Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval
The Jumanos were a prominent indigenous tribe or several tribes, who inhabited a large area of western Texas, adjacent New Mexico, northern Mexico near the La Junta de los Rios region with its large settled Indian population. Spanish explorers first recorded encounters with the Jumano in 1581; the last historic reference was in a 19th-century oral history, but their population had declined by the early 18th century. Scholars have argued that the Jumanos disappeared as a distinct people by 1750 due to infectious disease, the slave trade, warfare, with remnants absorbed by the Apache or Comanche, but as of 2008, self-identified Apache-Jumano in southwest Texas, an amalgam of Jumano, but Comanche and Apachean groups have 300 members with up to 3000 more claimed, they hope to be recognized as an official tribe. Spanish records from the 16th to the 18th centuries refer to the Jumano Indians, the French mentioned them in areas to the east, as well. During the last decades of the 17th century, they were noted as traders and political leaders in the Southwest.
Contemporary scholars are uncertain whether the Jumano were a single people organized into discrete bands, or whether the Spanish used Jumano as a generic term to refer to several different groups, as the references spanned peoples across a large geographic area. Scholars have been unable to determine what language was spoken by the historic Jumano, although Uto-Aztecan and Athabascan have been suggested; the Jumano have been identified in the historic record and by scholars as pottery-using farmers who lived at La Junta de los Rios, buffalo-hunting Plains Indians who visited La Junta to trade, and/or both the farmers and the buffalo hunters. In his book The Indian Southwest: 1580-1830: Ethnogenesis and Reinvention, Gary Anderson proposes that the Jumano were a people of multiple ethnic groups from various sections of present-day Texas, they combined and became a new people in a process of ethnogenesis, formed from refugees fleeing the effects of disease, Spanish missions, Spanish slaving raids south of the Rio Grande.
Cabeza de Vaca may have encountered the Jumano in 1535 near La Junta, the junction of the Conchos River and Rio Grande at Presidio, Texas. He describes his visit to the "people of the cows" in one of the towns, but these may have been the settled Indians of La Junta, they were people "with the best bodies that we saw and the greatest liveliness." He described their cooking method, in which they dropped hot stones into prepared gourds to cook their food, rather than using crafted pottery. This method of cooking is common among the nomads of the Great Plains, for whom pottery was too heavy to be carried and used extensively. For this reason, scholars think; the Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo first used the term Jumano in 1582, to refer to agricultural peoples living at La Junta. This area was a trade crossroads and seems to have attracted numerous Indians of different tribes, of which the Jumano were one group. Among the other names the Spanish used for Indian groups near La Junta were the Cabris, Passaguates, Amotomancos, Cholomes and Caguates.
A member of Espejo's expedition identified as Jumano the buffalo-hunting people they encountered on the Pecos River near Pecos, Texas. The hunters were known to have close relations with the Indians at La Junta, but whether they were full-time bison-hunting nomads, or lived part of each year in La Junta is uncertain. Charles Kelley has suggested that the sedentary people living at La Junta were Patarabueye and the bison hunters were Jumano. In this scenario, the nomadic Jumano maintained close relations—and spoke a similar language—with the people living at La Junta, but were distinct from them. From their recognized homeland between the Pecos and Concho Rivers in Texas, the Jumano traveled to trade meat and skins to the Patarabueye and other Indians in exchange for agricultural products; the Spanish identified as Humanas or Ximenas the people associated with the Tompiro pueblo villages of the salinas, an area about 50 miles east of the Rio Grande on the border of the Great Plains. The pueblo called Gran Quivira was the largest of several Jumano towns.
This location enabled trading with the buffalo-hunting Indians of the Great Plains. The Jumano mined extensive salt deposits, for which the Spanish named the region salinas, they traded salt for agricultural produce. The people living in the Tompiro pueblos have been identified as speaking a Tanoan language; the historian Dan Flores has suggested that the Jumano associated with the Pueblo villages were the ancestors of the Kiowa, who are Tanoan-language speakers. The Tompiro towns were abandoned by 1672 due to fatalities from epidemics of introduced European diseases, Apache raids, burdensome Spanish levies of food and labor. Scholars have suggested. In 1541, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado encountered a group of people he called Teyas at the headwaters of the Brazos River. Scholars have since identified the Teyas as Wichita, or Jumano. Riley suggests that they were the nomadic relatives of the Pueblo villagers of Gran Quivira and the salines. Over the next two centuries, the people who became known as the Wichita were referred to as Jumano in the historic record.
