Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves; these representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. "Rule of the majority" is sometimes referred to as democracy. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes; the uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules.
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates back to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. Todd Landman draws our attention to the fact that democracy and human rights are two different concepts and that "there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights"; the term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy, meaning "rule of an elite".
While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class, until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy; these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, the freedom of its eligible citizens is secured by legitimised rights and liberties which are protected by a constitution. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. One theory holds that democracy requires three fundamental principles: upward control, political equality, social norms by which individuals and institutions only consider acceptable acts that reflect the first two principles of upward control and political equality; the term "democracy" is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism.
Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the "tyranny of the majority" in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of an "ideal" representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally "fair," i.e. just and equitable
Taipei known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan. Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City that sits about 25 km southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located in an ancient lakebed; the basin is bounded by the narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border. The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810, forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559, the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district; the name "Taipei" can refer either to the city proper. Taipei is the political, economic and cultural center of Taiwan and one of the major hubs in East Asia. Considered to be a global city and rated as an Alpha City by GaWC, Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.
Railways, high-speed rail, highways and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports -- Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks, which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House and several night markets dispersed throughout the city. Natural features such as Maokong and hot springs are well known to international visitors. In English-language news reports the name Taipei serves as a synecdoche referring to Taiwan's national government. Due to the ambiguous political status of Taiwan internationally, the term Chinese Taipei is sometimes pressed into service as a synonym for the entire country, as when Taiwan's governmental representatives participate in international organizations or Taiwan's athletes participate in international sporting events; the spelling Taipei derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.
The name could be romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin. Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines; the number of Han immigrants increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area. In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture; the Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh-fu the temporary capital of the island in 1887 when it was declared a province. Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894. Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku as its capital; the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.
Following the surrender of Japan to the United States of America of 1945, effective control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China. After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949. Taiwan's Kuomintang rulers regarded the city as the capital of Taiwan Province and their control as mandated by General Order No. 1. In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy by 1996; the city has since served as the seat of Taiwan's democratically elected national government. The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century. Han Chinese from Southern Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709. In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade that of tea export.
In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty. Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei, "the inner city", government buildings were erected there. From 1875 until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital. In 1885, work commenced to govern the island as a province, Taipeh was temporarily made the provincial capital; the city became the capital in 1894. All that remains from the historical period is the north gate; the west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang and have lost much of their original character. As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
After the Japanese take-over, called Taihoku in Japanese
Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice. While usage since the 1960s has referred only to setting oneself on fire, the term refers to a much wider range of suicidal options, such as leaping off a cliff, starvation, or seppuku. Self-immolation is used as a form of protest or for the purposes of martyrdom, it has centuries-long traditions in some cultures, while in modern times it has become a type of radical political protest. The British sociologist Michael Biggs compiled a list of 533 "self-immolations" reported by Western media from the 1950s to 2002, using the general definition, including any intentional suicide "on behalf of a collective cause"; the English word immolation meant "killing a sacrificial victim. Its etymology was from Latin immolare "to sprinkle with sacrificial meal. Self-immolation "setting oneself on fire as a form of protest" was first recorded in Lady Morgan's France, it was Western media coverage of Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức's suicide by fire in protest of the Buddhist crisis caused by the Vietnamese Ngô Đình Diệm regime in 1963 that introduced the word "self-immolation" to a wide English-speaking audience and gave it a strong association with fire.
The alternative name bonzo comes from the same era, because the Buddhist monks who immolated themselves were referred to by the term bonze in English literature before the mid-20th century when describing monks from East Asia and French Indochina. This term is derived from the Japanese word bonzō for a priest or monk, has become less common in modern literature. Self-immolation is tolerated by some elements of Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism, it has been practiced for many centuries in India, for various reasons, including jauhar, political protest and renouncement. Certain warrior cultures, such as those of the Charans and Rajputs practiced self-immolation; the act of sacrificing one's own body, though not by fire, is a component of two well-known stories found in the ancient Buddhist text known as the Jataka Tales, according to Buddhist tradition, gives accounts of past incarnations of the Buddha. In the "Hungry Tigress" Jataka, Prince Sattva looked down from a cliff and saw a starving tigress, going to eat her newborn cubs, compassionately sacrificed his body in order to feed the tigers and spare their lives.
