Dibrugarh is a city and is the headquarters of the Dibrugarh district in the state of Assam in India. Well known as the Tea City of India, Dibrugarh is known as Ti-Phao in Ahom Buranji Dibrugarh is considered to be a major city in eastern India in line with Guwahati and Bhubaneswar and is the emerging communication and industrial hub of North East India. Dibrugarh is one of the two main cities in the state of Assam to receive urban development aid from the Asian Development Bank and is the nerve centre of industry and healthcare of the upper Assam region. Dibrugarh is located 439 km east of the largest city of the Indian state of Assam. Dibrugarh is well connected to the rest of India by rail and air transport and thus serves as a gateway to eastern Assam and parts of Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, there has been a consistent demand from the industrial sectors, for starting international flights from Dibrugarh to Bangkok and Singapore. Mega projects like Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited, India's longest rail cum road bridge Bogibeel bridge and other upcoming modern urban infrastructure are transforming Dibrugarh into a vibrant city.
Of late, the city of Dibrugarh is emerging as a popular destination for business and leisure trips for tourists from India and abroad and the 9th edition of the North East Business Summit was held in the city with the theme "Building bridges with South East Asia", where representatives from South East Asian nations and business leaders of the country pledged to contribute for the socio-economic growth of the North East. Dibrugarh is a centre of education and research and the Indian Space Research Organisation organized the 18th National Space Science Symposium in the city in January–February, 2014; the city Master Plan area of Dibrugarh is 66.14 sq. kilometres and population is 186,214. It is situated in the easternmost part of Assam. Buridihing, a tributary of Brahmaputra, divides the district from east-to-west. Buridihing flows through Naharkatia and Khowang, at a stage in its course, Buridihing acts as a divider between Dibrugarh and Sivasagar districts; the region is flat with a gradual slope from the East Arunachal hills to the west.
The soil of the district is fertile, alluvial soil. It is the gateway to the three tea-producing districts of Tinsukia and Sivasagar; these three areas account for 50% of India's Assam tea crop, this gives Dibrugarh its rightly earned sobriquet as the "Tea City of India". Oil and timber are the other two big industries around Dibrugarh. In 1950, the Medog earthquake, measuring over 8.6 on the Richter Scale, changed the course of the Brahmaputra River, causing the destruction of more than three-quarters of the town. Dibrugarh has a humid subtropical climate with wet summers and dry winters; as of the 2011 India census, Dibrugarh city had a population of 154,019. Males constituted 54% of the population and females 46%; the sex ratio of Dibrugarh city was 925 per 1000 males. The average literacy rate of Dibrugarh is 89.5%, higher than the national average literacy rate. In Dibrugarh, 9% of the population is between 0 and 6 years of age, the child ratio of girls is 940 per 1000 boys. Dibrugarh city area has a population of 154,019 according to a 2011 census.
The Dibrugarh metropolitan areas include Barbari, Dibrugarh,and Mahpowalimara Gohain Gaon Dibrugarh is considered as an economic hub of North East region of India. Dibrugarh is at the centre of economic activities dominated by the following industries: Oil and natural gas Tea production Tourism Power generation Fertilizer Cottage industry Information Technology The first oil well dug during the British era was in Digboi, 50 miles from Dibrugarh. Today, Dikom and Moran are the key locations for oil and gas industry in the district. Oil India Limited, the second public sector company in India engaged in exploration and transportation of crude oil has its field headquarters in Duliajan, 50 km from Dibrugarh city; the company was granted Navratna status by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, in 2010 The Assam Gas Company Limited is a public company that distributes natural gas. The Assam Gas Cracker Project known as Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited, was proposed as a part of implementation of Assam Accord signed by Government of India on 15 August 1985.
The Assam Gas Cracker Project was approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, in its meeting held on 18 April 2006, under an equity arrangement of GAIL, OIL, NRL and Govt. of Assam with a project cost of ₹ 54.6 billion, in which the capital subsidy is ₹ 21.4 billion. The project was scheduled for completion in 60 months. However, the commissioning of the project has been pushed to December 2013, the cost has escalated to ₹ 92.8 million. The site selected for Assam Gas Cracker Project is at Lepetkata, 15 km from Dibrugarh on NH-37. A joint-venture agreement was signed on 18 October 2006, the company Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited was registered on 8 January 2007. Dr. Manmohan Singh, Hon'ble Prime Minister of India, laid the foundation stone of this project on 9 April 2007. Duliajan Numaligarh Pipeline Ltd is a joint venture company promoted by Assam Gas Company Limited, Numaligarh Refinery Limited and Oil India Limited with equity participation of 51 per cent, 26 per cent and 23 per cent respectively.
The Duliajan-Numaligarh pipeline will be the first major cross-country natural gas pipeline in Assam and once the availability of natural gas is ensured, it is expected to be extend
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
Fishkeeping is a popular hobby, practiced by aquarists, concerned with keeping fish in a home aquarium or garden pond. There is a piscicultural fishkeeping industry, as a branch of agriculture. Fish have been raised as food in ponds for thousands of years. Brightly colored or tame specimens of fish in these pools have sometimes been valued as pets rather than food. Many cultures and modern, have kept fish for both functional and decorative purposes. Ancient Sumerians kept wild-caught fish before preparing them for meals. Depictions of the sacred fish of Oxyrhynchus kept in captivity in rectangular temple pools have been found in ancient Egyptian art. Asia has experienced a long history of stocking rice paddies with freshwater fish suitable for eating, including various types of catfish and cyprinid. Selective breeding of carp into today's popular and domesticated koi and goldfish began over 2,000 years ago in Japan and China, respectively; the Chinese brought goldfish indoors during the Song Dynasty to enjoy them in large ceramic vessels.
In Medieval Europe, carp pools were a standard feature of estates and monasteries, providing an alternative to meat on feast days when meat could not be eaten for religious reasons. Marine fish have been valued for centuries. Wealthy Romans kept other fish in salt water pools. Tertullian reports that Asinius Celer paid 8000 sesterces for a fine mullet. Cicero reports. Rather cynically, he referred to these ancient fishkeepers as the Piscinarii, the "fish-pond owners" or "fish breeders", for example when saying that...the rich did not disguise their jealousy of me. The first person to breed a tropical fish in Europe was Pierre Carbonnier, who founded one of the oldest public aquaria in Paris in 1850, bred the first imported Macropods in 1869, more species. A pioneer of tropical fish breeding, Carbonnier was awarded the Gold Medal of the Imperial French Acclimatization Society in 1875 for research and breeding of exotic freshwater aquarium fish, for his success in introducing exotic fish species to France.
Fishkeepers are known as "aquarists" since many of them are not interested in keeping fish. The hobby can be broadly divided into three specific disciplines, depending on the type of water the fish originate from: freshwater and marine fishkeeping. Freshwater fishkeeping is by far the most popular branch of the hobby, with small pet stores selling a variety of freshwater fish, such as goldfish and angelfish. While most freshwater aquaria are community tanks containing a variety of compatible species, single-species breeding aquaria are popular. Livebearing fish such as mollies and guppies are among those most raised in captivity, but aquarists regularly breed many types of cichlid, characins and killifish. Many fishkeepers create freshwater aquascapes; these aquaria include "Dutch Aquaria" that mass contrasting stem plants, named for European aquarists who first designed them. In recent years, one of the most active advocates of the planted aquarium was the Japanese aquarist Takashi Amano. Garden ponds are in some ways similar to freshwater aquaria, but are much larger and exposed to ambient weather.
In the tropics, tropical fish can be kept in garden ponds. In the temperate zone, species such as goldfish and orfe work better. Marine aquaria have more specific needs and requirements to maintain, the livestock is more expensive; as a result, this branch tends to attract more experienced fishkeepers. Marine aquaria can be exceedingly beautiful, due to the attractive colors and shapes of the corals and the coral reef fish they host. Temperate zone marine fish are not as kept in home aquaria because they do not thrive at room temperature. Coldwater aquaria must provide cooler temperature via a cool room or using a refrigeration device known as a'chiller'. Marine aquarists attempt to recreate a coral reef in their aquaria using large quantities of living rock, porous calcareous rocks encrusted with coralline algae, sponges and other small marine organisms. Larger corals, as well as shrimps, crabs and mollusks are added on, once the aquarium has matured, as well as a variety of small fish; such aquaria are sometimes called reef tanks.
Brackish water aquaria combine elements of the other types, with salinity that must stay between that of freshwater and seawater. Brackish water fish come from habitats with varying salinity, such as mangroves and estuaries, do not thrive if kept permanently in freshwater. Although brackish water aquaria are not familiar to inexperienced aquarists, many species prefer brackish water, including some mollies, many gobies, some pufferfish and scats. Ideal aquarium ecology reproduces. In practice, it is impossible to maintain a perfect balance; as an example, a balanced predator-prey relationship is nearly impossible to maintain in the largest aquaria. An aquarium keeper must maintain balance in the small ecosystems that aquaria provide. Balance is facilitated by larger volumes of water. For example, the death of the only fish in a 10-litre tank causes dramatic changes in the system, while the death of that same fish in a 400-litre tank that holds many fish may create only a minor imbalance. For this reason
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
ZooBank is an open access website intended to be the official International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature registry of zoological nomenclature. Any nomenclatural acts need to be registered with ZooBank to be "officially" recognized by the ICZN Code of Nomenclature. Life Science Identifiers are used as the globally unique identifier for ZooBank registration entries; the ZooBank prototype was seeded with data from Index to Organism Names, compiled from the scientific literature in Zoological Record now owned by Thomson Reuters. ZooBank was proposed in 2005 by the executive secretary of ICZN; the registry was live on 10 August 2006 with 1.5 million species entered. The first ZooBank LSIDs were issued on 1 January 2008 250 years after 1 January 1758, the date defined by the ICZN Code as the official start of scientific zoological nomenclature. Chromis abyssus was the first species entered into the ZooBank system with a timestamp of 2008-01-01T00:00:02. Four main types of data objects are stored in ZooBank.
Nomenclatural acts are governed by the ICZN Code of Nomenclature, are "original descriptions" of new scientific names, however other acts, such as emendations and lectotypifications, are governed by the ICZN code and technically require registration by ZooBank. Publications include other publications containing Nomenclatural Acts. Authors records the academic authorship of Nomenclatural Acts. Type Specimens record the biological type specimens of animals which are provisionally registered, until the bodies responsible for such types implement their own registries. In addition to those, periodicals which have published articles are entities within the system, providing access to a list of "Nomenclatural Acts" published in the periodical over time. Traditionally, taxonomic data was published in books. However, with the increase in electronic publications, the ICZN established new rules that include e-publications electronic only publications; such publications are now regulated by amendments of ICZN Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78.
Technically, nomenclatural acts that are published in electronic only papers are not recognized if they have not been registered with ZooBank and are considered as "non-existent". Plazi Official website ZooBank papers and mailing list