Scholars agree that, at a minimum, the Jumanos comprised the nomadic bison-hunting people of the Pecos and Concho River valleys of Texas. Since as nomads and traders, they were fou
The Great Plains is the broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U. S. and Canada. It embraces: The entirety of the U. S. states of Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota Parts of the states of Colorado, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Wyoming The southern portions of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and SaskatchewanThe region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies, it covers much of Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, a narrow band of southern Manitoba. Despite covering a small geographic area, the Prairies are home to the majority of each of the three provinces' respective populations; the term "Great Plains" is used in the United States to describe a sub-section of the more vast Interior Plains physiographic division, which covers much of the interior of North America.
It has currency as a region of human geography, referring to the Plains Indians or the Plains States. In Canada the term is little used. There is no region referred to as the "Great Plains" in The Atlas of Canada. In terms of human geography, the term prairie is more used in Canada, the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or "the Prairies." The North American Environmental Atlas, produced by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, a NAFTA agency composed of the geographical agencies of the Mexican and Canadian governments, uses the "Great Plains" as an ecoregion synonymous with predominant prairies and grasslands rather than as physiographic region defined by topography. The Great Plains ecoregion includes five sub-regions: Temperate Prairies, West-Central Semi-Arid Prairies, South-Central Semi-Arid Prairies, Texas Louisiana Coastal Plains, Tamaulipas-Texas Semi-Arid Plain, which overlap or expand upon other Great Plains designations; the region is about 500 mi east to 2,000 mi north to south.
Much of the region was home to American bison herds until they were hunted to near extinction during the mid/late-19th century. It has an area of 500,000 sq mi. Current thinking regarding the geographic boundaries of the Great Plains is shown by this map at the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the term "Great Plains", for the region west of about the 96th and east of the Rocky Mountains, was not used before the early 20th century. Nevin Fenneman's 1916 study Physiographic Subdivision of the United States brought the term Great Plains into more widespread usage. Before that the region was invariably called the High Plains, in contrast to the lower Prairie Plains of the Midwestern states. Today the term "High Plains" is used for a subregion of the Great Plains; the Great Plains are the westernmost portion of the vast North American Interior Plains, which extend east to the Appalachian Plateau. The United States Geological Survey divides the Great Plains in the United States into ten physiographic subdivisions: Coteau du Missouri or Missouri Plateau, glaciated – east central South Dakota and eastern North Dakota and northeastern Montana.
The Great Plains consist of a broad stretch of country underlain by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian west to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 miles. It extends northward from the Mexican boundary far into Canada. Although the altitude of the plains increases from 600 or 1,200 ft on the east to 4,000–5,000 or 6,000 feet near the mountains, the local relief is small; the semi-arid climate opens far-reaching views. The plains are by no means a simple unit, they are of various stages of erosional development. They are interrupted by buttes and escarpments, they are broken by valleys. Yet on the whole, a broadly extended surface of moderate relief so prevails that the name, Great Plains, for the region as a whole is well-deserved; the western boundary of the plains is well-defined by the abrupt ascent of the mountains. The eastern boundary of the plains is more climatic than topographic; the line of 20 in. of annual rainfall trends a little east of northward near the 97th meridian.
If a boundary must be drawn where nature presents only a gradual transition, this rainfall line may be taken to divide the drier plains from the moister prairies. The plains may be described in northern, intermediate and southern sections, in relation to certain peculiar features; the northern section of the Great Plains, north of latitude 44°, including eastern Montana, north-eastern Wyomi
Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico
Zuni Pueblo is a census-designated place in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 6,302 as of the 2010 Census, it is inhabited by members of the Zuni people. The first contact with Europeans occurred in 1539 in the ancient village of Hawikku when Esteban, an Arab/Berber of Moroccan origin, entered Zuni territory seeking the fabled "Seven Cities of Cibola."It is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. Zuni Pueblo is located at 35°4′10″N 108°50′48″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.8 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,367 people, 1,488 households, 1,334 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 720.0 people per square mile. There were 1,622 housing units at an average density of 183.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.03% Native American, 2.12% White, 2.01% Hispanic or Latino, 0.03% African American, 0.03% Asian, 0.30% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races.
There were 1,488 households out of which 42.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 31.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.3% were non-families. 9.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.26 and the average family size was 4.54. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 34.7% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 16.8% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $22,559, the median income for a family was $22,067. Males had a median income of $18,345 versus $18,635 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $6,908. About 40.0% of families and 43.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.7% of those under age 18 and 41.7% of those age 65 or over.
The area is served by four miles to the west. Zuni Public Schools operates schools serving the community; the Zuni Public Library is located at 27 East Chavez Circle. In 1974 Dr. Lotsee Patterson and Ben Wakashige started a project to help tribal areas establish libraries; the Zuni library opened in 1975. Zuni Indian Reservation Zuni people Pueblo of the Zuni - official site Zuni Department of Tourism Historic photos of Zuni Pueblo, Timothy H. O'Sullivan, photographer American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque known locally as Duke City and abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Mexico and the 32nd-most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 558,545 in 2017. It is the principal city of the Albuquerque metropolitan area, which has 910,726 residents as of July 2017. Albuquerque's Metropolitan statistical area is the 60th-largest in the United States; the Albuquerque MSA population includes the cities of Rio Rancho, Placitas, Los Lunas and Bosque Farms, forms part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,171,991 in 2016. The city was named in honor of Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque, Viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1711; the growing village was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. The Duke's title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the province of Badajoz, near the border with Portugal. Albuquerque serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County, is in north-central New Mexico.
The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, the Rio Grande flows through the city. Albuquerque has one of the highest elevations of any major city in the U. S. ranging from 4,900 feet above sea level near the Rio Grande to over 6,700 feet in the foothill areas of Sandia Heights and Glenwood Hills. Albuquerque is home to Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, the University of New Mexico, Central New Mexico Community College, Presbyterian Medical Services, Presbyterian Health Services, the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque Biological Park, the Petroglyph National Monument, the New Mexico Technology Corridor, a concentration of high-tech private companies and government institutions. Albuquerque is the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the world's largest gathering of hot-air balloons, taking place every October; the name of the city has its origin through Latin, deriving from albus quercus meaning "white oak".
The name was given in reference to the prevalence of cork oaks in the province of Badajoz, which have white wood when the bark is removed. The first "r" in Alburquerque was dropped due to association with the prominent Portuguese general Alfonso de Albuquerque, whose family title and name originated from the town of Alburquerque in Spain, once a dominion of the kings of Portugal and used the Portuguese variant spelling of its name; the change was in part because citizens found the original name difficult to pronounce. Petroglyphs carved into basalt in the western part of the city bear testimony to an early Native American presence in the area, now preserved in the Petroglyph National Monument; the Tanoan and Keresan peoples had lived along the Rio Grande for centuries before European settlers arrived in what is now Albuquerque. By the 1500s, there were around 20 Tiwa pueblos along a 60-mile stretch of river from present-day Algodones to the Rio Puerco confluence south of Belen. Of these, 12 or 13 were densely clustered near present-day Bernalillo and the remainder were spread out to the south.
Two Tiwa pueblos lie on the outskirts of the present-day city, both of which have been continuously inhabited for many centuries: Sandia Pueblo, founded in the 14th century, the Pueblo of Isleta, for which written records go back to the early 17th century, when it was chosen as the site of the San Agustín de la Isleta Mission, a Catholic mission. The Navajo and Comanche peoples were likely to have set camps in the Albuquerque area, as there is evidence of trade and cultural exchange between the different Native American groups going back centuries before European conquest. Albuquerque was founded in 1706 as the Spanish colonial outpost of Villa de Alburquerque. Albuquerque was a farming community and strategically located military outpost along the Camino Real; the town was the sheep-herding center of the West. Spain established a presidio in Albuquerque in 1706. After 1821, Mexico had a military presence there; the town of Alburquerque was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern: a central plaza surrounded by government buildings, a church.
This central plaza area has been preserved and is open to the public as a museum, cultural area, center of commerce. It is referred to as "Old Town Albuquerque" or "Old Town", it was sometimes referred to as "La Placita". On the north side of Old Town Plaza is San Felipe de Neri Church. Built in 1793, it is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the city. After the American occupation of New Mexico, Albuquerque had a federal garrison and quartermaster depot, the Post of Albuquerque, from 1846 to 1867. During the Civil War, Albuquerque was occupied in February 1862 by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley, who soon afterward advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. During his retreat from Union troops into Texas he made a stand on April 8, 1862, at Albuquerque and fought the Battle of Albuquerque against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby; this daylong engagement at long range led to few casualties. When the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1880, it bypassed the Plaza, locating the passenger depot and railyards about 2 miles east in what became known as New Albuquerque or New Town.
The railway company bui
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Vázquez de Coronado had hoped to reach the Cities of Cíbola referred to now as the mythical Seven Cities of Gold, a term not invented until American gold-rush days in the 1800s, his expedition marked the first European sightings of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, among other landmarks. His name is Anglicized as "Vasquez de Coronado". Vázquez de Coronado was born into a noble family in Salamanca, Spain, in 1510 as the second son of Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Sosa de Ulloa and Isabel de Luján. Juan Vázquez held various positions in the administration of the captured Emirate of Granada under Iñigo López de Mendoza, its first Spanish governor. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado went to New Spain in 1535 at about age 25, in the entourage of its first Viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, the son of his father's patron and Vázquez de Coronado's personal friend.
In New Spain, he married twelve-year-old Beatriz de Estrada, called "the Saint", sister of Leonor de Estrada, ancestor of the de Alvarado family and daughter of Treasurer and Governor Alonso de Estrada y Hidalgo, Lord of Picón, wife Marina Flores Gutiérrez de la Caballería, from a converso Jewish family. Vázquez de Coronado inherited a large portion of a Mexican encomendero estate through Beatriz and had eight children by her. Vázquez de Coronado was the Governor of the Kingdom of Nueva Galicia, a province of New Spain located northwest of Mexico and comprising the contemporary Mexican states of Jalisco and Nayarit. In 1539, he dispatched Friar Marcos de Niza and Estevanico, a survivor of the Narváez expedition, on an expedition north from Compostela toward present-day New Mexico; when de Niza returned, he told of a city of vast wealth, a golden city called Cíbola, whose Zuni residents were assumed to have killed Estevan. Though he did not claim to have entered the city of Cíbola, he mentioned that it stood on a high hill and that it appeared wealthy and as large as Mexico City.
Vázquez de Coronado assembled an expedition with two components. One component carried the bulk of the expedition's supplies, traveling via the Guadalupe River under the leadership of Hernando de Alarcón; the other component traveled by land, along the trail on which Friar Marcos de Niza had followed Esteban. Vázquez de Coronado and Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza invested large sums of their own money in the venture. Mendoza appointed Vázquez de Coronado the commander of the expedition, with the mission to find the mythical Seven Cities of Gold; this is the reason he was lent 70,000 pesos. In the autumn of 1539, Mendoza ordered Melchior Díaz, commander of the Spanish outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán, to investigate Friar de Niza's findings, on November 17, 1539, Díaz departed for Cíbola with fifteen horsemen. At the ruins of Chichilticalli, he turned around because of "snows and fierce winds from across the wilderness". Díaz had encountered Vázquez de Coronado before he had departed San Miguel de Culiacán, reported that initial investigations into Friar de Niza's report disproved the existence of the bountiful land he had described.
Díaz's report was delivered to Viceroy Mendoza on March 20, 1540. Vázquez de Coronado set out from Compostela on February 23, 1540, at the head of a much larger expedition composed of about 400 European men-at-arms, 1,300 to 2,000 Mexican Indian allies, four Franciscan friars, several slaves, both natives and Africans. Many other family members and servants joined the party, he followed the Sinaloan coast northward, keeping the Gulf of California on his left to the west until he reached the northernmost Spanish settlement in Mexico, San Miguel de Culiacán, about March 28, 1540, whereupon he rested his expedition before they began trekking the inland trail. Aside from his mission to verify Friar de Niza's report, Melchior Díaz had taken notice of the forage and food situation along the trail, reported that the land along the route would not be able to support a large concentrated body of soldiers and animals. Vázquez de Coronado, decided to divide his expedition into small groups and time their departures so that grazing lands and water holes along the trail could recover.
At intervals along the trail, Vázquez de Coronado established camps and stationed garrisons of soldiers to keep the supply route open. For example, in September 1540, Melchior Díaz, along with "seventy or eighty of the weakest and least reliable men" in Vázquez de Coronado's army, remained at the town of San Hieronimo, in the valley of Corazones, or Hearts. Once the scouting and planning was done, Vázquez de Coronado led the first group of soldiers up the trail, they were horsemen and foot soldiers who were able to travel while the main bulk of the expedition would set out later. After leaving Culiacan on April 22, 1540, Vázquez de Coronado followed the coast, "bearing off to the left", as Mota Padilla says, by an rough way, to the Sinaloa River; the configuration of the country made it necessary to follow the river valley until he could find a passage across the mountains to the course of the Yaqui River. He traveled alongside this stream for some distance crossed to the Rio Sonora, which he followed nearly to its source before a pass was discovered.
On the southern side of the mountains he found a stream he