Stropkov is a town in Stropkov District, Prešov Region, Slovakia. Stropkov is an economical and cultural centre of north Zemplín, it was established on left bank of river Ondava in a scenic central part of the Ondava uplands. For its origins as an ancient Slovak settlement we have to look back before the 13th century; the character of the main square is a proof that Stropkov used to belong to the royal lands and there are some similarities with the development of another town, called Bardejov. The first authentic written data about the town is from 1404, when Stropkov was labeled as oppidum—townlet. German guests and soltys too were obtained with the same privileges as their fellows in Bardejov and other towns; the first owner of the town after the king was Ladislav Svatojursky. The other landlords in order were Balickovci, Peteovci. In 1408 town's toll and castle—castellum—were mentioned for the first time; the development of the town and its whole economic expansion was supported by the law of thirty and market in 1698, strengthened by Leopold I with six annual fairs.
Stropkov's manor owned about 51 villages in that time. The existence of a big department, which articles dated back in 1575 was an extraordinary event in the history of Slovakia. In this department many different people were united, for example: jewelers, butchers, saddlers, swordfishes and shopkeepers. Craftsmen from Stropkov were known not only in their hometown, they were selling their products in markets of towns in regions like Zemplin and Šariš as well. In the process of successful development, Stropkov was touched by status’ rebellions of Imrich Thokoly and Francis II Rákóczi. We can deduct this fact from region list from year 1715, where it is written that in Stropkov in that times lived only 7 bourgeoises who did pay taxes. In 1764 Peteovci family died out, manor was divided into 6 parts, including Staraiovci, Keglevicovci, Dezofiovci and Barkociovci. In 1785 about 204 houses and 1326 inhabitants were to found in the town. Stropkov was the third town with the most numbers of residents in the Zemplin region with 87 craftsmen and it was the second important craftsman centre after Humenné town.
In that period it became a residence of Zemplin chair. This situation lasted in next few years: 1848, 1918 and 1945, up until 1960. Since the 18th century the town started to decay. In 1828 there were 2250 inhabitants. Many other numbers speak about the evident stagnation: in 1869 used to live there 2502 inhabitants while in 1900 only 2276. After 1870 we can speak about mass emigration of native people. During the time between wars Stropkov and its district belonged to one of the most underdeveloped and poorest regions in Slovakia. Besides agriculture, the living works in woods. In the years of the Second World War economical decline was in progress. Only 487 houses with 3311 inhabitants were filling the territory of Stropkov during the wartime. Besides the complicated after war situation it is visible that the construction of Tesla factory and many other firms have had an important contribution to essential changes in demography and in infrastructure; when only 2695 people in 1950 lived in town, in 1991 there were 9719 people to be found.
The first written information about the school is from 1515, but indisputably the school was there a little bit sooner—in the previous century. In 17th century Franciscans came to the town and in 1921 the first redemptorist cloister was founded; the remains of the castle are situated in the storied building that occupies the east side of the church. Roman Catholic church, called The Holy Body of Jesus Christ, comes from 14th century. In 1675 it was supplemented with a Gothic castle chapel; the inside Baroque decoration is from 18th century. Uniate cathedral was built in 1947, Jewish synagogues have not been preserved. Only 20 kilometres away from Stropkov is located a most attractive place to relax—the Domaša reservoir; the nearby village of Tokajík is famous for the memorial of victims who died in the Tokajík tragedy in 1944. Jews first arrived in Stropkov fleeing Polish pogroms, in about 1650. About fifty years the Jews were exiled from Stropkov to Tisinec, a village just to the north, they did not return to Stropkov until about 1800.
The Stropkov Jewish cemetery was dedicated in 1892, after which the Tisinec cemetery fell into disuse. In 1939 the antisemitic Hlinka Party gain control of the Stropkov Town Council. From May–October 1942 the Hlinka deported Jews from the Stropkov area to Auschwitz, Maidanek, "unknown destinations". By the end of World War II, only 100 Jews remained in Stropkov out of 2000 in 1942; the first rabbi of Tisinec and Stropkov was Rabbi Moshe Schonfeld. He left Stropkov for a position in Vranov, he was succeeded in 1833 by Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Teitelbaum who served as Stropkov's chief rabbi until leaving for a post in Ujhely. The next incumbent was Rabbi Chaim Yosef Gottlieb, known as the "Stropkover Rov", he was succeeded by a son of Rabbi Chaim Halberstam of Sanz. His scholarship and personal charisma transformed Stropkov into one of the most respected chasidic centers in all Galicia and Hungary. Rabbi Moshe Yosef Teitelbaum, the son of the aforementioned Rabbi Yekusiel Yehuda Teitelbaum, was appointed as Stropkov's next chief rabbi in 1880.
The charismatic and scholarly Rabbi Yitzhak Hersh Amsel, the son of P
Chaim Tzvi Teitelbaum
Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Teitelbaum, the Sigheter Rebbe, author of Atzei Chaim, was the oldest son of Rabbi Chananya Yom Tov Lipa Teitelbaum the Kedushas Yom Tov. He was the elder brother of Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum and father of Moshe Teitelbaum, both rebbes of Satmar. Chaim Tzvi Teitelbaum married Bracha Sima Halberstam, a sister of Rebbitzen Chaya Freidel Halberstam, the wife of Rabbi Ben Zion Halberstam, the second Bobover Rebbe. Together they had four children. One was the late Satmar Rebbe. Another was Rabbi Yekutiel Yehuda Teitelbaum, who succeeded him as Sigheter Rebbe until he died in the Holocaust. One daughter married Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam, Sanz-Klausenburg'er Rebbe, but died in the Holocaust, their youngest daughter, married Rabbi Yechiel Yehuda Isaacson, known as the Rav of Achuza-Haifa. Atzei Chaim - a Hasidic commentary on the Torah. Atzei Chaim - commentary on moadim Atzei Chaim - commentary on meshechtes Gittin Atzei Chaim - Shalios utshovos responsa Atzei Chaim - commentary on hilchos mikvahos Atzei Chaim- commentary on Tehilem Rabbi Shlomo Zalmen Friedman, Rabbi of Tenke Rabbi Mordechai Wulliger author of many books including - Otzer Hashas Kovetz Hatosfes Pardes Mordechai Tefillos Mordechai.
Rabbi David Hoch. Rabbi Chaim Shmuel Kleinman. Rabbi Avrohom Yosef Kleinman
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, spread throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States. Israel Ben Eliezer, the "Baal Shem Tov", is regarded as its founding father, his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion, its members adhere both to Orthodox Jewish practice – with the movement's own unique emphases – and the traditions of Eastern European Jews, so much so that many of the latter, including various special styles of dress and the use of the Yiddish language, are nowadays associated exclusively with Hasidism. Hasidic thought draws on Lurianic Kabbalah, and, to an extent, is a popularization of it. Teachings emphasize God's immanence in the universe, the need to cleave and be one with him at all times, the devotional aspect of religious practice, the spiritual dimension of corporeality and mundane acts.
Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered a spiritual authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God; the various "courts" share basic convictions, but operate apart, possess unique traits and customs. Affiliation is retained in families for generations, being Hasidic is as much a sociological factor – entailing, as it does, birth into a specific community and allegiance to a dynasty of Rebbes – as it is a purely religious one. There are several "courts" with many thousands of member households each, hundreds of smaller ones; as of 2016, there were over 130,000 Hasidic households worldwide, about 5% of the global Jewish population. The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning "pietist" and "piety", have a long history in Judaism; the Talmud and other old sources refer to the "Pietists of Old" who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer.
The phrase denoted devoted individuals who not only observed the Law to its letter, but performed good deeds beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir: "Adam was a great hasid, having fasted for 130 years." The first to adopt the epithet collectively were the hasidim in Second Temple period Judea, known as Hasideans after the Greek rendering of their name, who served as the model for those mentioned in the Talmud. The title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In 12th-century Rhineland, or Ashkenaz in Jewish parlance, another prominent school of ascetics named themselves hasidim. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Luria's version of the Shulchan Aruch that, "One who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, must conduct himself in the manner of the Pious." The movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation.
But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s, the names acquired a new meaning. Its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim; the transformation was slow: The movement was at first referred to as "New Hasidism" by outsiders to separate it from the old one, its enemies derisively mocked its members as Mithasdim, " pretend hasidim". Yet the young sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse, at least, Hasid came to denote someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement, it entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning "adherent" or "disciple". One was not a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular; this linguistic transformation paralleled that of the word tzaddik, "righteous", which the Hasidic leaders adopted for themselves – though they are known colloquially as Rebbes or by the honorific Admor.
Denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature tzaddik became synonymous with the hereditary master heading a sect of followers. The lengthy history of Hasidism, the numerous schools of thought therein, its use of the traditional medium of homiletic literature and sermons – comprising numerous references to earlier sources in the Pentateuch and exegesis as a means to grounding oneself in tradition – as the sole channel to convey its ideas, all made the isolation of a common doctrine challenging to researchers; as noted by Joseph Dan, "Every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed". Motifs presented by scholars in the past as unique Hasidic contributions were revealed to have been common among both their predecessors and opponents, all the more so regarding many other traits that are extant – these play, Dan added, "a prominent role in modern non-Hasidic and anti-Hasidic writings as well"; the difficulty of separating the movement's philosophy from that of its main inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah, determining what was novel and what a recapitulation baffled historians.
Some, like Louis Jacobs, regarded the early masters as innovators who introduced "much, new if only by emphasis".
Tolcsva is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary. It is the birthplace of film pioneer William Fox. Barna Buza, Hungarian politician and jurist, Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Justice Béla Mezőssy, Hungarian politician, Secretary of Agriculture and Minister of Agriculture William Fox, Hungarian-American businessman, founder of the Fox Film Corporation and the Fox West Coast Theatres Street map
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Rebbe is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means "master", "teacher", or "mentor". Like the title rabbi, it refers to leaders of Judaism. In common parlance of modern times, the phrase the Rebbe is used by Hasidim to refer to the leader of their Hasidic movement; the Yiddish term rebbe comes from the Hebrew word rabbi, meaning "My Master", the way a student would address a master of Torah. It was an honorific given to those who had Smicha in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era. Since vowels were not written at the time, it is impossible to know whether it was pronounced rah-bee or r-bee; the English word rabbi comes directly from this form. In Yiddish, the word became reb-eh —now spelled rebbe (—or just reb; the word master רב rav means "great one". The Sages of the Mishnah known as the Tannaim, from the 1st and 2nd centuries of the common era, were known by the title Rabbi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the leader of Jewry in Mishnaic Times, was called Rabbi, as being the rabbi par excellence of his generation.
The Sages of the Talmud known as the Amoraim, from the 3rd, 4th and early 5th centuries, those born in the Land of Israel, are called Rabbi. Today, rebbe is used in the following ways: Rabbi, a teacher of Torah – Yeshiva students or cheder students, when talking to their Teacher, would address him with the honorific Rebbe, as the Yiddish-German equivalent to the Hebrew word Rabbi. Personal mentor and teacher—A person's main Rosh Yeshiva, Yeshiva teacher, or mentor, who teaches him or her Talmud and Torah and gives religious guidance, is referred to as rebbe as an equivalent to the term "rabbi". Spiritual leader—The spiritual head of a Hasidic movement is called a rebbe, his followers would address him as "The Rebbe" or refer to him when speaking to others as "the Rebbe" or "my Rebbe". He is referred to by others as the Rebbe of a particular Hasidut. In Hebrew, a hasidic rebbe is referred to as an AdMoR, an abbreviation for Adoneinu, Moreinu, veRabbenu. In writing, this title is placed before the name of the Hasidut, as in "Admor of Belz".
In the Litvishe world, when not referring to a hasidic rebbe, the word can be pronounced "rebbee". Sephardic Jews can pronounce it as "Ribbi"; the Lubavitcher hasidim have a tradition that the Hebrew letters that make up the word rebbe are an acronym for "Rosh Bnei Yisroel", meaning "a spiritual head of the Children of Israel". An ordinary communal rabbi, or rebbe in Yiddish, is sometimes distinct from a rav, a more authoritative halakhic decider. A significant function of a rav is to answer questions of halakha, but he is not as authoritative as a posek; the short form reb is an honorific for Orthodox Jewish men, who are most to have profound knowledge of the Talmud and Torah, as opposed to Reconstructionist, Reform or Conservative Judaism. This title was added to the names of Jews at the time of the schism with the Karaite sect, as a sign of loyalty to the original rabbinic tradition, known today as Orthodox Judaism; as a rule, among hasidim, rebbe is referred to in Hebrew as admor, an abbreviation for Hebrew adoneinu moreinu v'rabeinu, meaning'our master, our teacher, our rabbi', now the modern Hebrew word in Israel for rebbe.
Hasidim use the term rebbe in a more elevated manner, to denote someone that they perceive not only as the religious leader or nasi of their congregation, but as their spiritual adviser and mentor. The Rebbe or my Rebbe in this sense is a rav or rabbi whose views and advice are accepted not only on issues of religious law and practice, but in all arenas of life, including political and social issues. Sometimes a hasid has a rebbe as his spiritual guide and an additional rav for rulings on issues of halakha. Hasidim use the concept of a rebbe in the simple sense of rabbi, as the Yiddish-German equivalent to the Hebrew word רַבִּי rabi. For example: "I will ask my rebbe, Rabbi Ploni, for advice about this personal matter." A Hasidic rebbe is taken to mean a great leader of a Hasidic dynasty referred to as "Grand Rabbi" in English or an ADMOR, a Hebrew acronym for Adoneinu-Moreinu-veRabbeinu. Outside of Hasidic circles, the term "Grand Rabbi" has been used to refer to a rabbi with a higher spiritual status.
The practice became widespread in America in the early 1900s when Hasidic rebbes began to emigrate to the United States, was derived from the German Grossrabbiner. Rabbi Yisroel Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism, is regarded by Hasidim as the first Hasidic rebbe. During his lifetime he was referred to as "The holy" rather than as "Rebbe", his disciples were "magidim" or "preachers", such as the Magid of Chernobyl or the Magid of Mezritch; the first "rebbe" to be known as such was the Baal Shem Tov's grandson, Rabbi Boruch of Mezhibozh, referred to as "The Rebbe" during his lifetime. After him, those who rose to positions of leadership and their successors began to be called rebbe; the title came to suggest a higher spiritual status. Each Hasidic group refers to its leader as "the rebbe". Hannah Rachel Verbermacher known as the Maiden of Ludmir or the "Ludmirer M
Tiachiv is a city located on the Tisza River in Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Tiachiv Raion. Population: 9,043 . There are several alternative names used for this city: Rusyn: Тячево, German: Groß-Teutschenau, Hungarian: Técső, Romanian: Teceu Mare, Slovak: Tyachovo, Russian: Тячев. In the year 1211 the town was mentioned the first time as Tecu. In 1333 as Thecho, in 1334 Teucev, in 1335 Theuchev; the town was founded by Hungarian colonists in the second half of 13 century. Until 1920, as part of Máramaros County it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1939, following the annexation of the whole of Carpathian Ruthenia, the city became again part of Hungary until the end of World War II. In 2001, the population of Tiachiv region included: Ukrainians Hungarians Romanians Russians The climate in Tiachiv is a mild/cool summer subtype of the humid continental climate. Tiachiv is twinned with: Bucha, Ukraine Nagykálló, Hungary Jászberény, Hungary Kazincbarcika, Hungary Vác, Hungary Negrești-Oaș, Romania Bardejov, Slovakia Simon Hollósy, Hungarian painter and prominent teacher, a member of the influential Nagybánya artists' colony founded in 1896.
Tiachiv in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine