Patan, an ancient fortified city, was founded in 745 AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda Kingdom. He named the city "Anhilpur Patan" or "Anhilwad Patan" after his close friend and Prime Minister Anhil Gadariya, it is a historical place located on the bank of Saraswati River. Patan was established by the Chapotkata ruler Vanaraja in 8th century as "Anahilapataka". During 10th-13th century, the city served as the capital of the Chaulukyas, who supplanted the Chapotkatas. Historian Tertius Chandler estimates that Anhilwara was the tenth-largest city in the world in the year 1000, with a population of 100,000. Muhammed's general and Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak sacked the city between 1200 and 1210, it was destroyed by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298; the modern town of Patan sprung up near the ruins of Anhilwara. During 1304 to 1411, first Patan was the Suba headquarter of Delhi Sultanate and capital city of the Gujarat Sultanate after the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century.
A new fort was built by these Subas, a large portion of, still intact. The old fort of the Hindu kingdom is nearly vanquished and only a wall can be seen on the way from Kalka to Rani ki vav. In 1411, Sultan Ahmed Shah moved the capital to Ahmedabad. Patan was part of the Baroda state from the mid-18th century until India's independence in 1947, when Baroda became part of Bombay state, which in 1960 was separated into Gujarat and Maharashtra. If you see the braveness of the Vanaraja Sinh and his empire in 700-800 AD. No hill tops, no huge fortifying, it was said that during northen India has no similar power axis. During the period of the Chaulukya dynasty or Solanki's of Patan, the stepwell called the Rani ki vav or Ran-ki vav was constructed, it is a richly sculptured monument, built by Udaymati in memory of her husband, Bhima I. It was completed by Udaymati and Karna after his death. A reference to Udaymati building the monument is in the'Prabandha-Chintamani' composed by Merutunga Suri in 1304 AD.
It was one of the most sumptuous structures of its type. It became silted up and much of it is not visible, except for some rows of sculptured panels in the circular part of the well. Among its ruins one pillar still stands, proof of the elegance of its design and an excellent example of this period. A part of the west well is extant from which it appears that the wall had been built of brick and faced with stone. From this wall project vertical bracket in pairs, this supported the galleries of the well shaft proper; this bracketing is richly carved. There is a small gate below the last step of the step well which has a 30 km tunnel which leads to the town of Sidhpur near Patan, it was used as an escape gateway for king. This stepwell is the deepest among the 120 other stepwell in Gujarat; the sculpture of Rani ki vav depicting Lord Vishnu's avatars, Hindu Goddesses, Jain idols and their ancestors. Most of the sculpture is in devotion to Vishnu, in the forms of his avatars, representing their return to the world.
Around 50–60 years back there used to be ayurvedic plants around this areas which causes the water accumulated in Rani ni vav to be helpful for viral disease, fever. It was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites on 22 June 2014. Patan is home to the Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University named after the famous polymath Acharya Hemachandra, it was known as North Gujarat University. There are many colleges in Patan. Sheth B. D. High School, P. P. G experimental Junior College is the oldest. Other famous schools are P. P. G. Experimental High School, Adarsha Vidhyalaya, Bhagwati International Public School, Sheth M. N. High School, Sheth B. M. High School, Prerna Mandir High School, Pioneer School of Science, Lord Krishna School of Science and Eklavya School of Science. There are K. D. Polytechnic Patan for diploma in engineering, Government Engineering College and Sheth M. N. Science College. Patan is the education hub in North Gujarat. Patan is a prominent medical centre in North Gujarat with 200 practicing medical professionals.
It has a medical college name GMERS Medical Hospital at Dharpur on Unjha Highway. Major multi-speciality hospitals include General Hospital, Janta Hospital, Docter House and other Clinics in Patan. City Point Multiplex and Time Cinema provides Entertainment facilities. Siddhhem Water Park & Resort is developing on Sariyad Highway near Rani Ki Vav. Patan has the small and medium size industries, and new GIDC in charup,ta sarawati distrit patan Auction of agricultural product done here between farmers and buyers through commission agent is called APMC Patan has a Vegetable Market on Chanasma Highway. The patola sari is one of the finest hand-woven sarees produced today; this is a specialty of Patan. It is famous for delicate patterns woven with great precision and clarity. A patola sari takes 4 to 6 months to make, depending on how complicated the designs is and if the length is 5 or 6 metres; this saris are colored with vegetable colors. Costs start from Rs. 20,000 which may go up to Rs. 20,00,000 depending on the difficulty of work as many times gold threads are included during its weaving process.
