiéliens. In 2014, Noisiel had 15,523 inhabitants, a rise of 0.07% since 2009. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the census for communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants takes place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years; as of 1998, 8% of the population was Asian and certain parts of the commune had high Asian populations. Noisiel is served by Noisiel station on Paris RER line. Noisiel is synonymous with the name "Menier", famous chocolate makers who built the first automated chocolate production facility in 1825 at a time when the village's inhabitants numbered around 200.
The Menier company would prosper and in the 1870s built a complete "town" to accommodate its employees that numbered more than 2000 by the end of the 19th century. Members of the Menier family were mayors of Noisiel without interruption from May 11, 1871 to November 8, 1959. Emile-Justin Menier Henri Menier Gaston Menier Jacques Menier Antoine Gilles Menier The Menier Chocolate factory operated until 1993 and today is a museum and the French head office of the Nestlé company who now own the company, it has been designated by the government of France as a Monument historique and is on the list to be named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is open once a year to visitors during the Open Doors Days in September; the Noisiel heritage office offers several guided tours for visitors wishing to discover Noisiel and its history. Noisiel has five groupings of preschools and elementary schools: Allée-des-Bois, Allée des Chevreuils, Bois-de-la-Grange, Ferme-du-Buisson, Jules-Ferry / Maryse-Bastié, Les Noyers, Les Tilleuls.
Noisiel has Collège du Luzard. There are other nearby junior high schools in Champs-sur-Marne, Emerainville and Torcy; the commune has two senior high schools/sixth-form colleges: Lycée Gérard-de-Nerval Lycée René-CassinOther senior high/sixth-form establishments in surrounding communes: Lycée Émily-Brontë Lycée René-Descartes Lycée Arche-Guédon Lycée Jean-Moulin Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE Official site Intercommunality of Val Maubuée 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Noisiel Map of Noisiel on Michelin
Villiers-sur-Marne is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 14.8 km from the center of Paris. The commune of Villiers-sur-Marne is part of the sector of Porte de Paris, one of the four sectors of the "new town" of Marne-la-Vallée. On 7 July 1899, a part of the territory of Villiers-sur-Marne was detached and merged with a part of the territory of La Queue-en-Brie and a part of the territory of Chennevières-sur-Marne to create the commune of Le Plessis-Trévise. Villiers-sur-Marne is served by Villiers-sur-Marne – Le Plessis-Trévise station on Paris RER line E. There are seven elementary schools. Preschools: J. et M. Dudragne, Théophile Gautier, Edouard Herriot, Jean Jaures, Charles Peguy, Charles Perrault, Jean Renon Elementary schools: Albert Camus, Léon Dauer, J. et M. Dudragne, Jules Ferry, Edouard Herriot, Jean Jaures, Jean RenonThere are two junior high schools, Collège Pierre et Marie Curie, Collège Les Prunais. Villiers-sur-Marne is twinned with Entroncamento in Friedberg in Germany.
Until November 2011, it was twinned with Bishop's Stortford in the United Kingdom, when the English town controversially cut its links with Villiers-sur-Marne, as well as Friedberg. Vanessa Paradis, French singer, ex wife of Johnny Depp. Hayat Boumeddiene and suspected accomplice of her common law husband Amedy Coulibaly, the main suspect for the Montrouge shooting and the hostage-taker and gunman in the Porte de Vincennes siege, in which he killed four hostages. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Notes SourcesINSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official website
The Marne is a river in France, an eastern tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. It is 514 kilometres long; the river gave its name to the departments of Haute-Marne, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne. The Marne starts in the Langres plateau, runs north bends west between Saint-Dizier and Châlons-en-Champagne, joining the Seine at Charenton just upstream from Paris, its main tributaries are the Rognon, the Blaise, the Saulx, the Ourcq, the Petit Morin and the Grand Morin. Near the town of Saint-Dizier, part of the flow is diverted through the artificial Lake Der-Chantecoq; this ensures the maintenance of minimum river flows in periods of drought. The Celts of Gaul worshipped a goddess known as Dea Matrona, associated with the Marne; the Marne is famous as the site of two eponymous battles during World War I. The first battle was a turning point of the war, fought in 1914; the second battle was fought four years in 1918. The Marne was navigable as a free-flowing river until the 19th century.
It had one gated 500 m shortcut, the Canal de Cornillon in Meaux, built in 1235, the oldest canal in France. Canalisation was started in 1837 and completed to Épernay in 1867, it included a number of canals to bypass the most extravagant meanders. In World War I, the Marne was the scene of two notable battles. In the First Battle of the Marne, the military governor of Paris, General Joseph Gallieni, took the initiative in driving the Germans back from the capital, rendering their war-plan inoperative. In the Second Battle of the Marne, the last major German offensive on the Western Front was defeated by an Allied counter-attack, leading to the Armistice. During the heyday of canal transportation, the Marne was a major artery connecting Paris and the Seine with major rivers to the east: the Meuse, the Moselle and the Rhine, the Saône and Rhône. To facilitate transportation along the Marne itself, a number of lateral canals were constructed alongside; the most extensive was the Canal latéral à la Marne, which runs 67 km between Vitry-le-François and Dizy.