In the "Sibi Jataka", King Śibi, or Shibi, was renowned for selflessness, the gods Śakra and Vishvakarman tested him by transforming into a hawk and a dove. The dove fell on the king's lap while trying to escape the hawk, sought refuge. Rather than surrender the dove, Śibi offered his own flesh equivalent in weight to the dove, the hawk agreed, they had rigged the balance scale, King Śibi continued cutting off his flesh until half his body was gone, when the gods revealed themselves, restored his body, blessed him. The Bodhisattva "Medicine King" chapter of the Lotus Sutra was associated with auto-cremation. In a previous life,'Medicine King' Bodhisattva burnt his body as a supreme offering to the Buddha; the Lotus Sutra describes the Bodhisattva Sarvarupasamdarsana drinking scented oils, wrapping his body in an oil-soaked cloth, burning himself. His body flamed for 1,200 years, he was reincarnated, burned off his forearms for 72,000 years, which enabled many to achieve enlightenment, his arms were miraculously restored.
Zarmanochegas was a monk of the Sramana tradition who, according to ancient historians such as Strabo and Dio Cassius, met Nicholas of Damascus in Antioch around 13 ACE and burnt himself to death in Athens shortly thereafter. Self-immolation has a long history in Chinese Buddhism; the relevant terms are: wangshen Chinese: 亡身 "lose the body" or Chinese: 忘身 "forget the body", yishen Chinese: 遺身 "abandon the body", sheshen Chinese: 捨身 "give up the body". James A. Benn explains the semantic range of Chinese Buddhist self-immolation, but "abandoning the body" covers a broad range of more extreme acts: feeding one's body to insects. The monk Fayu 法羽 carried out the earliest recorded Chinese self-immolation, he first informed the "illegitimate" prince Yao Xu 姚緒—brother of Yao Chang who founded the non-Chinese Qiang state Later Qin —that he intended to burn himself alive. Yao tried to dissuade Fayu, but he publicly swallowed incense chips, wrapped his body in oiled cloth, chanted while setting fire to himself.
The religious and lay witnesses were described as being "full of grief and admiration." Following Fayu's example, many Buddhist monks and nuns have used self-immolation for political purposes. Based upon analysis of Chinese historical records from the 4th to the 20th centuries, Benn discovered, "Although some monks did offer their bodies in periods of relative prosperity and peace, we have seen a marked coincidence between acts of self-immolation and times of crisis when secular powers were hostile towards Buddhism." For example, Daoxuan's Xu Gaoseng Zhuan records five monastics who self-immolated on the Zhongnan Mountains in response to the 574–577 persecution of Buddhism by Em
Lunghwa University of Science and Technology
Lunghwa University of Science and Technology is a private university of science and technology in the Taiwanese vocational education system based in Guishan District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. As its spirit of fundamental of initial creation in its school song, "a technical skill can be valued unlimitedly; the LHU is a multi-technology institution that has a good open-mined system and universal spirit of root cause studying architecture among structured cells. Popular undergraduate majors at LHU include electronics, mechanic, finance, international business, industrial management, multi-media and gaming science and leisure science and computer science. Popular fields of study among graduate students include electronics, computer science and finance. LHU claims to provide HTC, TSMC, UMC and other famous firms with more engineering, computer science and business graduates than any other college or university, philanthropic support of LHU is among the highest in the Taiwanese vocational education system and technical education system.
There are three colleges at LHU. Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electronic Engineering Department of Computer Information and Network Engineering Department of International Business Department of Finance Department of Business Administration Department of Information Management Department of Industrial Management Department of Applied Foreign Languages Department of Multimedia and Game Science Department of Cultural Creativity and Digital Media Design Department of Tourism and Recreation Sister schools of Lunghwa include: Chan I-hua – performed self-immolation on May 19, 1989 when the funeral procession of fellow activist Cheng Nan-jung was blocked by the police in front of the Presidential Office Building in Taipei on what is now called Ketagalan Boulevard. Chi Po-lin – photographer and film director List of universities in Taiwan List of universities in Taoyuan County, Taiwan Lunghwa University of Science and Technology website Lunghwa University of Science and Technology website
Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
Pe̍h-ōe-jī is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News. During Taiwan under Japanese rule, the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang martial law period. In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī.
Full native computer support was developed in 2004, users can now call on fonts, input methods, extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min. In the 2006, the Taiwanese Romanization System was developed based on pe̍h-ōe-jī for official use to write Hokkien phonetically; the name pe̍h-ōe-jī means "vernacular writing", written characters representing everyday spoken language. The name vernacular writing could be applied to many kinds of writing and character-based, but the term pe̍h-ōe-jī is restricted to the Southern Min romanization system developed by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century; the missionaries who invented and refined the system used, instead of the name pe̍h-ōe-jī, various other terms, such as "Romanized Amoy Vernacular" and "Romanized Amoy Colloquial."