There are only two families making patola saris. They don't teach this art to other family members. Only their sons are eligible to learn. Salvivad, a place where patolas are woven along with p
The Paramara dynasty was an Indian dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them among the Agnivanshi Rajput dynasties; the dynasty was established in either 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, established the Paramaras as a sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh had become the core Paramara territory, with Dhara as their capital; the dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south, from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east. The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of their struggles with the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri and other neighbouring kingdoms.
The Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies. Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years after his death. Malwa enjoyed a great level of cultural prestige under the Paramaras; the Paramaras were well known for their patronage to Sanskrit poets and scholars, Bhoja was himself a renowned scholar. Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several Shiva temples, although they patronized Jain scholars; the Harsola copper plates issued by the Paramara king Siyaka II establish that the early Paramara rulers were the feudatories of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. This inscription mentions a king called Akalavarsha, followed by the expression tasmin kule, followed by the name "Vappairaja". Based on the Harsola inscription, some historians such as D. C. Ganguly theorized.
Ganguly tried to find support for his theory in Ain-i-Akbari, whose variation of the Agnikula myth states that the founder of the Paramara kingdom came to Malwa from Deccan, that "Aditya Ponwar" was the first sovereign ruler of the dynasty. Moreover, Siyaka's successor Munja assumed titles such as Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha: these are distinctively Rashtrakuta titles. Several historians have been critical of this theory. Dasharatha Sharma notes that the Agnikula myth about the Paramara origin had come into being by the time of Siyaka's son Sindhuraja. Sharma argues that the Rashtrakuta royal origin of the Paramaras could not have been forgotten within a generation. K. C. Jain theorizes that Vappairaja's mother was related to the Rashtrakuta family, because the other Paramara records do not boast of the Rashtrakuta royals as their ancestors. Siyaka and other Paramara kings before Munja did not adopt any Rashtrakuta titles: Munja may have adopted these titles to commemorate his predecessor's victory over the Rashtrakutas, to strengthen his claim over the former Rashtrakuta territories.
The Paramara kings claimed to be members of the Agnikula or Agnivansha. The Agnikula myth of origin, which appears in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this: The sage Vishvamitra forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another sage Vashistha on the Arbuda mountain. Vashistha conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit, who defeated Vashistha's enemies and brought back the cow. Vashistha gave the hero the title Paramara; the earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja. The legend is not mentioned in literary works. By this time, all the neighbouring dynasties claimed divine or heroic origin, which might have motivated the Paramaras to invent a legend of their own. In the period, the Paramaras were categorized as one of the Rajput clans, although the Rajput identity did not exist during their time. A legend mentioned in a recension of Prithviraj Raso extended their Agnikula legend to describe other dynasties as fire-born Rajputs.
The earliest extant copies of Prithviraj Raso do not contain this legend. Some colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest a foreign origin for the Paramaras. According to this theory, the ancestors of the Paramaras and other Agnivanshi Rajputs came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around the 5th century CE, they were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. However, this theory is weakened by the fact that the legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramara records, the earliest Paramara-era account does not mention the other dynasties as Agnivanshi; some historians, such as Dasharatha Sharma and Pratipal Bhatia, have argued that the Paramaras were Brahmins from the Vashistha gotra. This theory is based on the fact that Halayudha, patronized by Munja, describes the king as "Brahma-Kshtra" in Pingala-Sutra-Vritti. According to Bhatia this expression means that Munja came from a family of Brahmins who became Kshatriyas. In addition, the Patanarayana temple inscription states that the
Varanasi known as Benares, Banaras, or Kashi, is a city on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh, India, 320 kilometres south-east of the state capital, 121 kilometres east of Allahabad. A major religious hub in India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, played an important role in the development of Buddhism and Ravidassia. Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur and Delhi, is served by Varanasi Junction railway station and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport. Varanasi is one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were 1329 villages in this district; the main native languages of Varanasi are Bhojpuri. Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, ivory works, sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma", at nearby Sarnath.