Downstream of this were several more, including the Canal de Meaux à Chalifert, the Canal de Chelles, the Canal de Saint-Maurice which ended at Charenton-le-Pont near the Marne's confluence with the Seine. Furthermore, a portion of the Canal de l'Ourcq runs parallel and quite close to the Marne before swinging away to enter Paris from the north. Haute-Marne: Langres, Saint-Dizier. During the 19th and 20th centuries the Marne inspired many painters, among whom were: River Marne navigation guide with maps and details of places and moorings on the river, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, 8th ed. 2010, publ. Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
Seine-et-Marne is a French department, named after the Seine and Marne rivers, located in the Île-de-France region. Seine-et-Marne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution in application of the law of 22 December 1789, it had belonged to the former province of Île-de-France. With 60% of the region used as farmland, Seine-et-Marne is where most agricultural activity occurs within the Île-de-France. Cereals and sugar beet are the principal exports from Seine-et-Marne; the other key industrial structures are the refinery at the Snecma research plant. The two new towns are the centre of tourism for the department due to theme parks such as Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park at Disneyland Paris. Seine-et-Marne has a temperate Atlantic climate; the average rainfall is based upon that of Fontainebleau, giving an average rainfall of 650 mm, higher than the average of Île-de-France. Average temperature in Melun during the 1953–2002 period was 3.2 °C for January and 18.6 °C for July.
The storm of 26 December 1999 caused several trees to fall. Seine-et-Marne forms a part of the Île-de-France region, it is bordered by Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Essonne to the West. The department has many natural reserves, notably Gâtinais; the highest point of the département is Saint-George's Hill. People from Seine-et-Marne are known as the Seine-et-Marnais. Seine-et-Marne was rural and populated. Over the past 50 years, its population has tripled, due to the development of the Paris conurbation and the building of new towns in the northwest of the region; the population was estimated to be 1,267,496 inhabitants in 2006. The region has changed from consisting only of small villages to forming a large part of the Paris conurbation. Seine-et-Marne as a whole shares a sister city relationship with Orlando, United States, as both host Disney theme parks. Collège de Juilly Forest of Fontainebleau Cantons of the Seine-et-Marne department Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department Arrondissements of the Seine-et-Marne department Lion, Christian, La Mutuelle de Seine-et-Marne contre l'incendie de 1819 à 1969.
Mutualité, assurance et cycles de l'incendie. Prefecture website General Council website
Bry-sur-Marne is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.6 km from the center of Paris. The commune of Bry-sur-Marne is part of the sector of Porte de Paris, one of the four sectors of the "new town" of Marne-la-Vallée. Bry's name comes from the Celtic word Briw, which means a river crossing; the area has been inhabited since Neolithic times. The town's motto, which features on its coat of arms, is "Moult viel que Paris" - old French for "Much older than Paris". In 1903, archeologist Adrien Mentienne uncovered the bones of a large bovine which died 15,000 years ago. In 1982, the skeleton of a woman who died in the 5th century BC was uncovered beneath the playground of a school in Bry, it is now housed in the town's museum. From that century onwards, there was a permanent human presence. In 1886, a necropolis was found which contained pottery and Frankish weaponry and gold jewelry, coins, dating from the Gaul era to the Merovingian; the first known written mention of the town named Bry was in a charter signed by King Charles the Bald in 861.
The first church was built in 1130. In 1404, Robert de Châtillon, cousin of King Charles VI, was Bry's feudal lord, his castle no longer stands, its exact location is uncertain. Bry's current château was built in the 1690s, it became the town hall in 1866. It was rebuilt after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870; the railway came to Bry in 1926, followed by the motorway and the RER. The town's hospital was built in 1936; the commune has Maternelle Jules Ferry. The commune has Collège Henri Cahn; the commune has a private elementary through junior high school, Institut Saint Thomas de Villeneuve. There are multiple public senior high schools in surrounding communes: Lycée Louis Armand Lycée Hector Berlioz Lycée Edouard Branly Lycée Paul Doumer Lycée Évariste Galois Lycée Pablo Picasso Photographer Louis Daguerre died in Bry-sur-Marne in 1851 and a monument marks his grave there. Laurel Zuckerman, author Hervé Bazin, author Bry's most treasured artwork is a diorama painted by Louis Daguerre; the painting changes as each day wears on, mimicking night-time.
It is kept in the local church. Bry-sur-Marne is served by Bry-sur-Marne station on Paris RER line A; the town has been twinned with Sawbridgeworth in Hertfordshire and Moosburg an der Isar in Germany since 1973. The Institut national de l'audiovisuel has its headquarters in the commune. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official town site Bry's Association Louis Daguerre