Chen is one of the most common East Asian surnames of Chinese origin. It ranks as the 5th most common surname in China as of 2007 and the most common surname in Singapore and Taiwan. Chen is the most common family name in Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, it is the most common surname in the ancestral hometown of many overseas Hoklo. Besides 陳/陈, an uncommon Chinese surname 諶/谌 sometimes is romanized as Chen because of mispronunciation.). It is romanised as Chan in Cantonese, most used by those from Hong Kong, sometimes as Chun; the spelling, Chan, is used in Macao and Malaysia. In Min, the name is pronounced Tan. In Hakka and Taishanese, the name is spelled Chin; some other Romanisations include Zen, Ding and Dunn from Taiwan. Chen can be variously spelt as Tan, Chan or Chin in Singapore, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. In Japanese, the surname is transliterated Chin. In Vietnam, this surname is written in Quốc Ngữ as Trần and it is the second most common surname. In Thailand, this surname is the most common surname of Thai Chinese pronounced according to Teochew dialect as Tang.
Chen was derived from the surname of the descendants of the legendary sage king Emperor Shun. When King Wu of Zhou established the Zhou dynasty in 1046/45 BC, he enfeoffed his son-in-law Gui Man. Gui Man was said to be a descendant of Emperor Shun, at the State of Chen, in modern Huaiyang County, Henan Province. Chen was conquered by Chu in 479 BC, the people of Chen adopted the name of their former state as their surname. During the Northern and Southern Dynasties period, Chen Baxian established the Chen Dynasty, the fourth and the last of the Southern dynasties, destroyed by the Sui Dynasty, it was during this period that nomadically-cultured Xianbei people had systematically assimilated into China's agrarian culture, adopted Chinese surnames under the state directives of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei. Fujian was the original home of a Chen clan before that migrated under "Trần Kinh" 陳京 to Dai Viet and whose descendants established the Tran dynasty which ruled Vietnam, certain members of the clan could still speak Chinese such as when a Yuan dynasty envoy had a meeting with the Chinese speaking Tran Prince Trần Quốc Tuấn in 1282.
Chen, used in Mandarin Dan, used in Thailand Dunn, used in Taiwanese, Holo Chan, used in Cantonese in Hong Kong, Macao and Malaysia Chin, used in Hakka in Singapore and Malaysia and Taishanese in America Gin, used in Taishanese Jin, used in Korean Tan, used in Teochew and Hainanese in Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand Tang or Taing, used in Teochew and Thailand Ting or Ding, used in Fuzhou Trần, Sấn used in Vietnamese Zen, used in Shanghainese Sen, used as an alternative spelling in Limbu, Limbuwan Chen Sheng Rebel leader of the Dazexiang uprising during the Qin Dynasty Chen Ping Minister and Chancellor of the Han dynasty Chen Tang general of the Western Han Dynasty Chen Gong Advisor under warlord Lu Bu Chen Wu General under warlord Sun Quan Chen Zhen Minister of Shu Han Chen Qun Official of Cao Wei Chen Tai Official and General of Cao Wei Chen Dao General under Warlord Liu Bei Shu Han Chen Deng Politician in the late Han Dynasty Chen Biao General of Eastern Wu Chen Shi General of Shu Han Chen Shou Historian and Author in the Early Jin Dynasty Chen Baxian Founding Emperor of the Chen Dynasty Chen Qian Second Emperor of the Chen Dynasty Chen Bozong Third Emperor of the Chen Dynasty Chen Xu Fourth Emperor of the Chen Dynasty Chen Shubao Fifth and Last Emperor of the Chen Dynasty Chen Shuda Official of the Sui Dynasty and Chancellor of the Tang Dynasty Chen Li, second and the last emperor of the Dahan regime in the late Yuan Dynasty of China Chen Cheng Chen Lin, naval general of Ming Dynasty and Commander-in-chief of the Battle of Noryang Chen Yuanyuan, concubine of Wu Sangui Chen Li, Cantonese scholar of the evidential research school Tan Ting-pho, Taiwanese oil painterDynastiesRulers of the Chen Dynasty Rulers of the Trần Dynasty Note: this list is ordered by given name used in English, regardless of spelling of surname and name order.
Agnes Chan, Hong Kong singer Alexandre Chan, Brazilian architect Andrew Chan, Australian criminal executed by Indonesia. Chen, Minister of Public Construction Commission of the Republic of China Arthur Chin, Chinese-American fighter ace in the Second Sino-Japanese War, recognized as the United States' first ace in World War II Tan Boon Teik, former Attorney-General of Singapore Bruce Chen, Panamanian Major League Baseball player Charles and Lee-Lee Chan, parents of Jackie Chan Cheer Chen, Taiwanese singer and songwriter Chen Changwen, Chinese politician and lawyer Chen Cheng, Chinese politician and general, Vice President and Premier of the Republic of China Chen Chi-chung, acting Minister of Council of Agriculture of the Republic of China Chen In-chin, Chairperson of Central Election Commission of the Republic of China Tan Cheng Bock, Singaporean politician and doctor Tan Cheng Lock, fou
Martin Lee Chu-ming, SC, JP is a Hong Kong politician and barrister. He is the founding chairman of the United Democrats of Hong Kong and its successor, the Democratic Party, Hong Kong's flagship pro-democracy party, he was a member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong from 1985 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2008. Nicknamed the "Father of Democracy" in Hong Kong, he is recognised as one of the most prominent advocates for democracy and human rights in Hong Kong and China. A barrister by profession, Lee served as the chairman of the Hong Kong Bar Association from 1980 to 1983, he became involved in discussions over Hong Kong's handover to China, in 1985 he joined the Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee to assist in the drafting of Hong Kong's Basic Law, the city's mini-constitution post-handover. He was, expelled from the body in 1989 in the wake of the Tiananmen massacre, due to his condemnation of the Beijing government's role in the incident and his vocal support for the student protestors.
In 1985 he was elected to the Legislative Council, where he advocated for the protection of human rights and democratic reform. In 1990, he became the founding chairman of the first pro-democracy party in Hong Kong, the United Democrats of Hong Kong, its successor, the Democratic Party. Under his leadership, the party won two landslide victories in the direct elections of 1991 and 1995, emerged as one of the largest political parties in Hong Kong, he worked with the last Hong Kong Governor Chris Patten in an attempt to push forward constitutional reform in relation to democratic elections, attracting strong criticism from the Beijing government. In June 1997, he was forced to step down from his office when the colonial legislature was dissolved, alongside a number of other legislators, he stepped down as the chairman of the Democratic Party in 2002, in 2008 he retired as a member of the Legislative Council. He has remained active in advocating and lobbying for the democratic cause both locally and internationally.
A son of Kuomintang Lieutenant General Lee Yin-wo, Lee was born in Hong Kong on 8 June 1938 during his mother's vacation. He grew up in Hong Kong, when his father decided to move to Hong Kong after the Communist takeover of China in 1949, his father taught at a Jesuit school Wah Yan College, Kowloon for nine years after he move to Hong Kong and taught part time at the Institute of Chinese Studies. His father remained a good relationship with the Communist leadership, notably Premier Zhou Enlai who invited him back to Mainland, his father's funeral in 1989 was attended by people from both sides of the spectrum. Martin Lee studied at Wah Yan College and English Literature and Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong, sponsored by his mentor barrister Dr. Patrick Yu. After his graduation in 1960, Lee went on teaching for three years before he was sent to England to study law at Lincoln's Inn, he was called to bar and started practising in Hong Kong in 1966. During the Hong Kong 1967 Leftist riots, Lee defended the pro-Communist Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions at court and thus laid the foundation of the relationship with the Chinese Communist Party in the future.
In 1979, he was made Queen's Counsel. From 1980 to 1983, he was the chairman of the Hong Kong Bar Association. Lee began to be involved in politics when the British and Chinese government began their negotiations over the Hong Kong sovereignty in the early 1980s. Lee was in the delegation consisting of Hong Kong's young professionals led by Allen Lee, member of the Executive and Legislative Councils of Hong Kong in Beijing in May 1983; the delegation sought to sought to keep the status quo in Hong Kong and extend the British rule by 15 to 30 years. Their requests were turned down by the Beijing officials. Lee was concerned about the maintenance of judicial independence under Chinese rule and called for the maintenance of the Hong Kong's legal system, he suggested the creation of the independent Court of Final Appeal in replacement of the Privy Council after 1997. In December 1984, he was invited as one of the attendees at the signing ceremony of the Sino-British Joint Declaration. In 1985, he was among the 23 Hong Kong representatives invited by Beijing to sit on the Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee to draft the mini-constitution of the post-1997 Hong Kong, the Basic Law of Hong Kong, where he met another outspoken democrat Szeto Wah.
Lee and Szeto became the two dissidents in the Beijing-influenced Drafting Committee. Lee's father warned him that the Chinese Communists like to use people and get rid of them. Lee said he replied his father that "I know the chances of implementing this policy'One Country, Two Systems' and Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong are not great, but I know if I don't try, the chances are zero."In September 1985, Martin Lee ran in the Legislative Council elections when the Hong Kong government decided to introduce a handful of indirectly elected seats. His surprising victory over another prominent barrister Henry Litton and lawyer Edmund Chow in a three-way contest in the Legal functional constituency, elected by all the lawyers in Hong Kong, led him ascending to the centre of political stage, he retained his seat in the 1988 re-election unopposed. He became the most consistent voice pressing for rapid democratic reform. In the debate on the 1988 Green Paper on the Further Development of Representative Government, Lee was in the forefront for campaigning for introducing direction elections in the 1988 election with Szeto Wah who won a seat in 1985 through the Teaching constituency.
He and other liberals formed the Joint Committee on the Promotion of Democratic Government
Emily Lau Wai-hing, JP is a politician in Hong Kong who champions press freedom and human rights. A former journalist, she became the first woman directly elected to the Legislative Council of Hong Kong in the 1991 LegCo elections, she served as Legislative Councillor for the New Territories East throughout the 1990s and 2000s until she stepped down in 2016. She was the chairperson of the Democratic Party. Lau was born on 21 January 1952, her family moved to Hong Kong from the Guangdong in 1948 during the Chinese Civil War. In 1962, her family transferred her to the new English-language Maryknoll Sisters' School in Happy Valley, where she studied until 1972; when she was in primary school, she was given the English name Emily by her aunt. Lau travelled to the United States to study journalism studies at the University of Southern California from 1973 to 1976 and graduated with a B. A. in Broadcast Journalism. She cited the Watergate scandal and investigative journalism having had a major formative effect on her views on the role and potential of the press.
After returning Hong Kong, Lau worked between 1976 and 1978 as a reporter for the South China Morning Post, the major English-language newspaper in Hong Kong. She moved into television journalism when she joined the Television Broadcasts and promoted to senior producer in 1981, she furthered her studies in the early 1980s at the London School of Economics and completed an MSc in International Relations in 1982 followed a position as an assistant producer within the BBC from 1982 to 1984, while concurrently working as the London correspondent of Hong Kong TVB News. It was the time the People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom discussed over the fate of Hong Kong after 1997, she noted, "My passion for politics began to develop in 1982, when China told Britain that it would impose a settlement on Hong Kong if the two sides could not reach an agreement by 1984. From that moment, politics began to matter."Emily Lau returned to Hong Kong as Hong Kong correspondent of the Hong Kong-based Far Eastern Economic Review in 1984.
The position allowed her access and insights into the politics of the colonial Hong Kong. During the time Lau took up position at the Journalism and Communication Department of the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1987 and subsequently at the Extra-Mural Department of the University of Hong Kong. In December 1984, after signing the Sino-British Joint Declaration, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher flew to Hong Kong to give a press conference. Lau questioned Thatcher, "Prime Minister two days ago you signed an agreement with China promising to deliver over 5 million people into the hands of a communist dictatorship. Is that morally defensible, or is it true that in international politics the highest form of morality is one's own national interest?" Thatcher replied by saying that everyone in Hong Kong was happy with the agreement, Lau may be a solitary exception. She involved with the Hong Kong Journalists Association during this period, serving as an executive committee member, vice-chair and on chairperson from 1989 to 1991.
When the direct elections for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong were first introduced in the 1991 elections, Lau resigned from her posts and ran for office in the New Territories East geographical constituency. She campaigned for five months as a new breed of populist politicians in Hong Kong who can appeal wide range of Hong Kong populace; the elections saw with a liberal landslide victory, she became the first woman elected in direct elections along with other pro-democracy politicians of the United Democrats of Hong Kong due to the fear of Hong Kong populace towards Beijing after the Tiananmen massacre in early June 1989. In this period, Lau became a household name in Hong Kong and the legislator came to be both a champion of her constituents and a perceived thorn in the side of the Hong Kong administration, she was a critic of Britain and Beijing. The last British Governor Chris Patten aimed at a faster pace of democratisation. Governor Patten carried out the reform packages which enfranchised millions electorates in the functional constituency indirect elections.