The origins of the system and its extensive use in the Christian community have led to it being known by some modern writers as "Church Romanization" and is abbreviated in POJ itself to Kàu-lô. There is some debate on. Objections to "pe̍h-ōe-jī" are that it can refer to more than one system and that both literary and colloquial register Southern Min appear in the system and so describing it as "vernacular" writing might be inaccurate. Objections to "Church Romanization" are that some secular writing use it. One commentator observes that POJ "today is disassociated from its former religious purposes." The term "romanization" is disliked by some, who see it as belittling the status of pe̍h-ōe-jī by identifying it as a supplementary phonetic system instead of a fully-fledged orthography. Sources disagree on which of the two is more used; the history of Peh-oe-ji has been influenced by official attitudes towards the Southern Min vernaculars and the Christian organizations that propagated it. Early documents point to the purpose of the creation of POJ as being pedagogical in nature allied to educating Christian converts.
The first people to use a romanized script to write Southern Min were Spanish missionaries in Manila in the 16th century. However, it was used as a teaching aid for Spanish learners of Southern Min, seems not to have had any influence on the development of pe̍h-ōe-jī. In the early 19th century, China was closed to Christian missionaries, who instead proselytized to overseas Chinese communities in South East Asia; the earliest origins of the system are found in a small vocabulary first printed in 1820 by Walter Henry Medhurst, who went on to publish the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832. This dictionary represents the first major reference work in POJ, although the romanization within was quite different from the modern system, has been dubbed Early Church Romanization by one scholar of the subject. Medhurst, stationed in Malacca, was influenced by Robert Morrison's romanization of Mandarin Chinese, but had to innovate in several areas to reflect major differences between Mandarin and Southern Min.
Several important developments occurred in Medhurst's work the application of consistent tone markings. Medhurst was convinced that accurate representation and reproduction of the tonal structure of Southern Min was vital to comprehension: Respecting these tones of the Chinese language, some difference of opinion has been obtained, while some have considered them of first importance, others have paid them little or no intention; the author inclines decidedly to the former opinion. The system expounded by Medhurst influenced dictionary compilers with regard to tonal notation and initials, but both his complicated vowel system and his emphasis on the literary register of Southern Min were dropped by writers. Following on from Medhurst's work, Samuel Wells Williams became the chief proponent of major changes in the orthography devised by Morrison and ada
Ketagalan Boulevard is an arterial road in Zhongzheng District in Taipei, between the Presidential Building and the East Gate. It has a total of ten lanes in each direction with no median; the former name of this street is Chieh-shou Road, Chieh-shou meaning "Long live Chiang Kai-shek". On May 19, 1989 a pro-democracy activist named Chan I-hua performed self-immolation to protest the blocking of funeral procession of fellow activist Cheng Nan-jung. On 21 March 1996, when Chen Shui-bian was the mayor of Taipei, Chieh-shou Road was renamed Ketagalan Boulevard and the surrounding square was renamed Ketagalan Square in honor of the Ketagalan Taiwanese aborigines living in the Taipei area. However, Ketagalan Boulevard has been given other levels of political meaning and has become the protesting holy land of opposing political parties. Back when there was stern atmosphere in front of the Presidential Building, pedestrians had to pass by with their heads lowered. Motorcycles and bicycles were banned from Chieh-shou Road and a section of Chongqing South Road right in front of the Presidential Building.
When Chieh-shou Road was renamed Ketagalan Boulevard, the traffic signs banning motorcycles and bicycles on Ketagalan Boulevard and Chongqing South Road were removed, reminiscent of "lifting martial law". When renaming the road, it was announced that there was no disrespect intended to former President Chiang Kai-shek. Ketagalan Boulevard and the area surrounding the Presidential Building and East Gate is a popular location for mass political rallies. For example, after the 2004 presidential election, supporters of the Pan-Blue Coalition not satisfied with the result of the election occupied Ketagalan Boulevard and parading for an entire week. In the wake of the renaming of the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall to National Taiwan Democracy Memorial Hall by the DPP administration, Taipei Mayor Hau Lung-pin proposed to rename the section of Ketagalan Boulevard between the Presidential Building and Gongyuan Road Anti-Corruption Democracy Square after the 2006 protests. However, there has not been any further debate about this name change since the renaming of the CKS Memorial Hall.
In February 2017, the Indigenous Ketagalan Boulevard Protest, surrounding the delineation of traditional lands, started on the Boulevard. Ketagalan Boulevard is 400 meters long. Along the road are three buildings, two parks and two parking lots. Among them are: Taipei Guest House Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China 2-28 Peace Memorial Park Jieshou Park dedicated to Lin Sen, President of the Republic of China from 1931 to 1943. List of roads in Taiwan