Chowmahalla Palace or Chowmahallatuu, is a palace of the Nizams of Hyderabad state. It was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizams of Hyderabad while they ruled their state; the palace was built by Nizam Salabat Jung. The palace remains the property of heir of the Nizams. Other members of the Hyderabadi Nizam family have wed here; the place is named chowmahalla. The word char, its variation chau, means four and the word mahal means palace in Urdu and Hindi, it is more derived from Farsi words, as it was the official language of the Hyderabad State at the time. All ceremonial functions including the accession of the Nizams and receptions for the Governor-General were held at this palace; the palace is located in the old city in Hyderabad near the Charminar. The UNESCO Asia Pacific Merit award for cultural heritage conservation was presented to Chowmahalla Palace on 15 March 2010. UNESCO representative Takahiko Makino formally handed over the plaque and certificate to Princess Esra, former wife and GPA holder of Prince Mukarram Jah Bahadur.
While Salabat Jung initiated its construction in 1750, it was completed by the period of Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V between 1857 and 1869. The palace is unique for its elegance. Construction of the palace began in the late 18th century and over the decades a synthesis of many architectural styles and influences emerged; the palace consists of two courtyards as well as the grand Khilwat and gardens. The palace covered 45 acres, but only 12 acres remain today; the palace was restored between 2010 under the patronage of Princess Esra. This is the oldest part of the palace, has four palaces Afzal Mahal, Mahtab Mahal, Tahniyat Mahal and Aftab Mahal, it was built in the neo-classical style. This part has Bara Imam, a long corridor of rooms on the east side facing the central fountain and pool that once housed the administrative wing and Shishe-Alat, meaning mirror image, it has Mughal domes and arches and many Persian elements like the ornate stucco work that adorn the Khilwat Mubarak. These were characteristic of buildings built in Hyderabad at the time.
Opposite the Bara Imam is a building, its shishe or mirror image. The rooms were once used as guest rooms for officials accompanying visiting dignitaries; this is heart of Chowmahalla Palace. It is held in high esteem by the people of Hyderabad; the grand pillared Durbar Hall has a pure marble platform on which the Takht-e-Nishan or the royal seat was laid. Here the Nizams held other religious and symbolic ceremonies; the 19 spectacular Chandeliers of Belgian crystal reinstalled to recreate the lost splendor of this regal hall. The clock above the main gate to Chowmahalla Palace is affectionately called Khilwat Clock, it has been ticking away for around 251 years. An expert family of clock repairers winds the mechanical clock every week; this building housed a rare collection of priceless books. The Nizam met important officials and dignitaries here. Today it is a venue for temporary exhibitions from the treasures of the Chowmahalla Palace Collection of the bygone era; the Sixth Nizam - Mir Mahbub Ali Khan is believed to have lived here and the building was named after his mother Roshan Begum.
The present Nizam and his family decided to restore the Chowmahalla Palace and open it to the public in January 2005. It took over 5 years to restore the palaces of the first courtyard to its former glory; the palace has a collection of vintage cars like the Rolls Royce, which were used by the Nizam Kings. Nizam of Hyderabad Purani Haveli Falaknuma Palace King Kothi Chiran Palace Jewels of the Nizams Jacob Diamond Basheer Bagh Palace Official website The lost world: article by William Dalrymple about the last Nizam of Hyderabad and the restoration of Chowmahalla Palace Travel guide issued by Authority: The Administrator, H. E. H The Nizam's Private Estate
Qutb Shahi tombs
The Qutb Shahi Tombs are located in the Ibrahim Bagh, close to the famous Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, India. They contain the mosques built by the various kings of the Qutb Shahi dynasty; the galleries of the smaller tombs are of a single storey. In the centre of each tomb is a sarcophagus which overlies the actual burial vault in a crypt below; the domes were overlaid with blue and green tiles, of which only a few pieces now remain. They lie in the north of the outer perimeter wall of Golkonda Fort and its Banjara Darwaza, amidst the Ibrahim Bagh; the tombs stand on a raised platform. The tombs are domed structures built on a square base surrounded by pointed arches, a distinctive style that blends Persian and Indian forms; the tombs are surrounded by landscaped gardens. The tombs were once furnished with carpets and velvet canopies on silver poles. Copies of the Quran were kept on pedestals and readers recited verses from the holy book at regular intervals. Golden spires were fitted over the tombs of the sultans to distinguish their tombs from those of other members of the royal family.
During the Qutb Shahi period, these tombs were held in great veneration. But after their reign, the tombs were neglected until Sir Salar Jung III ordered their restoration in the early 19th century. A garden was laid out, a compound wall was built. Once again, the tomb-garden of the Qutb Shahi family became a place of serene beauty. All except the last of the Qutb Shahi sultans lie buried here. Sultan Quli Qutb Mulk's tomb, the style of which sets the example for the tombs of his descendants, is on an elevated terrace measuring 30 meters in each direction; the tomb chamber proper is octagonal, with each side measuring around 10 meters. The entire structure is crowned by a circular dome. There are three graves in this tomb chamber and twenty-one laid out on the surrounding terrace, all of which lack inscription except for the main tomb; the inscription on Sultan Quli's tomb is in the Naskh and Tauq scripts. The inscription refers to Sultan Quli as Bade Malik — the endearing term by which all people of the Deccan used for him.
The tomb was built in 1543 A. D. by the Sultan, during his lifetime, as was the custom. Near the tomb of Sultan Quli is that of his son, the second in the line of Qutb Shahi sultans. Built in 1550 A. D. this is the only Qutb Shahi tomb. Its appearance, too, is quite unlike the other tombs in the garden — it rises gracefully in two stories, unlike the squat tombs of the other kings. Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah's is the only tomb of a Qutb Shahi ruler without any inscriptions. Subhan Quli Qutb Shah ruled for a short time. Subhan's tomb stands midway between the tombs of his grandfather, he was popularly called Chhote Malik. Sultan Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah's tomb, built in 1580, after his death, is larger than Sultan Quli's tomb. Traces of the enameled tiles, which once adorned this mausoleum, can still be seen on the southern wall; the tomb has 16 on the terrace. There are inscriptions in the Thuluth script on all faces of the sarcophagus; the three famous calligraphists — Isphalan and Taqiuddin Muhammad Salih — who left a store of Naskh and Nastaliq inscriptions on the many Qutb Shahi edifices in the city, were contemporaries of Ibrahim Shah.
Sultan Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah's mausoleum is considered the grandest of the Qutb Shahi tombs. Built in 1602 A. D. the tomb is on a terrace of 65m square and 4m high. A flight of steps leads to the mausoleum proper, 22 m square on the outside and 11 m square on the inside. There are entrances on the eastern sides; the tomb is in a vault below the terrace. Inscriptions in Persian and the Naskh scripts decorate it. Another grand mausoleum is that of Muhammed Qutb Shah; the facade of this tomb was once decorated with enameled tiles. There are six inscriptions in Thuluth and Naskh; the mausoleum was built in 1626. Sultan Abdullah Qutb Shah's tomb is the last of the royal tombs, as Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, the last Qutb Shahi Sultan, was a prisoner in the fortress of Daulatabad, near Aurangabad, when he died. While the tombs of those who ruled dominate the area, interspersed are many other monuments, most of them tombs of other members of the royal family; the tomb of Fatima Sultan, with its bulbous dome, is near the entrance to the tomb-garden.
Fatima was the sister of Muhammed Qutb Shah. Her tomb houses two with inscriptions. To the south of Muhammed Quli's tomb are three uninscribed tombs. There are the mausoleums of Kulthoom, Muhammed Qutb Shahi’s granddaughter born of the son of the sultan's favourite wife Khurshid Bibi, her husband and daughter. Kulthoom's tomb is on the west of this cluster; the twin-tombs of the two favourite hakims of Sultan Abdullah — Nizamuddin Ahmed Gilani and Abdul Jabbar Gilani — were built in 1651. They are among the few Qutb Shahi tombs. Another pair are those of Premamati and Taramati, the favourite courtesans of Sultan Abdullah Shah, were laid to rest beside his tomb. One other tomb, not that of a Qutb Shahi family member is that of Neknam Khan. Neknam Khan, who served in Abdullah's army, was the commander-in-chief of the Carnatic, his tomb is on a platform outside the mausoleum of Ibrahim Qutb Shah. It was built in 1672, two years after
Golkonda known as Golconda, Gol konda, or Golla konda, is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is a tehsil of Hyderabad district, India; the region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Nassak Diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain. Golkonda was known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort; the city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 meters high, surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra; the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Bhupathi to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence.
