The Fox Film Corporation was an American company that produced motion pictures, formed by William Fox on 1 February 1915. It was the successor to his earlier Greater New York Film Rental Company. On July 23,1926, the company bought the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound on to film, after the Crash of 1929, William Fox lost control of the company in 1930, during a hostile takeover. Under new president Sidney Kent, the new owners merged the company with Twentieth Century Pictures to form 20th Century Fox in 1935, William Fox entered the film industry in 1904 when he purchased a one-third share of a Brooklyn nickelodeon for $1,667. Fox invested further in the industry by founding the Greater New York Film Rental Company as a film distributor. In 1914, reflecting the broader scope of his business, he renamed it the Box Office Attraction Film Rental Company and he continued to distribute material from other sources, such as Winsor McCays early animated film Gertie the Dinosaur.
Later that year, Fox concluded that depending on other companies for the products he depended on was insufficient and he purchased the Éclair studio facilities in Fort Lee, New Jersey, along with property in Staten Island, and arranged for actors and crew. The company became a studio, with its name shortened to the Box Office Attractions Company. Always more of an entrepreneur than a showman, Fox concentrated on acquiring and building theaters, in 1917, William Fox sent Sol M. Wurtzel to Hollywood to oversee the studios West Coast production facilities where a more hospitable and cost-effective climate existed for filmmaking. Fox had purchased the Edendale studio of the failing Selig Polyscope Company, with the introduction of sound technology, Fox moved to acquire the rights to a sound-on-film process. In the years 1925–26, Fox purchased the rights to the work of Freeman Harrison Owens and this resulted in the Movietone sound system known as Fox Movietone developed at the Movietone Studio.
Later that year, the company began offering films with a track, and the following year Fox began the weekly Fox Movietone News feature. The growing company needed space, and in 1926 Fox acquired 300 acres in the country west of Beverly Hills and built Movietone City. When rival Marcus Loew died in 1927, Fox offered to buy the Loew familys holdings, Loews Inc. controlled more than 200 theaters, as well as the MGM studio. When the family agreed to the sale, the merger of Fox, but MGM studio boss Louis B. Mayer was not included in the deal and fought back. Using political connections, Mayer called on the Justice Departments antitrust unit to delay giving final approval to the merger and close to bankruptcy, Fox was stripped of his empire in 1930 and ended up in jail. Fox Film, with more than 500 theatres, was placed in receivership, a bank-mandated reorganization propped the company up for a time, but it soon became apparent that despite its size, Fox could not stand on its own. Under new president Sidney Kent, the new owners began negotiating with the upstart, the two companies merged that spring as 20th Century-Fox
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database
Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor and it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1,1934, with the establishment of the Production Code Administration. Strong female characters were ubiquitous in such films as Female, Baby Face. Gangsters in films like The Public Enemy, Little Caesar, along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades in US films. Nefarious characters were seen to profit from their deeds, in cases without significant repercussions. Many of Hollywoods biggest stars such as Clark Gable, Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Blondell, Other stars who excelled during this period, like Ruth Chatterton and Warren William, would wind up essentially forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late 1933 and escalating throughout the first half of 1934, in 1922, after some risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder William H.
Will Hays, a figure of unblemished rectitude, to rehabilitate Hollywoods image, nicknamed the motion picture Czar, was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. The Supreme Court had already decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v, lords concerns centered on the effects sound film had on children, whom he considered especially susceptible to their allure. Several studio heads, including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, met with Lord, after some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention. It was the responsibility of the Studio Relations Committee, headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, to film production. The Code was divided into two parts, the first was a set of general principles which mostly concerned morality. The second was a set of applications which was an exacting list of items that could not be depicted. Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation.
Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden and it stated that the notion of an adults-only policy would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that maturer minds may easily understand, the Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage could not be portrayed as attractive and beautiful, presented in a way that might arouse passion, nor be made to seem right, All criminal action had to be punished, and neither the crime nor the criminal could elicit sympathy from the audience. Authority figures had to be treated respectfully, and the clergy could not be portrayed as characters or villains
Frank Borzage was an American film director and actor, most remembered for directing 7th Heaven, Mans Castle, and The Mortal Storm. Frank Borzages father, Luigi Borzaga, was born in Ronzone in 1859, as a stonemason, he sometimes worked in Switzerland, he met his future wife, Maria Ruegg, where she worked in a silk factory. Borzaga emigrated to Hazleton, Pennsylvania in the early 1880s where he worked as a coal miner and he brought his fiancee to the United States and they married in Hazleton in 1883. Their first child, was born in 1885, the Borzaga family moved to Salt Lake City, where Frank Borzage was born in 1894, and the family remained based until 1919. The couple had fourteen children, eight of whom survived childhood, Mary Emma, Frank, Lew, Luigi Borzaga died in Los Angeles in a car accident in 1934, his wife Maria died of cancer in 1947. In 1912, Frank Borzage found employment as an actor in Hollywood and his directorial debut came in 1915 with the film, The Pitch o Chance. On June 7,1916, Borzage married vaudeville and film actress Lorena Rena Rogers in Los Angeles, in 1945, he married Edna Stillwell Skelton, the ex-wife of comedian Red Skelton, they were divorced in 1949.
Borzage died of cancer in 1962, aged 68, and was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, for his contributions to film, Borzage was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Borzage was a successful director throughout the 1920s but reached his peak in the late silent, absorbing visual influences from the German director F. W. He won a second Oscar for 1931s Bad Girl. to Three Comrades and his work took a turn to religiosity in such films as Green Light, Strange Cargo and The Big Fisherman. Of his work only the film noir Moonrise has enjoyed critical acclaim. After 1948, his output was sporadic and he was the original director of Journey Beneath the Desert, but was too sick to continue, and Edgar G. Ulmer took over. Borzage was uncredited for the sequences he did direct, in 1955 and 1957, Borzage was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film. Frank Borzage, the Life and Times of a Hollywood Romantic, souls Made Great Through Love and Adversity, the Film Work of Frank Borzage.
Frank Borzage at the Internet Movie Database Frank Borzage at AllMovie Senses of Cinema, Great Directors Critical Database They Shoot Pictures, a Farewell to Arms – This Borzage-directed adaptation of Ernest Hemingways novel has fallen into the public domain and is available online through the Internet Archive. Frank Borzage and the Classic Hollywood Style Frank Borzage at Find a Grave Frank Borzage at Virtual History
Beryl Mercer was an actress of stage and screen who was based in the United States. Beryl Mercer was born to British parents in Seville on 13 August 1882 and her father was Edward Sheppard Mercer, said to be Spanish despite his name, and her mother was the actress Effie. She became an actor, making her debut on 14 August 1886 at the Theatre Royal, Yarmouth. She returned to the stage when she was ten, in London she appeared in The Darling of the Gods and the production by Oscar Asche of A Midsummer Nights Dream. In 1906 she appeared as a Kaffir slave in the West End play The Shulamite and she traveled with this play to the USA, where she received good reviews. Mercer was best known as an actress for her motherly roles. She played Lew Ayres mother in All Quiet on the Western Front and she regularly appeared as a grandmother or cook or maid in some high-profile films. She appeared in more than fifty films between 1916 and 1939 but her career was at a peak in the 1930s when she appeared in between five and ten films a year.
Mercer appeared in Cavalcade as a cook, and in Jane Eyre, The Little Minister and she was in two talkie versions of Three Live Ghosts and The Little Princess as Queen Victoria. Mercer was married to one Maitland Paisley early in her life and her only other marriage was much in the late 1920s briefly to actor Holmes Herbert. She had one child, Joan Mercer, born on September 16,1917, Mercer died in Santa Monica, California in 1939 aged 56 following surgery for an undisclosed ailment. Beryl Mercer at the Internet Movie Database Beryl Mercer at the Internet Broadway Database Beryl Mercer at Find a Grave
Ginger Rogers was an American actress and singer. She is known for her performances in films and RKOs musical films in which Fred Astaire was partened with her and she appeared on stage, as well as on radio and television, throughout much of the 20th century. Born in Independence and raised in Kansas City and her family moved to Fort Worth, after winning a dance contest that launched a successful vaudeville career, she gained recognition as a Broadway actress for her debut stage role in Girl Crazy. This success led to a contract with Paramount Pictures, which ended after five films, Rogers had her first successful film role as a supporting actress in 42nd Street. Throughout the 1930s, Rogers made 10 films with Astaire, among which were some of her biggest successes, such as Swing Time, after two commercial failures with Astaire, Rogers began to branch out into dramatic films and comedies. Her acting was received by critics and audiences, and she became one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1940s.
Her performance in Kitty Foyle won her the Academy Award for Best Actress, Rogers remained successful throughout the 1940s and at one point was Hollywoods highest-paid actress, but her popularity had peaked by the end of the decade. She reunited with Astaire in 1949 in the commercially successful The Barkleys of Broadway, after an unsuccessful period through the 1950s, Rogers made a successful return to Broadway in 1965, playing the lead role in Hello, Dolly. More lead roles on Broadway followed, along with her directorial debut in 1985 on an off-Broadway production of Babes in Arms. Rogers made acting appearances until 1987. In 1992, Rogers was recognized at the Kennedy Center Honors and she died of a heart attack in 1995, at the age of 83. A Republican and a devout Christian Scientist, Rogers was married five times, with all of her marriages ending in divorce, during her long career, Rogers made 73 films, and her musical films with Fred Astaire are credited with revolutionizing their genre.
Rogers was successful during the Golden Age of Hollywood, and is considered an American icon. She ranks number 14 on the AFIs 100 Years.100 Stars list of stars of classic American cinema. Rogers was born Virginia Katherine McMath on July 16,1911, in her mothers rented home at 100 Moore Street and she was the only living child of William Eddins McMath, an electrical engineer, and his wife, Lela Emogene. She was of Scottish and English ancestry and her mother did not want her born in a hospital, having lost a previous child there. Her parents had separated shortly after she was born, but her grandparents and Saphrona Owens, after unsuccessfully trying to become a family again, McMath kidnapped his daughter twice. Rogers said that she never saw her father again
For the contemporary poet/essayist of the same name, see Kathleen Norris Kathleen Thompson Norris was a popular American novelist and newspaper columnist. She was one of the most widely read and highest paid female writers in the United States for nearly fifty years, from 1911 to 1959. Her stories appeared in the Atlantic, The American Magazine, McClures, Ladies Home Journal and Womans Home Companion and she used her fiction to promote values including the sanctity of marriage, the nobility of motherhood, and the importance of service to others. Kathleen Norris was born in San Francisco, California, on 16 July,1880 and her parents were Josephine and James Alden Thompson. When she was 19 both her parents died, and as the oldest sibling she became effectively the head of a large family and she had to become a breadwinner, and worked in a department store followed by an accounting office and the Mechanics Institute Library. She began writing stories, and in 1905 enrolled in a creative writing program at the University of California.
In September 1906 the San Francisco Call, which had published a few of her stories, in the course of that work she met Charles Gilman Norris, and they soon fell in love. He moved to New York to be art editor of The American Magazine, after eight months of daily correspondence and some improvements in her familys financial situation, she joined him there and they were married in April 1909. She resumed writing short stories, which began to appear in newspapers, Charles took on a lifelong role as Kathleens literary agent, and took care of many household management roles as she became increasingly successful as a writer. Shortly after becoming a new mother, she wrote her first novel and it started as a short story in The American Magazine in 1911. A publisher asked her to expand it into a novelette, which became a national sensation, a devout Catholic, she wrote the book in part as a commentary against birth control, which was rapidly influencing womens attitudes about motherhood. Her 1914 novel Saturdays Child received a positive, lengthy review from William Dean Howells, Norris became involved in various social causes, including womens suffrage, Prohibition and organizations to benefit children and the poor.
Many of her novels were made into films, including My Best Girl, The Callahans and the Murphys, Passion Flower, and Change of Heart. Some of Norriss novels were adapted for a series, By Kathleen Norris. The program, produced by Phillips Lord, was broadcast on CBS October 9,1939 - September 26,1941, in 1919 the family moved to a ranch in the Santa Cruz Mountains near Saratoga, adjacent to the Villa Montalvo estate of James Duval Phelan. They built a house in Palo Alto and spent summers at the ranch, Kathleens sister Teresa, who had married William Rose Benét and borne three children, died in 1919. Kathleen fought for and eventually obtained guardianship of the two nieces and a nephew, Kathleen Anne and James Benét and her granddaughter Kathleen Norris was the second wife of Prince Andrew Romanov
Nella Walker was an American film actress and vaudeville performer of the 1920s through the 1950s. Walker was born and raised in Chicago, and in her teens became half of the husband and wife vaudeville team Mack and Walker, with her husband Wilbur Mack. By 1929 she had launched an acting career, her first film role being in Tanned Legs alongside Sally Blane, Dorothy Revier, June Clyde. In 1931 her film career took off, with her appearing in ten films that year and her marriage ended not long after her film career was on the rise, and from 1932 through 1933 she appeared in fifteen films, only five of which were uncredited. In 1935 her career improved even more, and between year and 1938 she had 23 film appearances. Her biggest film appearance during that period was in Young Dr. Kildare alongside Lionel Barrymore, throughout the 1930s her career was strong, despite her never being a premier star, she repeatedly had solid acting roles. She finished that decade strong in 1939 with nine film roles, the 1940s mirrored her success of the previous decade in many ways, with her appearing in 37 films from 1940 to 1947.
She appeared in two films in 1952, had her last film acting role in 1954, in the film Sabrina alongside Humphrey Bogart. She retired after that role, having appeared in 117 movies, settling in Los Angeles, Nella Walker at AllMovie Nella Walker at the Internet Movie Database Nella Walker at Find a Grave
7th Heaven (1927 film)
7th Heaven is a 1927 American silent romantic drama directed by Frank Borzage, and starring Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell. The film is based upon the 1922 play Seventh Heaven, by Austin Strong and was adapted for the screen by Benjamin Glazer, 7th Heaven was initially released as a standard silent film. On September 10,1927, Fox Film Corporation re-released the film with a synchronized Movietone soundtrack with a musical score, upon its release, 7th Heaven was a critical and commercial success and helped to establish Fox Film Corporation as a major studio. It was one of the first of three films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 1st Academy Awards held on May 16,1929, Janet Gaynor won the first Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the film. Director Frank Borzage won the first Academy Award for Best Directing while screenwriter Benjamin Glazer won the first Academy Award for Best Writing. In 1995, 7th Heaven was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being culturally, when the play was adapted for the screen, Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell were cast in the lead roles.
The pairing proved to be so popular, the two went on to star in 11 more films together and were dubbed Americas Favorite Lovebirds, 7th Heaven features the song Diane by Ernö Rapée and Lew Pollack, who wrote the song specifically for the film. The song is included on the version of the film. 7th Heaven initially premiered at the Carthay Circle Theatre in Los Angeles replacing another Fox melodrama What Price Glory. which had been playing since November 1926, a second opening was held at the Sam H. Harris Theatre in New York City on May 25. Both openings earned a total of $14,500, a series of Movietone shorts featuring Ben Bernie and his Orchestra, Gertrude Lawrence, Raquel Meller, and Charles Chic Sale preceded the film. Upon its release, 7th Heaven was a critical and commercial success, the critic praised Borzages direction, stating that the director has given it all that he could put through the medium of the camera. The film went on to play for 19 weeks in New York City, the re-release version premiered at New York Citys Roxy Theatre on September 10,1927.
By 1932, 7th Heaven had become the 13th-highest-grossing American silent, a comparatively unknown 1937 remake of the film was produced as a sound feature, starring Simone Simon, James Stewart, Jean Hersholt, and Gregory Ratoff, with Henry King directing. Unlike the 1927 version, the remake was not as financially successful. On October 17,1938, a adaptation of 7th Heaven aired on the Lux Radio Theatre, starring Don Ameche as Chico. A television adaptation was aired on October 26,1953, on the anthology series Broadway Television Theatre, the episode stars Hurd Hatfield and Geraldine Brooks and was directed by Robert St. Aubrey. On May 26,1955, a musical version of the film opened at the ANTA Theatre starring Gloria DeHaven. It closed on July 2,1955, after 44 performances, on December 9,2008, 7th Heaven was included in the Murnau and Fox DVD box set released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
AllMovie is an online guide service website with information about films, television programs, and screen actors. As of 2013, AllMovie. com and the AllMovie consumer brand are owned by All Media Network, AllMovie was founded by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine, who founded AllMusic and AllGame. The AllMovie database was licensed to tens of thousands of distributors and retailers for point-of-sale systems, the AllMovie database is comprehensive, including basic product information and production credits, plot synopsis, professional reviews, relational links and more. AllMovie data was accessed on the web at the AllMovie. com website and it was available via the AMG LASSO media recognition service, which can automatically recognize DVDs. In late 2007, Macrovision acquired AMG for a reported $72 million, the AMG consumer facing web properties AllMusic. com, AllMovie. com and AllGame. com were sold by Rovi in August 2013 to All Media Network, LLC. The buyers include the founders of SideReel and Ackrell Capital investor Mike Ackrell.
All Media Network offices are located in San Francisco, AllMusic AllGame SideReel All Media Network Official website