Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs is an American actor and singer. He has appeared in a number of films and television shows, including Claudine, Cooley High, Welcome Back, Kotter and Mash, The Jacksons: An American Dream. Hilton-Jacobs was born in New York City, New York, United States, the fifth of nine children of parents Hilton Jacobs and Clothilda Jacobs, he attended Wilkes University for a short time. He began his acting career in the summer of 1969 and graduated from the High School of Art and Design in 1971. Afterward, he studied acting with the world-famous Negro Ensemble Company and the Al Fann Theatrical Ensemble. In 1975, he won the role of Freddie "Boom Boom" Washington on the ABC hit comedy series, Welcome Back, Kotter. Hilton-Jacobs starred in a few commercials over the years, including an early 1970s commercial for The United Negro College Fund. In his career, he appeared in the 1989-1990 science fiction TV series Alien Nation as Sgt. Dobbs, an LAPD detective, he portrayed Panda Thomas in Rob Zombie's slasher film 31.
Hilton-Jacobs portrayed Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, the father of the Jackson family, in the 1992 miniseries The Jacksons: An American Dream. He appeared in a commercial for Salon Selectives. Hilton-Jacobs sang on Rick James' 1981 album Street Songs; as an homage to him, the public housing in Eddie Murphy's television program The PJs is named the Hilton-Jacobs Projects. He has two daughters. Claudine – Charles Death Wish – uncredited appearance as a mugger near the end of the film The Gambler - Street Basketball Boy Cooley High – Cochise Youngblood – Rommel The Annihilators – Floyd Paramedics – Blade Runner L. A. Heat – Det. Jon Chance Angels of the City – Det. Jon Chance L. A. Vice – Det. Jon Chance East L. A. Warriors - Chesare Chance – Det. Jon Chance Kill Crazy - Rubin Quietfire – Jesse Palmer Tuesday Never Comes - Druilet Indecent Behavior – Lou Parsons Mr. Right Now! - Lawrence-Hilton Jacobs Southlander – Motherchild Killer Drag Queens on Dope - Mr. Fly 30 Miles – Anthony Sublime – Mandingo Otis – Orderly Young American Gangstas - Elmer Reese Nocturnal Agony – Theodore Playin' for Love - Coach Preston Reid Airplane vs. Volcano - Jim Kirkland Mercy for Angels - Chief Tamales and Gumbo – Mr. Walker Dead Man Rising - Warden Dallas 31 — Panda Thomas/#1 Welcome Back, Kotter Baretta The Captain & Tennille The Comedy Company Roots For the Love of It Darkroom Fame Simon & Simon Hill Street Blues Alien Nation The Redd Foxx Show The Jacksons: An American Dream Pointman Roseanne Ellen Diagnosis: Murder Tracey Takes On...
Tidal Wave: No Escape Moesha L. A. Doctors Martin The Parent'Hood The Wayans Bros. Tidal Wave: No Escape That's So Raven Gilmore Girls Girlfriends Sliders Chuck Let's Stay Together Airplane vs Volcano The Christmas Gift I Love My Wife Deadwood Dick, Legend Of The West Delirious Ceremonies in Dark Old Men Mr. Right Now! I Can Do Bad All By Myself L. A. Vice Angels Of The City Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs S/T All the Way... Love Let. Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs on IMDb Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs at the Internet Broadway Database
Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, applies to concepts of chance and information entropy; the fields of mathematics and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space; this association facilitates the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions.
These and other constructs are useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness. Randomness is most used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input, are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators. Random selection, when narrowly associated with a simple random sample, is a method of selecting items from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, a random selection mechanism would choose a red marble with probability 1/10. Note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable, a random selection mechanism requires equal probabilities for any item to be chosen.
That is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen we can say the selection process is random. In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate. Many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, this evolved into games of chance. Most ancient cultures used various methods of divination to attempt to circumvent randomness and fate; the Chinese of 3000 years ago were the earliest people to formalize odds and chance. The Greek philosophers discussed randomness at length, but only in non-quantitative forms, it was only in the 16th century that Italian mathematicians began to formalize the odds associated with various games of chance. The invention of the calculus had a positive impact on the formal study of randomness. In the 1888 edition of his book The Logic of Chance John Venn wrote a chapter on The conception of randomness that included his view of the randomness of the digits of the number pi by using them to construct a random walk in two dimensions.
The early part of the 20th century saw a rapid growth in the formal analysis of randomness, as various approaches to the mathematical foundations of probability were introduced. In the mid- to late-20th century, ideas of algorithmic information theory introduced new dimensions to the field via the concept of algorithmic randomness. Although randomness had been viewed as an obstacle and a nuisance for many centuries, in the 20th century computer scientists began to realize that the deliberate introduction of randomness into computations can be an effective tool for designing better algorithms. In some cases such randomized algorithms outperform the best deterministic methods. Many scientific fields are concerned with randomness: In the 19th century, scientists used the idea of random motions of molecules in the development of statistical mechanics to explain phenomena in thermodynamics and the properties of gases. According to several standard interpretations of quantum mechanics, microscopic phenomena are objectively random.
That is, in an experiment that controls all causally relevant parameters, some aspects of the outcome still vary randomly. For example, if a single unstable atom is placed in a controlled environment, it cannot be predicted how long it will take for the atom to decay—only the probability of decay in a given time. Thus, quantum mechanics does not specify the outcome of individual experiments but only the probabilities. Hidden variable theories reject the view that nature contains irreducible randomness: such theories posit that in the processes that appear random, properties with a certain statistical distribution are at work behind the scenes, determining the outcome in each case; the modern evolutionary synthesis ascribes the observed diversity of life to random genetic mutations followed by natural selection. The latter retains some random mutations in the gene pool due to the systematically improved chance for survival and reproduction that those mutated genes confer on individuals who possess them.
Several authors claim that evolution and sometimes development require a specific form of randomness, namely the introduction of qualitatively new behaviors. Instead of the choice of one possibility among several pre-given ones, this randomness corresponds to the formation of new possibilities; the characteristics of an organism arise to some extent deterministically and to som
Chance (Candi Staton album)
Chance is the eighth album by American soul and gospel singer Candi Staton. Singles released from the album included "When You Wake Up Tomorrow", the title track, which became a top 20 R&B record; the album peaked at No. 23 on the US R&B Album chart and No. 129 on the Billboard 200. Side 1"I Ain’t Got Nowhere to Go" – 3:46 "When You Wake Up Tomorrow" – 6:41 "Rock" – 7:16Side 2"Chance" – 5:31 "I Live" – 5:10 "Me and My Music" – 5:50 Candi Staton - vocals Richard Taninbaum, Christopher Parker, Steve Jordan – drums Norbert Sloley, Carol Coleman, Francisco Centeno - bass guitar Eddie Colon, Michael Lewis, Errol "Crusher" Bennett - percussion Thom Bridwell - acoustic piano Patrick Adams - Fender Rhodes Philip Woo - synthesizer Jimmy Smith - keyboards Stan Lucas, Ken Mazur, Cornell Dupree, Ronald Miller, Emanuel "Rahiem" LeBlanc, Hiram Bullock, Jeff Mironov - guitar Arrangers: Patrick Adams & Ken Morris, Ray Chew Background Singers: Alfonso Thornton, Carole Sylvan & Michelle Cobbs Sam Burtis, Harold Vick, George Opalisky, Howard Johnson, Mike Lawrence, Virgil Jones, Gerald Chamberlain, Randy Brecker, Michael Brecker, Barry Rogers - horns Producers: Candi Staton & Jimmy Simpson Recorded at Sigma Sound Studios, New York Recording and Mixing Engineer: Andy Abrams Additional Recording Engineers: Carmine Rubino & Steve Tose Assistant Engineers: Craig Michaels, Matthew Weiner, Carla Bandini & John Potoker Mastered at Columbia, New York by Stuart J. Romaine Album Art Direction: Peter Whorf Photography: Mario Casilli
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. See glossary of probability and statistics. Probability quantifies as a number between 0 and 1, loosely speaking, 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty; the higher the probability of an event, the more it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes are both probable; these concepts have been given an axiomatic mathematical formalization in probability theory, used in such areas of study as mathematics, finance, science, artificial intelligence/machine learning, computer science, game theory, philosophy to, for example, draw inferences about the expected frequency of events. Probability theory is used to describe the underlying mechanics and regularities of complex systems; when dealing with experiments that are random and well-defined in a purely theoretical setting, probabilities can be numerically described by the number of desired outcomes divided by the total number of all outcomes.
For example, tossing a fair coin twice will yield "head-head", "head-tail", "tail-head", "tail-tail" outcomes. The probability of getting an outcome of "head-head" is 1 out of 4 outcomes, or, in numerical terms, 1/4, 0.25 or 25%. However, when it comes to practical application, there are two major competing categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess different views about the fundamental nature of probability: Objectivists assign numbers to describe some objective or physical state of affairs; the most popular version of objective probability is frequentist probability, which claims that the probability of a random event denotes the relative frequency of occurrence of an experiment's outcome, when repeating the experiment. This interpretation considers probability to be the relative frequency "in the long run" of outcomes. A modification of this is propensity probability, which interprets probability as the tendency of some experiment to yield a certain outcome if it is performed only once.
Subjectivists assign numbers per subjective probability. The degree of belief has been interpreted as, "the price at which you would buy or sell a bet that pays 1 unit of utility if E, 0 if not E." The most popular version of subjective probability is Bayesian probability, which includes expert knowledge as well as experimental data to produce probabilities. The expert knowledge is represented by some prior probability distribution; these data are incorporated in a likelihood function. The product of the prior and the likelihood, results in a posterior probability distribution that incorporates all the information known to date. By Aumann's agreement theorem, Bayesian agents whose prior beliefs are similar will end up with similar posterior beliefs. However, sufficiently different priors can lead to different conclusions regardless of how much information the agents share; the word probability derives from the Latin probabilitas, which can mean "probity", a measure of the authority of a witness in a legal case in Europe, correlated with the witness's nobility.
In a sense, this differs much from the modern meaning of probability, which, in contrast, is a measure of the weight of empirical evidence, is arrived at from inductive reasoning and statistical inference. The scientific study of probability is a modern development of mathematics. Gambling shows that there has been an interest in quantifying the ideas of probability for millennia, but exact mathematical descriptions arose much later. There are reasons for the slow development of the mathematics of probability. Whereas games of chance provided the impetus for the mathematical study of probability, fundamental issues are still obscured by the superstitions of gamblers. According to Richard Jeffrey, "Before the middle of the seventeenth century, the term'probable' meant approvable, was applied in that sense, unequivocally, to opinion and to action. A probable action or opinion was one such as sensible people would undertake or hold, in the circumstances." However, in legal contexts especially,'probable' could apply to propositions for which there was good evidence.
The sixteenth century Italian polymath Gerolamo Cardano demonstrated the efficacy of defining odds as the ratio of favourable to unfavourable outcomes. Aside from the elementary work by Cardano, the doctrine of probabilities dates to the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal. Christiaan Huygens gave the earliest known scientific treatment of the subject. Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi and Abraham de Moivre's Doctrine of Chances treated the subject as a branch of mathematics. See Ian Hacking's The Emergence of Probability and James Franklin's The Science of Conjecture for histories of the early development of the concept of mathematical probability; the theory of errors may be traced back to Roger Cotes's Opera Miscellanea, but a memoir prepared by Thomas Simpson in 1755 first applied the theory to the discussion of errors of observation. The reprint of this memoir lays down the axioms that positive and negative errors are probable, that certain assignable limits define the range of all errors.
Simpson discusses c
Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks based in Spon Lane, West Midlands, in England. It was a pioneer of British glassmaking technology; the Chance family originated in Bromsgrove as farmers and craftsmen before setting up business in Smethwick in 1824. Situated between Birmingham and the Black Country in the agglomeration of the Midlands industrial heartland, they took advantage of the skilled workers and many advances that were taking place in the industrial West Midlands at the time; the Curie Harbour lighthouse on King Island Tasmania is still in operation. It was pre-fabricated by Chance Brothers in Birmingham and shipped in 312 pieces to King Island with no assembly instructions! It is of wrought iron and a cast iron base and was first lit 1880, it was out of operation between 1989 and 1995. King Island forms a barrier to the western approach to Bass Strait; the area between the island and Cape Otway, on the Victorian Coast, is known as the "Eye of the Needle", has claimed many ships and lives.
King Island's rugged coastline alone has claimed at least 60 vessels and more than 800 lives during the past 180 years. Throughout its two centuries of history many changes affected the company which, now privatised, continues to function as Chance Glass Limited, a specialised industrial glass manufacturer in Malvern, Worcestershire at one of its small subsidiary factories; the social and economic impact of the company on the region is the subject of a project sponsored by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Robert Lucas Chance, known as'Lucas', bought the British Crown Glass Company's works in Spon Lane in 1824; the company specialised in making crown window glass. The company ran into difficulty and its survival was guaranteed in 1832 by investment from Chance's brother, William who owned an iron merchants in Great Charles Street, Birmingham. After the partnership with the Hartley Brothers was dissolved in 1836, Lucas and William Chance became partners in the business, renamed Chance Brothers and Company.
Chance Brothers was amongst the earliest glass works to carry out the cylinder process in Europe, the company became known as "... the greatest glass manufacturer in Britain.". In 1832, it made the first British cylinder blown sheet glass using Belgian workers. In 1839, a further development named. In 1848 under the supervision of Georges Bontemps, a French glassmaker from Choisy-le-Roi, who had purchased the secret of the stirrer after the deaths of Pierre Louis Guinand and Joseph von Fraunhofer, the pioneers of the manufacture of high-precision lenses for observatory telescopes, a new plant was set up to manufacture crown and flint glass for lighthouse optics and cameras. Bontemps agreed to share the secret with Chance Brothers and stayed in England to collaborate with them for six years. Just three other companies in Britain made glass in the same way, Pilkington of St Helens, Hartleys of Sunderland and Cooksons of Newcastle. During 1832, Chance Brothers became the first company to adopt the cylinder method to produce sheet glass, became the largest British manufacturer of window and plate glass, optical glasses.
Other Chance Brothers projects included glazing the Crystal Palace to house the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Houses of Parliament. At that time it was the only firm able to make the opal glass for the four faces of the Westminster Clock Tower which houses the famous bell, Big Ben; the ornamental windows for the White House in America were made there. Other products included stained glass windows, ornamental lamp shades, microscope glass slides, painted glassware, glass tubing and specialist types of glass, they made a 24-inch flint glass lens for the Craig telescope. The French lens craftsman George Bontemps helped on the project, which for its day was a large lens, they only made part of the lens, a doublet, Thames Plate Glass Company made the other part. In 1870 Chance Brothers took over the failing Nailsea Glassworks but problems with coal supply lead to the closure of that business. Elihu Burritt the American philanthropist and social activist once said about Chance "In no other establishment in the world can one get such a full idea of the infinite uses which glass is made to serve as in these immense works".
In 1900 a baronetcy was created for James Timmins Chance, a grandson of William Chance, who started the family business in 1771. James became head of Chance Brothers until his retirement in 1889, when the company became a public company and its name changed to Chance Brothers & Co. Ltd. Sir James Chance was the first baronet; the company in partnership with the Ministry of Munitions' Optical Munitions and Glass Department expanded during World War I Another member of the family, Edgar Chance, a noted ornithologist, managed the business between the first and second World Wars. In the early 20th century, many new ways of making glass evolved at Chance Brothers such as the innovative welding of a cathode ray tube used for radar detection. In 1933, the company was reported to be involved in an attempt to contact "any intelligent life" on the planet Mars, using adapted lighthouse optics from a mountaintop, the Jungfrau, in Switzerland. Chance popularised slumped glass tableware, Fiestaware that included many innovative designs, including the famous Swirl pattern, Lace, Night Sky, Green Leaves, with floral depictions from 1965 with Anemone.
Pilkington Brothers acquired a 50% shareholding in 1945 but the Chance operation
Chancé is a former commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Piré-Chancé. Inhabitants of Chancé are called Chancéens in French. Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Mayors of Ille-et-Vilaine Association French Ministry of Culture list for Chancé
Handful of Rain
Handful of Rain is the eighth studio album by American heavy metal band Savatage, released in 1994. This is the first album since the death of the band's founding member and lead guitarist Criss Oliva who in turn had contributed to writing on two of its songs before his passing, namely "Taunting Cobras" and "Nothing's Going On". Handful of Rain marked the only time that Savatage had recorded together as a three-piece, their only release with former Testament guitarist Alex Skolnick, their only one without Johnny Lee Middleton since 1985's Power of the Night. Drummer Steve Wacholz had left Savatage by the time the album was recorded. Instead of replacing Middleton and Wacholz, Jon Oliva provided both drums and bass on the album as well as rhythm guitar, piano and backing vocals. Before the recording of the band's previous album, Edge of Thorns, Jon Oliva had temporarily left the band and stepped down as lead vocalist, was replaced on vocals by Zak Stevens. After the recording drummer and founding member Steve Wacholz left the band and was replaced by Andy James, who quit the band after Criss Oliva's death and was contacted by Zak Stevens and Jon Olivia about tracking drums for HOA but declined to do so.
The band's original plan for the next album was to have Jon Oliva rejoin the band on keys and secondary vocals, along with former rhythm guitarist Chris Caffery at a date, but this was shaken up due to the death of lead guitarist and founding member Criss Oliva at the end of 1993. Jon Oliva and producer Paul O'Neill decided to keep Savatage going to honour the memory of Criss, went to Morrisound Studios in Tampa, Florida to work on the next album, they had invited Middleton, Stevens and Caffery to join them, but these were still dealing with the death of Criss and did not show up. Jon Oliva and O'Neill started writing and recording the album together, with Oliva performing all drums and bass on the album, with both he and O'Neill responsible for rhythm guitar and keyboards. Oliva performed some lead guitar, but the pair enlisted former Testament guitarist Alex Skolnick to record most of the guitar solos, subsequently contacted vocalist Zak Stevens to record the vocal parts for the album; the first album since the death of Criss Oliva, the music is dark in reflection of brother Jon Oliva's loss.
"Chance" is about Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat in Lithuania during World War II who defied government orders by signing exit visas for thousands of Jewish refugees. "Castles Burning" is about Giovanni Falcone, an Italian magistrate killed by the mafia in 1992. "Alone You Breathe" is a tribute to Criss which reuses the chord progression and lyrics from the Streets song "Believe" in its long coda, part of the ending chorus in the Gutter Ballet song "When The Crowds Are Gone", although the lyrics do not mirror his death and the songs are not about him. The album marked the first time Savatage wrote a trademark vocal counterpoint in a song; the third section of "Chance" has at five overdubbed vocals from singer Zak Stevens. Although it was more a Jon Oliva's solo effort, the album was released on August 16, 1994 as the eighth Savatage album. Oliva could not appear as a band member for contractual problems and so the sleeve and booklet included photos of both Wacholz and Middleton to maintain a more "classic" Savatage line-up feeling to the release.
Wacholz is in the video for the song "Handful of Rain". Jeff Plate, a former bandmate of Stevens, did not play the drums on the album, but was pictured as part of the band line-up in the European edition of the album. Plate would become a full-fledged member of the band by the time of their next release, Dead Winter Dead in 1995; the title track was released as an abridged version, missing its second verse. Some editions of the album include the omitted piece, referred to by the band and fans alike as "The Barmaid Verse"; the touring band consisted of Stevens on lead vocals and Middleton on bass guitar as the only remaining members of the line-up from the previous album. The tour featured the official return of Jon Oliva to the band, who played keyboards, rhythm guitar and performed vocals on several songs; the line-up was rounded out by lead guitarist Plate on drums. The tour in support of Handful of Rain was documented in the live album Japan Live'94, released in 1995. In a contemporary review for Rock Hard magazine, Matthias Breusch was disappointed for not being able to elect Handful of Rain among the best records of the month, like he did with Edge of Thorns.
Despite sounding like a true Savatage album and a natural progression from previous works, he found the album lacking "catchy tunes" and "uptempo anthems", with the best tracks being slower songs and ballads exalted by Skolnick's guitar work. Modern reviews are mixed. Alex Henderson of AllMusic considered Handful of Rain an excellent album "that is melodic, ambitious operatic and absorbing" and the band "impressively consistent" after the personnel changes caused by Criss Oliva's death. Martin Popoff instead wrote that the album was "upsetting and confusing" for older fans, confirming the band's "fascination for power pomp, progressive light/heavy balladry", with less focus on fast heavy metal. Zachary Stevens - vocals Alex Skolnick - guitar Johnny Lee Middleton - bass Steve Wacholz - drums Jon Oliva - drums, bass guitar and lead guitar, keyboards, backing vocals, co-producer, co-lyricist Paul O'Neill - rhythm guitar, producer, lyricist Zachary Stevens - lead and bac