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort; the fort fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Golkonda Fort used to have a vault where the famous Koh-i-Noor and Hope diamonds were once stored along with other diamonds. Golkonda is renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur, Guntur district and Atkur in Krishna district and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign.
At that time, India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda's mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, gems sold there came from a number of mines; the fortress-city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. However, Europeans believed. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or "Sea of Light", at 185 carats, the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran, its name has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete lack of nitrogen. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as: Daria-i-Noor Noor-ul-Ain Koh-i-Noor Hope Diamond Princie Diamond Regent Diamond Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond By the 1880s, "Golkonda" was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any rich mine, to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth.
The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687 to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948, when the Indian integration of Hyderabad occurred. The Golkonda fort is listed as an archaeological treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions, eight gateways, four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, mosques, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" studded with giant iron spikes near the south-eastern corner. An acoustic effect can be experienced at Fateh Darwazaan, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard at the'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point a kilometer away.
This worked. The whole of the Golkonda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, temples and stables; the graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golkonda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side, it has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels; the area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc; the design of peacocks and lions is t
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation
The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation is the civic body that oversees Hyderabad, the capital and largest city in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the local government for the cities of Secunderabad, its geographical area covers most of the urban development agency the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority. 24 Assembly constituencies comes under GHMC. 64 ex-officio members including 5 Lok Sabha MPs whose constituencies are in GHMC jurisdiction vote in GHMC election. Formation of Hyderabad Municipal Board and Chaderghat Municipal Board In the year 1869, Municipal administration was first introduced for the city of Hyderabad; the city of Hyderabad was divided into four and the suburbs of Chaderghat were divided into five divisions. The whole management of both the city and the suburbs was handled by the City Police Commissioner, Kotwal-e-Baldia. In the same year, Sir Salar Jung-1, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad State under the Nizam, has constituted the Department of Municipal and Road Maintenance.
He appointed a Municipal Commissioner for Hyderabad Board and Chaderghat Board. At that time, city was just 55 km2 with a population of 3.5 lakhs. In 1886, the suburban area of Chaderghat was handed over to a separate officer and Chaderghat became Chaderghat Municipality. In 1921 Hyderabad Municipality has increased to 84 km2; the first corporation In 1933, Chaderghat Municipality was merged with Hyderabad Municipality to form Hyderabad Municipal Corporation and was given statutory status under the Hyderabad Municipal Act. During the following year, the first elections were held for Municipal Corporation and a Standing Committee was appointed at that time. Jubilee Hills Municipality In the year 1937, Jubilee Hills Municipality was formed by the amalgamation of Jubilee Hills and Banjara Hills. In 1942, the corporation status for the city has been removed due to some issues. Secunderabad Municipality In the year 1945, Secunderabad Municipality was formed. Again in 1950, Hyderabad regained its lost Corporation status along with the amalgamation of Jubilee Hills Municipality.
Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad The Hyderabad Corporation and the Secunderabad Corporation, were established in 1950 via the Hyderabad Corporation Act. Jubilee Hills Municipality merged in Hyderabad Corporation during this time. In 1955, the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act merged the municipal corporations overseeing Hyderabad and neighbouring Secunderabad. Once again in "1955", both the municipal corporations of Hyderabad and Secunderabad were merged to form Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad. In 1956, Hyderabad became capital of Andhra Pradesh; the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation was formed on 16 April 2007 by merging 12 municipalities and 8 gram panchayats with the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad. The municipalities are L. B. Nagar, Gaddi annaram, Uppal Kalan, Kapra, Qutubullapur, Serilingampalle, Rajendranagar and Patancheru; these municipalities are in Rangareddy Medak district. The panchayats are Shamshabad, Jallapalli, Mankhal, Almasguda and Ravirala; the Government Order 261 was issued in July 2005.
Now, the Supreme Court has rejected the plea to interfere into the matter, the Andhra Pradesh government has passed the GO 261, related to the creation of Greater Hyderabad on 16 April 2007. Earlier, the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad had a population of 4.5 millions living in an area of 172 km². The new urban agglomeration sprawls across 650 square kilometers with a population of 6.7 millions. The erstwhile city of the Nizams has now transformed into an area far greater; the Government has decided to divide the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation into five zones, 17 circles and 150 wards. Each ward would cover about 37,000 people; the GHMC is headed by a Commissioner and has a Special Commissioner both of whom belong to IAS. Each zone will have a zonal commissioner, an officer of the rank of additional commissioner with a deputy municipal commissioners heading every circle. There will be a separate engineering wing with an Engineer in Chief and Chief Engineer at head office level and a superintending engineer for each zone.
GHMC lists its bonds on BSE bond platform Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has listed its municipal bonds on the Bombay Stock Exchange. The civic body became the second to list its bonds on the BSE’s newly launched bond platform. A Municipal Corporation is the apex of the urban local self Government; the Municipal Corporations are created for the administration of big cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru. They function through four organs namely Council, standing Committees and commissioner; the council, which consists of the registered voters of the corporation, is a deliberative body. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation comprises the erstwhile Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, plus 10 municipalities & 8 panchayats in erstwhile Ranga Reddy district, 2 municipalities in erstwhile Medak district; the 10 municipalities in erstwhile Ranga Reddy district are: L. B. Nagar, Gaddi annaram, Uppal Kalan, Kapra, Qutubullapur, Kukatpally and Rajendranagar The 8 panchayats in erstwhile Ranga Reddy district are:Shamshabad, Jallapalli, Mankhal and Ravirala The 2 municipalities in erstwhile Medak district are: Ramachandrapuram and Patancheru At present, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation is spread across 4 districts - Hyderabad district
Birla Mandir, Hyderabad
Birla Mandir is a Hindu temple, built on a 280 feet high hillock called Naubath Pahad on a 13 acres plot. The construction took 10 years and was opened in 1976 by Swami Ranganathananda of Ramakrishna Mission; the temple was constructed by Birla Foundation, which has constructed several similar temples across India, all of which are known as Birla Mandir. The temple manifests a blend of Dravidian and Utkala architectures, it is constructed of 2000 tons of pure white marble. The granite idol of presiding deity Lord Venkateswara is about 11 ft tall and a carved lotus forms an umbrella on the top. There is a brass flagstaff in the temple premises which rises to a height of 42 ft; the temple does not have traditional bells, as Swami Ranganathananda wished that the temple atmosphere should be conducive for meditation. Apart from the main shrine, the consorts of Lord Venkateswara and Andal are housed in separate shrines; the temple has separate shrines for various Hindu gods and goddess including Shiva, Ganesh, Brahma, Saraswati and Saibaba.
Selected because teachings of holy men and Gurbani are engraved on temple walls. Birla temples are open to all, as identified by other Hindu leaders. Birla Mandir is near to Lakdi-ka-pul Hyderabad metro station. Birla Mandir is well connected by TSRTC buses and MMTS; the nearest MMTS station is Lakdi ka pul. Bus No: 5K,5S,5 From Secunderabad to Mehadipatnam any bus no. 113 from Uppal to Mehadipatnam Lord Venkateshwara Temple, Hyderabad List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad Birla Mandir Hyderabad Tourism Birla Mandir Places To Visit Near Hyderabad
Heritage structures in Hyderabad, India
Heritage Conservation Committee under HUDA was formed by state government in 1981 to retain architectural and social value of buildings. Hyderabad Urban Development Authority has listed 160 buildings in Hyderabad in Telangana state as heritage structures. 70% of heritage buildings are in private hands. Heritage structures include buildings, rock structures etc. By notifying such structures, Heritage Conservation Committee in collaboration with works to retain their architectural and social importance and tries to convince the owners not to destroy the listed heritage structures lured by the commercial potential of their properties; the buildings are graded as Grade I, Grade II & Grade III. However, experts feel due to lack of support from the state government it has become difficult to preserve the status of these buildings. Various buildings such as Ravi Bar, Adil Alam Mansion, Central Building Division & Devdi Ranachand – Ahotichand have been demolished but the names of these buildings are still being retained in the list.
During 1996 to 2005, the Hyderabad chapter of INTACH designated about six historic sites per year with its Heritage Awards Programme. For at least some of the years, wwards were given on World Heritage Day. In 1996, these were: A. P. High Court, a Government Building Mecca Masjid, an Institutional Building Mir Alam Dam, an Ensemble of Rocks and Gardens Mozzamjahi Market, an Ensemble of Buildings of Vernacular Style / Markets / Shops, built in 1935 Qutub Shahi Tombs, a Historical Structure, built in the 16th century, located close to the Golconda Fort Nawab Nazir Nawaz Jung's Palace, a Private Building, built during 1982-94, Deccan architecture. Home of Nazir Nawaz Jung. In 1997, these were: Aziz Bagh Bhagwandas Pavilion, a wooden two-story pavilion in the Bhagwandas Garden. Gyan Bagh Palace, built in mid-1800s Military Reformatory, Trimulgherry, in Trimulgherry, built in 1870s for the British Indian Army to serve as a jail, similar to the more famous Andaman Jail. Trinity Church, Bolarum, a Victorian Gothic style church built in mid-1800s near Secunderabad.
In 1998, these were: Durgham Lake, Jubilee Hills, a once-secret water reservoir serving Golconda Fort Habshi Kaman, in Golconda Fort area beside the main approach to the Bala Hissans or inner fort. From the early Qutub Shahi period. Military Hospital, developed following the 1857 First Indian War of Independence Paigah Tombs, dating from 1786 on; the group of buildings is "the jewel in Hyderabad’s crown unparalleled in its beauty of craftsmanship and detailing." Pitti Haveli, Begum Bazar. The Pitti Haveli in Begum Bazar from late 1800s. St. John's Church, Secunderabad, built in 1818. Sir Ronald Ross Building, now part of Osmania University. Where Sir Ronald Ross discovered transmission of malarial parasite, for which he won the Nobel Prize. Home of the Hyderabad chapter of INTACH. In 1999, these were: Viccaji Pestonji Fire Temple, built in 1847, located on the Mahatma Gandhi Road, Secunderabad. Built by/for Seth Pestonji Meherji, bankers. Laxman Bagh, an ensemble of buildings at Rai Durg on the Old Bombay Highway in Hyderabad.
Includes a 250-year-old temple. Banjara Darwaza, Golconda Fort Banjara Darwaza, one of Golconda Fort's main entrances, notable for its stone relief carvings. Aza Khana-E-Zehra, at Darul Shifa in the old city of Hyderabad, built in 1930s by Nizam VII Mir Osman Ali Khan. Secunderabad Club in the Picket area of Secunderabad, built in 1800s by Sir Salar Jung-I. Served as a European Officer’s club. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park, in Jubilee HillsIn 2000, these were: Bella Vista, built in 1934 as official residence of Azam Jah, crown prince of Hyderabad State. Housed the Administrative Staff College of India. Army Golf Course, of the Bolarum Cantonment, an 18 hole course laid out in 1888. Hyderabad Public School, in Begumpet known as Jagirdar's College, Osmanian style and "the most prestigious educational institution of the erstwhile Hyderabad State. Badruka House, at Toli Chowki near Golconda Fort, a residence with Portuguese stylings. Mahalaqa Chanda's Step Well, the garden of poetess Mahalaqa Bai Chanda Sitaram Bagh, near Mangalhat, "a vast complex of temples, residential quarters and open areas" and "a rare blending of the Moghul-Rajput styles with Qutub Shahi architecture."In 2001, these were: Bai Manechbai Nusserwanji Chenoy Fire Temple on Tilak Road, built by the Chenoy family in 1904.
Owned and maintained by a family trust. Jubilee Halm in the Bagh-e-Aam on the Nampally Road, built in 1935 for the Silver Jubilee of the Nizam VII, Mir Osman Ali Khan’s Coronation. An example of Qutub Shahi Revival architecture at its zenith known as Osmanian Style. GVK House, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad. Built in 1938 by Sakina Begum Rahmatulla of the Bilgrami family, known as "Kohinoor". Demolished in 2003 by its owners to make way for cinema/shopping mall. Chiran Fort Club on the Sardar Patel road at Begumpet. In the 1890s was a part of the palace of Paigah Nawab Iqbal ud Dowla, Viqar ul Umra in the 1890’s. Flag Staff House, Bolarum, in the Bolarum Cantonment area, built in 1875 for British officers. Now residence of the Army Sub Area Commander. Purani Haveli, Princess Esin Centre Hakim's Tomb Complex, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad. Located on outcrop overlooking Golconda Fort and tombs. A tomb, a small mosque, a structure believed to have served as a Qanqah. In 2002, these were: Afzal Mahal of Chow Mohalla Complex Afzal Mahal of the Chow Mohalla complex.
Achieved classical European style during the reign of Vth Nizam, Nawab Afzal ud Dowla. Musa Burj, Golconda Fort, located near the Makkai Darwaza of Golconda Fort
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region