Chancery or chancellery is a general term for a medieval writing office, responsible for the production of official documents. The title of chancellor, for the head of the office, came to be held by important ministers in a number of states, remains the title of the heads of government in modern Germany and Austria. Chancery hand is a term for various types of handwriting associated with chanceries; the word chancery is from French, from Latin, refers to the lattice-work partition that divided a section of a church or court, from which derives chancel, cancel "cross out with lines", more distantly, incarcerate "put behind bars" – see chancery for details. In England, this office was one of the two main administrative offices, along with the Exchequer, it began as part of the royal household, but by the 13th-century was separate from the household and was located at Westminster. It produced all the writs, which were all sealed with the Great Seal; the office was headed by the Chancellor of England, was staffed by royal clerks.
It came into existence shortly before the Norman Conquest of England, was retained by King William I of England after the Conquest. In 1199, the chancery began to keep the Charter Rolls, a record of all the charters issued by the office. In 1201, the Patent Rolls, a similar record of letters patent began, in 1204 the Close Rolls, or record of letters close began. Although the English Chancery was responsible for most of the charters and writs issued by the government, they were not responsible for all of them, as the Exchequer and the justiciars continued to issue writs during the Angevin period. Whether there was a formal chancery office in Anglo-Saxon England prior to the Norman Conquest is a matter of some debate amongst historians; some hold that most royal charters in Anglo-Saxon England were produced by the beneficiaries of the charter. Other historians hold that by the 10th and 11th centuries most royal charters were produced by royal clerks, thus they were produced in some sort of chancery-like office.
The crusader states in the Levant had chanceries. In the Principality of Antioch, the office was responsible for producing all documents pertaining to the administration of the principality. One office holder in the Antiochene chancery was Walter the Chancellor, who wrote the only early history of the state. In the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the chancery produced hundreds of documents; the chancellor of Jerusalem was one of the highest posts in the kingdom. One famous chancellor was the chronicler William of Tyre. In the Duchy of Normandy, after 1066 a ducal chancery developed under William's sons Robert Curthose and Henry I; the French royal chancery first appears in a rudimentary form during the Merovingian dynasty. They borrowed from the diplomatic institutions of the late Roman Empire, had four officials clerics, called "referendaries" who guarded the king's seal; the documents are formulaic using the formulary of Marculf as a source. They used their own script, messy with many ligatures, their Latin was of poor quality.
After the Merovingians were overthrown by the Mayors of the Palace, the chancery began to develop more fully. The Carolingian chancellor was the Archbishop of Reims, he was a member of the king's council, while the actual business of the chancery was conducted by lesser officials. Louis the Pious created a new formulary, the Formulae Imperiales, the basis of formularies used in centuries, they used a different script, the more legible Carolingian minuscule. The Carolingian chancery took requests from those who wished to have a charter drawn up, the king would send missi to investigate the situation. In the Capetian period, the chancellor was still the Archbishop of Reims; the chancery itself tended not to write its own charters, but rather confirmed charters, written by the intended recipient. This reflected the relative powerlessness of the Capetian kings, unlike their Carolingian predecessors, controlled only the Ile-de-France, it was not until the 12th century that the chancellor became the head of the chancery, rather than the guardian of the king's seal.
This chancellor was a member of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, which developed in the 11th and 12th centuries. Because the chancellor had power over the granting of charters and other benefits, the kings saw them as a threat to their own authority, the office sometimes lay dormant for many years. Philip II abolished the post in 1185, the chancery remained without an official head for most of the thirteenth and part of the fourteenth century; the head of the chancery in this period took over the guardianship of the seal, was not a cleric. Documents in this period were signed as "cancellaria vacante"; when the chancellorship was restored in the fourteenth century, it was held by laymen and became the highest ranking of the Great Officers. In the fourteenth century the rest of the chancery staff consisted of secretaries, they were appointed by the chancellor and wrote royal letters and other documents that were not produced by the beneficiaries. The most important official after the chancellor was the audencier, who presided over the ceremony in which the chancellor affixed the royal seal to a document.
The chancery charged a tax to recipients of charters. The Capetian chancery used a minuscule script, documents were written in Latin until the thirteenth century, when French began to be used; the majority of the documents produced by the chancery were
Minot High School is the public high school in Minot, North Dakota, divided between two main campuses: Magic City and Central. MHS includes an alternative campus: Souris River Campus; the boys' athletic teams are known as the "Magicians" or "Magi", while the girls' teams are called the "Majettes". The school's mascot is a magician and the varsity teams compete against the largest high schools in the state in Class A. Football, Class'A': 1910, 1935, 1941, 1980 Basketball, Class'A': 1916, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1961, 1965, 1971, 1980, 1988, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2015 Hockey: 1992, 2015 Wrestling, Class'A': 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1993 Swimming: 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 Soccer: 1989, 2006 Track and field, Class'A': 1942, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1984 co-champions, 1985, 2001, 2002 Baseball, Class'A': 1999, 2005 Basketball: Class'A': 1978 Swimming: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2013 Track and field, Class'A': 1966, 1972, 1978, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 Ryan Bollinger, baseball player Josh Duhamel, actor Herro Mustafa, U.
The Ninth Congress of the Philippines was the meeting of the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines, composed of the Philippine Senate and House of Representatives. The convening of the 9th Congress follows the 1992 national elections, under the transitory provisions of the Constitution, the first 12 senators who garnered the highest votes would have a six-year term while the next 12 senators would have a three-year term and the entire membership of the House of Representatives was replaced. First Regular Session: July 27, 1992 – June 4, 1993 First Special Session: January 4 – February 26, 1993 Second Special Session: March 8 – April 16, 1993 Second Regular Session: July 26, 1993 – June 10, 1994 Third Special Session: January 3 – April 1, 1994 Third Regular Session: July 25, 1994 – June 9, 1995 Fourth Special Session: January 2 – February 24, 1995 Fifth Special Session: February 27 – March 24, 1995 Sixth Special Session: March 27 – April 7, 1995 Seventh Special Session: April 10 – May 5, 1995 Laws passed by the 9th Congress: President of the SenateNeptali A.
Gonzales Edgardo J. Angara Senate President Pro-TemporeLeticia R. Shahani Majority Floor LeaderAlberto Romulo Minority Floor LeaderWigberto E. Tañada Speaker of the House of RepresentativesJose C. de Venecia, Jr. Speaker Pro TemporeRaul A. Daza Majority Floor Leader Minority Floor Leader Congress of the Philippines Senate of the Philippines House of Representatives of the Philippines 1992 Philippine general election "List of Senators". Senate of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2006-09-16. "The LAWPHi'L Project - Philippine Laws and Jurispudance Databank". Arellano Law Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-16. Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library The Presidents of the Senate of the Republic of the Philippines. ISBN 971-8832-24-6. Pobre, Cesar P. Philippine Legislature 100 Years. ISBN 971-92245-0-9
Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bhaddal is located in Rupnagar, the newly created divisional headquarter of the state of Punjab, with academic and student facilities in an integrated technical campus. The institute was established in July 1998 by founder Er. Gurcharan Singh, a renowned social reformer who had a vision to establish state of art technical and professional educational institutes, implement rural development programs and to arouse awareness about education, bringing socio-economic development to the rural people of the area; the Institute is a owned, NAAC accredited institution, approved by the University Grants Commission. The study programs of the Institute are approved by the All India Council for Technical Education, Council of Architecture, the Government of Punjab; the Institute has transfer programs with Thompson Rivers University, British Columbia and Waiariki Institute of Technology, New Zealand. Affiliated to I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, The Institute of Engineering & Technology, College of Architecture, Institute of Management Studies, the Gurcharan Singh Institute of Vocational Studies offer undergraduate, postgraduate and international student exchange courses: B.
Tech B. Tech. B. Tech B. Tech B. Tech M. Tech M. Tech MCA Diploma in Electrical Engineering Diploma in Mechanical Engineering B. Arch. M. Arch. MBA B. Com. BBA B. Sc. B. Sc. BCA BCS BBA Virtual Campus Tour Official website Institute of Engineering & Technology College of Architecture Institute of Management Studies GCS Institute of Vocational Studies
WIN Corporation is a private Australian media company, that owns assets including the WIN Television network, Crawford Productions and several local radio stations. The company is based in New South Wales; the WIN brand began from a sole free-to-air terrestrial television station in Wollongong, WIN-4, owned by Television Wollongong Transmissions. In 1979, then-owner Rupert Murdoch sold his 76 per cent controlling interest in TWT to Oberon Broadcasters, a private investment group which included Paramount Television programming executive Bruce Gordon; this allowed Murdoch to purchase Sydney station TEN-10. In 1985, TWT was made public on the-then Sydney Stock Exchange as TWT Holdings Limited with Gordon retaining a 70 per cent stake. Gordon privatised the business in 1992 to become WIN Corporation. In the late 1980s, the Federal Government's television equalisation program gave Gordon the opportunity to initiate a period of growth by acquiring television stations in regional Queensland and Tasmania.
In the late 1990s, WIN acquired their South Australian station and developed a new Western Australian station from scratch. These stations were integrated into; the WIN Network covers large area s of regional Australia and has a total audience reach of 4.842 million people. Through Bruce Gordon's leadership, in the late 1990s and 2000s, WIN built stakes in PBL, Network Ten, TPG Telecom. TPG Telecom was at the time owned fellow Nine affiliate NBN Television. August 2005 saw WIN purchase a controlling 50.1 per cent stake in satellite subscription television carrier SelecTV, however failure in adequately growing the subscriber base along with high debts saw the business placed in voluntary administration in February 2011. On 21 April 2007, the board of Sunraysia Television endorsed WIN's revised offer of $163 million for Channel Nine Perth, which went through on 8 June 2007. On 30 May 2007, Southern Cross Broadcasting announced its sale of Channel Nine Adelaide to WIN for $105 million. In June 2013, WIN offloaded the Nine-branded metropolitan Adelaide station to Nine Network's parent Nine Entertainment Co. for $140 million along with an option to purchase the Perth station, exercised in September 2013.
In October 2015 WIN Corporation purchased a 14 per cent stake in Nine Entertainment Co. from investment fund operator Apollo. In 2008, WIN invested in a 50 per cent share of the Australian Poker League, buying from its founder Martin Martinez; however this stake was sold in 2012. On 4 June 2009, signalling their continued interest in digital assets, WIN increased to 18.4 per cent their stake in publicly listed company Quickflix, an Australian provider of online DVD rental and subscription movie and television series downloads. In the following years, WIN's share of the business dwindled down to 3.5 per cent as of 2014 as Quickflix continued to raise capital through issuing new shares. In April 2016, Quickflix entered voluntary administration. WIN held a long-term interest in a small cinema chain in Tasmania through a joint venture with Village Roadshow until 2013; the joint venture owned four cinemas which were branded as'Village Cinemas'. This interest was acquired by ENT Ltd. in 1988. In early 2006, WIN Corporation bought a 25% stake in the St. George Illawarra Dragons from the Illawarra Steelers for $6.5 million.
In August 2018 WIN Corporation purchased the Illawarra Steelers remaining 25% stake for a "commercially in confidence" sum, taking its stake to 50%. It was announced on 23 May 2016 that WIN Television had signed an affiliation agreement with Network Ten for a five-year period starting on 1 July 2016. WIN's former affiliation partner, Nine Network, signed with Southern Cross Austereo in April 2016 having secured a 50 per cent revenue share deal. WIN plays a prominent role in the local Illawarra community through investment in long-term naming rights to the Dragons' Wollongong home ground, WIN Stadium. WIN holds naming rights to the neighbouring WIN Entertainment Centre, home to basketball's Illawarra Hawks. In June 2019, WIN closed several newsrooms throughout New South Wales and Queensland, including Orange, Wagga and Queensland's Hervey Bay. WIN Television RTQ Queensland NRN Northern New South Wales WIN Southern New South Wales VTV Victoria TVT Tasmania MTN Griffith WOW Western Australia SES/RTS South Australia Mildura Digital Television Tasmanian Digital Television West Digital Television Nine Entertainment Co.
Prime Media Group WIN Corporation owns two FM radio stations in New South Wales: i98FM Wollongong/Illawarra C91.3FM Campbelltown Crawford Productions Digital Distribution Australia Broadcast Services Australia TPG Telecom St George Illawarra Dragons Regional television in Australia List of NRL club owners WIN Television web site
Deng Zhuoxiang is a Chinese footballer who plays for Beijing Enterprises in the China League One. Deng Zhuoxiang started his football career in the 2005 league season playing for Wuhan Guanggu. Throughout the season, he would establish himself within the squad by playing in 10 league games, though this was as a substitute. By the 2007 league season, Deng would establish himself within the team and score his first goal against Qingdao Jonoon in a 1-0 win on 27 March 2007. While now a regular starter for Wuhan, he found that they were controversially relegated subsequently disbanded during the 2008 season after the club's management did not accept the punishment given to them by the Chinese Football Association after a scuffle broke out during a match against Beijing Guoan on 27 September 2008. Without a club, Deng would be loaned to the newly promoted Jiangsu Sainty by Hubei F. A. at the beginning of the 2009 league season. He would go on to play in 29 league games in the season, scoring five goals and providing six assists.
On 4 December 2009, he was named as the Chinese Football Association Young Player of the Year and would transfer to Shandong Luneng shortly after. He would go on to make his debut on 24 February 2010 against Sanfrecce Hiroshima in an AFC Champions League game that Shandong won 1-0. In his debut season for Shandong, he would have to fight for his position against Wang Yongpo. Deng transferred back to Jiangsu on 6 February 2012. However, Deng did not play during the 2012 season, missing out after doctors found fractured bone fragments in his knee, he was flown to Germany to recover for most of the season. Deng made his debut for Jiangsu in the final game of the season, coming off the bench in a 1-1 draw against Guangzhou R&F, he would miss the beginning of the 2013 season with a fear of a possible leg inflammation. Deng returned in his first appearance of the season on 22 June 2013 in a 2-1 win against Shandong Luneng, he scored his first goal for Jiangsu on 19 October 2013 against Shandong in a 1-1 draw.
On 16 February 2015, Deng transferred to fellow Chinese Super League side Shanghai Shenhua. He made his debut for the club on 8 March 2015 in a 6-2 win against Shanghai Shenxin. Throughout the season Deng was limited to only three games after his 2012 knee injury made a recurrence, it was discovered that there was fragments of cartilage causing him discomfort and he needed more surgery on his knee. On 22 February 2017, Deng was loaned to China League One side Qingdao Huanghai until 31 December 2017. On 28 February 2018, Deng transferred to China League One side Beijing Enterprises. Deng made his international debut on 18 July 2009 in a 3-1 win against Palestine, he would go on to be used in friendlies until he was given a run of games in the 2010 East Asian Football Championship. On 10 February 2010, he scored his first goal in a 3-0 win against South Korea and help China beat them for the first time, ending the team's Koreaphobia. On 4 June 2010, Deng scored from a direct free kick in a 1-0 win against France, condemning the latter to a shock defeat.
Statistics accurate as of match played 3 November 2018. Results list China's goal tally first. Shandong LunengChinese Super League: 2010 China under-17 national football teamAFC U-17 Championship: 2004China PR national football teamEast Asian Football Championship: 2010 Chinese Football Association Young Player of the Year: 2009 Deng Zhuoxiang at National-Football-Teams.com Deng Zhuoxiang at Soccerway Player profile at Sohu.com