The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva as an official sect of Varanasi. During the Muslim rule through Middle Ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu devotion, pilgrimage and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Rama's life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir and Ravidas. Guru Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism. In the 16th century, Varanasi experienced a cultural revival under the Mughal emperor Akbar who patronised the city, built two large temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu, though much of modern Varanasi was built during the 18th century, by the Maratha and Brahmin kings; the Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947.
The city is governed by the Varanasi Nagar Nigam and is represented in the Parliament of India by the current Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. Silk weaving and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals. Varanasi Hospital was established in 1964. Varanasi has been a cultural centre of North India for several thousand years, is associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe; the city is known worldwide for its many ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead and the Hindu genealogy registers at Varanasi are kept here; the Ramnagar Fort, near the eastern bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, scenic pavilions.
Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Durga Temple. The Kashi Naresh is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, an essential part of all religious celebrations. An educational and musical centre, many prominent Indian philosophers, poets and musicians live or have lived in the city, it was the place where the Benares gharana form of Hindustani classical music was developed. One of Asia's largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu University; the Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920. Traditional etymology links "Varanasi" to the names of two Ganges tributaries forming the city's borders: Varuna, still flowing in northern Varanasi, Assi, today a small stream in the southern part of the city, near Assi Ghat; the old city is located on the north shores of the Ganges, bounded by Assi. In the Rigveda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi known as "City of Light", the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning".
The name was used by pilgrims dating from Buddha's days. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā, Avimukta, Ānandavana, Rudravāsa. According to Hindu mythology, Varanasi was founded by Shiva, one of three principal deities along with Brahma and Vishnu. During a fight between Brahma and Shiva, one of Brahma's five heads was torn off by Shiva; as was the custom, the victor carried the slain adversary's head in his hand and let it hang down from his hand as an act of ignominy, a sign of his own bravery. A bridle was put into the mouth. Shiva thus dishonored Brahma's head, kept it with him at all times; when he came to the city of Varanasi in this state, the hanging head of Brahma dropped from Shiva's hand and disappeared in the ground. Varanasi is therefore considered an holy site; the Pandavas, the protagonists of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, are said to have visited the city in search of Shiva to atone for their sin of fratricide and Brāhmana
Jayasiṃha, who assumed the title Siddharāja, was an Indian king who ruled western parts of India. He was a member of the Chaulukya dynasty. Jayasimha's capital was located at Anahilapataka in present-day Gujarat. Besides large parts of Gujarat, his control extended to parts of Rajasthan: he subdued the Shakambhari Chahamana king Arnoraja, the former Naddula Chahamana ruler Asharaja acknowledged his suzerainty. Jayasimha annexed a part of Malwa by defeating the Paramaras, he waged an inconclusive war against the Chandela king Madanavarman. Jayasimha's daughter Kanchana married Arnoraja; the couple's son Someshvara was brought up by Jayasimha at the Chaulukya court. Jayasimha was a son of the Chaulukya king queen Mayanalla-devi. According to folklore, he was born in Palanpur. Jayasimha was so named by the old ladies of the Chaulukya palace, he assumed the title "Siddharaja". The 12th century Jain scholar Hemachandra mentions a legend according to which Karna prayed to the goddess Lakshmi for a son, he restored a temple of Lakshmi, meditated for a long time, overcoming seductive apsaras and a threatening demon.
The goddess Lakshmi appeared before him, blessed him, as a result of which Jayasimha was born. The 14th century author Merutunga does not mention Hemachandra's semi-mythical account, but he mentions another legend about Jayasimha's childhood: at the age of 3, Jayasimha climbed on the royal throne, sat there. The astrologers declared that this had happened at an auspicious moment, so Karna performed his son's coronation ceremony and there. Merutunga dates this event to 7 January 1094, therefore, suggests that Jayasimha was born in 1091 CE. However, this account does not seem to be accurate as it has not been mentioned by earlier authors such as Hemachandra. In his Dvyashraya, Hemachandra mentions several mythical tales presenting Jayasimha as an epic hero. Had Merutunga's account been accurate, Hemachandra would not have failed to mention it. According to Hemachandra, Jayasimha's father Karna had a brother named Kshemaraja who renounced his rights to the throne. Kshemaraja's descendants were Devaprasada and Kumarapala.
When Karna died, Devaprasada left his son Tribhuvanapala in Jayasimha's care and committed suicide by immolating himself on Karna's funeral pyre. Jayasimha treated Tribhuvanapala like his own son. All other chroniclers state that Jayasimha hated Tribhuvanapala's son Kumarapala; as Hemachandra was a courtier of both Jayasimha and Kumarapala, historian A. K. Majumdar theorizes that he created a fictional account to hide an unpleasant truth. According to Majumdar, Karna banished Devaprasada to avoid any rival claims to the throne. After Karna's death, Devaprasada tried to usurp the throne, taking advantage of Jayasimha's young age. However, Karna's wife Mayanalla and her loyal minister Santu had Devaprasada killed. Mayanalla acted as a regent for the young king Jayasimha. Multiple literary sources as well as inscriptions establish that Jayasimha defeated Khangara alias Navaghana, the king of Saurashtra. According to Merutunga, Khangara was an Abhira, which suggests that he belonged to the Chudasama dynasty.
Jayasimha's Dahod inscription boasts. According to bardic legends, Khangara married a woman coveted by Jayasimha, because of which the Chaulukya king invaded Khangara's kingdom. However, this legend is not credible. Jain chronicler Prabhachandra mentions that Siddharaja had first dispatched an army led by Kirtipala to attack Navaghana; when this army was unsuccessful, another force led by Udayana was dispatched in its support. This joint army defeated Navagaha. Prabhachandra goes on to mention that Jayasimha killed Khangara. According to Merutunga, Navaghana was another name of Khangara. So, it appears that Khangara was not subdued in the battle in which Udayana was killed. Merutunga claims that Khangara defeated Jayasimha 11 times, but the Chaulukya king emerged victorious in the 12th battle. Merutunga's claim cannot be taken literally: 12 was a favourite number of the Jain writers, he may have used the number to emphasize the seriousness of the war. Merutunga's legend states that Khangara fortified Vardhamana and other cities.
He did not want to die by weapons, therefore, asked his nephew to kill him with coins if the enemy succeeded in scaling the ramparts. As a result, he was beaten to death with boxes full of coins. According to Jayasimha Suri, after defeating Khangara, Jayasimha appointed Sajjana as the governor of Girnar; this is corroborated by an 1120 CE inscription found at Girnar. Merutunga supports this claim, although he calls Sajjana the governor of Saurashtra. Historical evidence indicates that Jayasimha was unable to capture all of Khangara's territories in Saurashtra: Jayasimha's successor Kumarapala had to send an army against the Abhiras. According to Prabhachandra, Jayasimha was unable to annex Khangara's kingdom because a large number of Khangara's followers continued to offer resistance; the Naddula Chahamana ruler Asharaja became a vassal of Jayasimha. It appears that Asharaja was dethroned by his rival Ratnapala, because of which he sought Jayasimha's help. Ashraja's 1110 CE and 1116 CE inscriptions do not mention Jayasimha as his overlord.
Ratnapala's 1120 CE and 1135 CE inscriptions prove that he was the ruler of Naddula
Bhima I was a Chaulukya king who ruled parts of present-day Gujarat, India. The early years of his reign saw an invasion from the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud, who sacked the Somnath temple. Bhima left his capital and took shelter in Kanthkot during this invasion, but after Mahmud's departure, he recovered his power and retained his ancestral territories, he crushed a rebellion by his vassals at Arbuda, unsuccessfully tried to invade the Naddula Chahamana kingdom. Towards the end of his reign, he formed an alliance with the Kalachuri king Lakshmi-Karna, played an important role in the downfall of the Paramara king Bhoja; the earliest of the Dilwara Temples and the Modhera Sun Temple were built during Bhima's reign. The construction of Rani ki vav is attributed to his queen Udayamati. Bhima's father Nagaraja was a son of the Chaulukya king Chamunda-raja. Chamunda was succeeded by Vallabha-raja and Durlabha-raja, in that order. Both Vallabha and Durlabha died childless. According to the 12th century author Hemachandra, Durlabha was fond of his nephew Bhima, appointed Bhima as his successor before his death.
Durlabha and Nagaraja died soon after Bhima's ascension to throne. Early during his reign, Bhima faced an invasion by Mahmud of Ghazni, whose plunder of the Somnath temple has been described in detail by the medieval Muslim historians. According to Ali ibn al-Athir, Mahmud started out from Ghazni on 18 October 1025. At Multan, he gathered supplies, he left Multan on 26 November, with a large army well-equipped to cross the Thar desert, reached the Chaulukya capital in December 1025 CE. According to the Muslim accounts, Bhima fled his capital Anahilapataka, he took shelter in Kanthkot. Mahmud's sudden invasion, coupled with the lack of any fortifications in Anahilapataka, may have forced Bhima to abandon his capital. Other residents of the city appear to have evacuated it, as the Muslim historians do not mention any massacre or looting in the Chaulukya capital. Mahmud rested at Anahilapataka for a few days, replenished his supplies, left for Somnath. A small force of 20,000 soldiers unsuccessfully tried to check Mahmud's advance at Modhera.
Historian A. K. Majumdar theorizes that the Modhera Sun Temple, constructed during 1026-1027 CE, might have been built to commemorate this defence. Mahmud advanced to Delvada. Although the town surrendered without offering any resistance, Mahmud massacred all its residents. Mahmud's army reached Somnath on 6 January 1026 CE; the Muslim historians suggest that the town was well-defended by a fort guarding the temple. According to Abu Sa'id Gardezi, the commander of the defending force fled to a nearby island. Other defenders put up a resistance. Mahmud desecrated the temple, looted a huge amount of wealth including jewels and silver idols. During his return journey, Mahmud came to know that a powerful Hindu king named Param Dev had gathered a large army to fight him. Gardezi, in his Kitab Zainu'l-Akhbar, states that Mahmud chose to avoid any confrontation with this king; the invader was carrying back a large amount of looted wealth, which may have motivated him to avoid a battle. Mahmud decided to return via Mansura in Sindh, although the route connecting Gujarat and Sindh was more dangerous than the desert route to Multan.
Muslim historians mention this incident. The 16th century historian Firishta identified Param Dev with Bhima I, calling him the king of Nahrwala. Historian A. K. Majumdar agrees with this identification, arguing that "Param" might be a Muslim mistranscription of "Bhima". Scholars who are critical of this theory identify Param dev with the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled the neighbnouring territory of Malwa. K. N. Seth and Mahesh Singh point out that Bhima had ascended the throne and was not a powerful ruler at the time of Mahmud's raid. In fact, as attested by the Muslim historians, he had fled his hid in Kanthkot; the Muslim historians before Firishta, such as Gardezi and Nizamuddin Ahmad, mention the king of Nahrwala and Param Dev as two distinct kings. Unlike Bhima, Bhoja was a famous ruler at that time. Bhoja was a Shaivite, according to the Udaipur Prashasti, had constructed a temple dedicated to Somnath, thus Mahmud's desecration of the Somnath temple in Gujarat would have motivated Bhoja to lead an army against him.
Based on these evidences, several scholars identify Param Dev with Bhoja. "Param Dev" is a corruption of "Paramara-Deva" or of Bhoja's titles Paramabhattakara-Parameshvara. According to the 12th century scholar Hemachandra, patronized by the Chaulukyas, Bhima defeated Hammuka, a ruler of Sindh; this claim has been repeated by the 14th century chronicler Merutunga. Hemachandra's account of Bhima's war against Sindh goes like this: one day Bhima's spies told him that the kings of Andhra and Magadha obeyed him. On the other hand and Karna not only refused to acknowledge his supremacy, but defamed him. Bhima marched to Sindh and crossing the Indus river in the process, he defeated Hammuka, forced to acknowledge his supremacy. He defeated Karna. According to the epic Mahabharata, the legendary hero Bhima defeated two other warriors: Jayadratha and Karna. Hemachandra's poetic account compares Bhima I to his legendary namesake, because the Chaulukya king had defeated the king of Sindhu and Karna. There is no epigraphic evidence of Bhima ha
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan; the definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. The Malwa region had been a separate political unit from the time of the ancient Malava Kingdom, it has been ruled by several kingdoms and dynasties, including the Avanti Kingdom, the Mauryans, the Malavas, the Guptas, the Paramaras, the Malwa sultans, the Mughals and the Marathas. Malwa continued to be an administrative division until 1947, when the Malwa Agency of British India was merged into Madhya Bharat state of independent India. Although its political borders have fluctuated throughout history, the region has developed its own distinct culture, influenced by the Rajasthani and Gujarati cultures.
Several prominent people in the history of India have lived in Malwa, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, the polymath king Bhoja. Ujjain had been the political and cultural capital of the region in ancient times, Indore is now the largest city and commercial centre. Overall, agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Malwa; the region has been one of the important producers of opium in the world. Wheat and soybeans are other important cash crops, textiles are a major industry. Several early stone age or Lower Paleolithic habitations have been excavated in eastern Malwa; the name Malwa is derived from the name of the ancient Indian tribe of Malavas. The name Malava is said to be derived from the Sanskrit term Malav, which means “part of the abode of Lakshmi”; the location of the Malwa or Moholo, mentioned by the 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang, is plausibly identified with present-day Gujarat.
The region is cited as Malibah such as Kamilu-t Tawarikh by Ibn Asir. The Malwa Culture was a Chalcolithic archaeological culture which existed in the Malwa region, as well as nearby parts of Maharashtra to the south, during the 2nd millennium BCE. Ujjain known as Ujjaiyini and Avanti, emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa region during India's second wave of urbanisation in the 7th century BC. Around 600 BC an earthen rampart was built around Ujjain. Ujjain was the capital city of the Avanti kingdom, one of the prominent mahajanapadas of ancient India. In the post-Mahabharata period—around 500 BC—Avanti was an important kingdom in western India; the region was conquered by the Nanda Empire in the mid-4th century BC, subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire. Ashoka, a Mauryan emperor, was governor of Ujjain in his youth. After the death of Ashoka in 232 BC, the Maurya Empire began to collapse. Although evidence is sparse, Malwa was ruled by the Kushanas, the Shakas and the Satavahana dynasty during the 1st and 2nd century CE.
Ownership of the region was the subject of dispute between the Western Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas during the first three centuries AD. Ujjain emerged a major trading centre during the 1st century AD. Malwa became part of the Gupta Empire during the reign of Chandragupta II known as Vikramaditya, who conquered the region, driving out the Western Kshatrapas; the Gupta period is regarded as a golden age in the history of Malwa, when Ujjain served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa and Varahamihira were all based in Ujjain, which emerged as a major centre of learning in astronomy and mathematics. Around 500, Malwa re-emerged from the dissolving Gupta Empire as a separate kingdom. During the seventh century, the region became part of Harsha's empire, who disputed the region with the Chalukya king Pulakesin II of Badami in the Deccan. In 756 AD Gurjara-Pratiharas advanced into Malwa. In 786 the region was captured by the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan, was disputed between the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara Pratihara kings of Kannauj until the early part of the tenth century.
The Emperors of the Rashtrakuta dynasty appointed the Paramara rulers as governors of Malwa. From the mid-tenth century, Malwa was ruled by the Paramaras. King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was known as the great polymath philosopher-king of medieval India. Under his rule Malwa became an intellectual centre of India, his successors ruled until about 1305. Malwa was several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire. Dilawar Khan Malwa's governor under the rule of the Delhi sultanate, declared himself sultan of Malwa in 1401 after the Mughal conqueror Timur attacked Delhi, causing the break-up of the sultanate into smaller states. Khan started the Malwa Sultanate and established a capital at Mandu, high in the Vindhya Range overlooking the Narmada River valley, his son and successor, Hoshang Shah, developed Mandu as an important city. Hoshang Shah's son, Ghazni Khan, ruled for only a year and was succeeded by Mahmud Khalji, the first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include parts of
Western Chalukya Empire
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka state, alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami; the dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital; the dynasty rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani.
For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River in the south, his exploits were not limited to the south for as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar and Bengal. During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the half of the 12th century.
The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi; this was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India in literature as the Western Chalukya kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, Sanskrit. Knowledge of Western Chalukya history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language inscriptions left by the kings, from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha in Kannada by Ranna and Vikramankadeva Charitam in Sanskrit by Bilhana; the earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II when the Western Chalukyas were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas and Tailapa II governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.
The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas employed titles and names used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami Chalukya dynasty of 6th-century, while other Western Chalukya inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas; the records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province, in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II. A few years Tailapa II re-established Chalukya rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta capital of Manyakheta by the invading Paramaras of Central India in 973. After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II moved his capital to Manyakheta and consolidated the Chalukya empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River and Tungabhadra River.
However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I in 1042. The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna and Godavari River called Vengi; the Western Chalukyas and the Chola Dynasty fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas but became influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi; when King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan and Gujarat although hi