Although the reform packages were ferociously criticised by Beijing government for violating the Sino-British agreements, she introduced a private member's bill which would allow all 60 Legislative Council seats to be directly elected in 1995. The bill was beaten by only one vote. In 1993, Lau tabled a motion to seek assurances of right of abode in Britain for the British National passport holders if expelled from Hong Kong after 1997; the motion was supported by 36 legislators but was rejected by the Secretary for Security Alistair Asprey. In October 1994, Lau led legislators in urging Britain to grant full citizenship to 3.5 million native Hong Kong British Dependent Territories Citizens. As the situation intensified, she led a cross-party delegation of Hong Kong legislators to Britain to lobby government and opposition politicians ahead of the LegCo debate; the five councillors met the British Foreign Secretary and other senior officials, but achieved little. In the 1995 Legislative Council elections, Lau was re-elected to the legislature by popular vote, winning with 58.51 percent of votes cast, the highest figure among all the geographical constituencies.
Growing disillusionment with the Democratic Party, the pro-democracy party formed and succeeded the United Democrats of Hong Kong in 1994, other liberal forces, Lau founded a new political grouping, The Frontier, in August 1996 which took a more aggressively pro-democracy, pro-human rights and anti-Communist Party stances and left wing positions on economic matters. Lau became the Convenor of the p
Andrew Wan Siu-kin is the former vice-chairman of the Democratic Party and a former member of the Kwai Tsing District Council for Shek Yam constituency. He was elected in the 2016 Hong Kong Legislative Council election through New Territories West. Born in 1969, Wan graduated from the City University of Hong Kong with the Bachelor of Social Science in Social Work and studied at the University of Essex from 2006 and graduated with Bachelor and Master of Arts in Sociology. In 2002, he joined the pro-democracy Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre as the assistant of legislator Leung Yiu-chung and ran in the 2003 District Council elections, defeating the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong in Shek Yam and was re-elected in 2007, he partnered with Leung Yiu-chung in the 2004 Legislative Council election in the second place and helped Leung to win a seat the LegCo although he was not elected himself. Wan quit the NWSC in 2008 and joined the Democratic Party in 2009. In the 2014 party leadership election, he was elected as Vice-Chairman of the Democratic Party.
In Hong Kong district council elections, 2015, he lost his seat in the Kwai Tsing District Council to newcoming Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong Li Sai-lung in Shek Yam with a margin of 54 votes. He was elected in the 2016 Hong Kong Legislative Council election through New Territories West
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.
Dr Law Chi-kwong, GBS, JP is a Hong Kong politician, the Secretary for Labour and Welfare. He is an associate professor in social work at the University of Hong Kong, he was a founding member of the Democratic Party of Hong Kong and its honorary secretary and spokesperson for women's issues, until he left the party to serve in the government. He served in the Legislative Council, in the Social Welfare functional constituency, between 1995 and 2004 except during the Provisional Legislative Council, serving on the Social Welfare Advisory Committee as well as many governmental and non-governmental bodies. In 2014, he was awarded the Gold Bauhinia Star by the government. Law studied for his bachelor's degree in economics and statistics and a master's degree in social work at the University of Hong Kong, he went on to earn an MBA at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and a doctorate in social welfare from the University of California, in Los Angeles. In 1981, he took up a teaching role in the Department of Social Work and Social Administration at the University of Hong Kong, has remained on the staff since.
From 1993 to 1997, he was head of department. His current position is associate professor. Law has been chairman of the Senior Citizen Home Safety Association and an executive member of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, he has been a board member of the Hong Kong Social Workers Association. Law was elected to the Legislative Council in the Social Welfare constituency, in 1995, 1998 and 2000, thus serving from 1995 to 2004, except for one year of the Provisional Legislative Council, he has served on the Commission on Strategic Development since 2005, the Steering Committee on Child Development Fund since 2008. He has been a member of the Land and Development Advisory Committee since 2009, a member of the Commission on Poverty since 2012. In 2017, he was nominated by Carrie Lam to serve as Secretary for Welfare, he withdrew from the Democratic Party prior to his appointment, because the party bars its members from serving in a government chosen by the pro-Beijing camp. Law has a daughter and a son.
Dr Law Chi-kwong, GBS, JP, Secretary for Labour and Welfare Member of the Legislative Council – Hon Law Chi-kwong, JP Dr. LAW Chi Kwong, The Department of Social Work and Social Administration - HKU
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon