In western music, a motet is a vocal musical composition, of diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present. The motet was one of the pre-eminent polyphonic forms of Renaissance music. According to Margaret Bent, "a piece of music in several parts with words" is as precise a definition of the motet as will serve from the 13th to the late 16th century and beyond; the late 13th-century theorist Johannes de Grocheo believed that the motet was "not to be celebrated in the presence of common people, because they do not notice its subtlety, nor are they delighted in hearing it, but in the presence of the educated and of those who are seeking out subtleties in the arts". In the early 20th century, it was believed the name came from the Latin movere, though a derivation from the French mot, had been suggested; the Medieval Latin for "motet" is motectum, the Italian mottetto was used. If the word is from Latin, the name describes the movement of the different voices against one another.
Today, the French etymology is favoured by reference books, as the word "motet" in 13th-century French had the sense of "little word". In fact, the troped clausulas that were the forerunner of the motet were called motelli, soon replaced by the term moteti; the earliest motets arose in the 13th century from the organum tradition exemplified in the Notre Dame school of Léonin and Pérotin. The motet arose from clausula sections in a longer sequence of organum. Clausulae represent brief sections of longer polyphonic settings of chant with a note-against-note texture. In some cases, these sections were "substituted" for existing setting; these clausulae could be "troped," or given new text in the upper part, creating motets. From these first motets arose a medieval tradition of secular motets; these were two- to four-part compositions in which different texts, sometimes in different vernacular languages, were sung over a cantus firmus that once again was adapted from a passage of Gregorian chant. It is increasingly argued that the term "motet" could in fact include certain brief single-voice songs.
The texts of upper voices include subjects as diverse as courtly love odes, pastoral encounters with shepherdesses, political attacks, many Christian devotion to the Virgin Mary. The vast majority of medieval motets are anonymous compositions, there is significant re-use of music and text, they were most popular in northern France and Paris. In the 14th and 15th centuries, motets made use of repetitive patters termed panisorhythmic. Philippe de Vitry was one of the earliest composers to use this technique, his work evidently had an influence on that of Guillaume de Machaut, one of the most famous named composers of late medieval motets. Other medieval motet composers include: Adam de la Halle Johannes Ciconia John Dunstaple Franco of Cologne Jacopo da Bologna Marchetto da Padova Petrus de Cruce Willelmus de Winchecumbe The motet was preserved in the transition from medieval to Renaissance music, but the character of the composition was changed. While it grew out of the medieval isorhythmic motet, the Renaissance composers of the motet abandoned the use of a repeated figure as a cantus firmus.
Guillaume Dufay was a transitional figure in this regard. During the second half of the fifteenth century, motets came to adopt the cantus firmus technique found in contemporary "tenor masses," in which the cantus firmus was stretched out to great lengths compared to the multivoice counterpoint surrounding it; this tended to obscure the rhythm supplied by the cantus firmus, apparent in the medieval isorhythmic motet. The cascading, passing chords created by the interplay between multiple voices, the absence of a strong or obvious beat, are the features that distinguish medieval and renaissance motet styles. Instead, the Renaissance motet is a polyphonic musical setting, sometimes in imitative counterpoint, for chorus, of a Latin text sacred, not connected to the liturgy of a given day, therefore suitable for use in any service; the texts of antiphons were used as motet texts. This is the sort of composition, most familiarly designated by the term "motet", the Renaissance period marked the flowering of the form.
In essence, these motets were sacred madrigals. The relationship between the two forms is most obvious in the composers who concentrated on sacred music Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose "motets" setting texts from the Canticum Canticorum, the biblical "Song of Solomon", are among the most lush and madrigal-like of Palestrina's compositions, while his "madrigals" that set poems of Petrarch in praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary would not be out of place in church; the language of the text was the decisive feature: if it is Latin, it is a motet. Religious compositions in vernacular languages were called madrigali spirituali, "spiritual madrigals". Like their madrigal cousins, Renaissance
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument; the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications; the date and origin of the first device considered. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years; some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them.
Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, Europeans played instruments from North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, many systems of classification have been used over the years. Instruments can be classified by their material composition, their size, etc.. However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound; the academic study of musical instruments is called organology. A musical instrument makes sounds.
Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment; the concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such a shells and plant parts; as instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way—for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument. Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world.
Some finds are 67,000 years old, however their status as musical instruments is in dispute. Consensus solidifies about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Only artifacts made from durable materials or using durable methods tend to survive; as such, the specimens found. In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia; the carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with the Neanderthal culture. However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps; the flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, are more accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.
Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres, two harps, a silver double flute and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the predecessor of modern bagpipes; the cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes. These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, have been used to reconstruct them; the graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, representing some of the "earliest complete, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" found.
Scholars agree that there are no reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit drums involved f
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Traditionally, polyphonic madrigals are unaccompanied, it is quite distinct from the Italian Trecento madrigal of the late 13th and 14th centuries, with which it shares only the name. Madrigals originated in Italy during the 1520s. Unlike many strophic forms of the time, most madrigals were through-composed. In the madrigal, the composer attempted to express the emotion contained in each line, sometimes individual words, of a celebrated poem; the madrigal originated in part from the frottola, in part from the resurgence in interest in vernacular Italian poetry, from the influence of the French chanson and polyphonic style of the motet as written by the Franco-Flemish composers who had naturalized in Italy during the period. A frottola would consist of music set to stanzas of text, while madrigals were through-composed. However, some of the same poems were used for madrigals; the poetry of Petrarch in particular shows up in a wide variety of genres.
In Italy, the madrigal was the most important secular form of music of its time. The madrigal reached its historical zenith by the second half of the 16th century. English and German composers, took up the madrigal in its heyday. After the 1630s, the madrigal began to merge with the dialogue. With the rise of opera in the early 17th century, the aria displaced the madrigal. In the early 16th century, several humanistic trends converged. First, there was a reawakened interest in use of Italian as a vernacular language. Poet and literary theorist Pietro Bembo edited an edition of Petrarch, the great 14th-century poet, in 1501, published his theories on how contemporary poets could attain excellence by imitating Petrarch, by being attentive to the exact sounds of words, as well as their positioning within lines; the poetic form of the madrigal, which consisted of an irregular number of lines of 7 or 11 syllables, without repetition, on a serious topic, came into being as a result of Bembo's influence.
Second, Italy had long been a destination for the oltremontani, superbly-trained composers of the Franco-Flemish school, who were attracted by the culture as well as the employment opportunities at the aristocratic courts and ecclesiastical institutions – Italy was, after all, the center of the Roman Catholic Church, the single most important cultural institution in Europe. These composers had mastered a serious polyphonic style suitable for setting sacred music, were familiar with the secular music of their homelands, music such as the chanson, which differed from the lighter Italian secular styles of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Third, printed secular music had become available in Italy due to the recent invention of moveable type and the printing press; the music being written and sung, principally the frottola but the ballata and mascherata, was light, used verses of low literary quality. These popular music styles used repetition and soprano-dominated chordal textures, styles more simple than those used by most of the resident composers of the Franco-Flemish school.
Literary tastes were changing, the more serious verse of Bembo and his school needed a means of musical expression more flexible and open than was available in the frottola and its related forms. The first madrigals were written in Florence, either by native Florentines or by Franco-Flemish musicians in the employment of the Medici family; the madrigal did not replace the frottola right away. The earliest madrigals were those by Bernardo Pisano, in his 1520 Musica di messer Bernardo Pisano sopra le canzone del Petrarcha, the first secular music collection printed containing only the works of a single composer. While none of the pieces in the collection use the name "madrigal", some of the compositions are settings of Petrarch, the music observes word placement and accent, contains word-painting, a feature, to become characteristic of the madrigal; the first book of madrigals labeled as such was the Madrigali de diversi musici: libro primo de la Serena of Philippe Verdelot, published in 1530 in Rome.
Verdelot, a French composer, had written the pieces in the late 1520s. He included music by both Sebastiano and Costanzo Festa, as well as Maistre Jhan of Ferrara, in addition to his own music. In 1533 and 1534 he published two books of four voice madrigals in Venice, they sold so well that Adrian Willaert made arrangements of some of these works for single voice and lute in 1536. Verdelot published madrigals for five and six voices as well, with the collection for six voices appearing in 1541. Popular was the first collection of madrigals by Jacques Arcadelt. Published in Venice, in 1539, it was reprinted throughout Europe for many years after, becoming the most reprinted madrigal book of the entire era. Stylistically, the music in both Arcadelt's and Verdelot's books was more akin to the French chanson than either the Italian frottola or the sacred music of the time, such as the motet; this may be unsurprising considering that the native language of both Arcadelt and Verdelot was French
In music, homophony is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and provide rhythmic contrast. This differentiation of roles contrasts with equal-voice monophony. Homophony and its differentiated roles for parts emerged in tandem with tonality, which gave distinct harmonic functions to the soprano and inner voices. A homophonic texture may be homorhythmic. Chorale texture is another variant of homophony; the most common type of homophony is melody-dominated homophony, in which one voice the highest, plays a distinct melody, the accompanying voices work together to articulate an underlying harmony. In Ancient Greece, homophony indicated music in which a single melody is performed by two or more voices in unison or octaves, i.e. monophony with multiple voices. Homophony as a term first appeared in English with Charles Burney in 1776, emphasizing the concord of harmonized melody. Homophony first appeared as one of the predominant textures in Western classical music during the Baroque period in the early 17th century, when composers began to compose with vertical harmony in mind, the homophonic basso continuo becoming a definitive feature of the style.
The choral arrangement of four voices has since become common in Western classical music. Homophony began by appearing in sacred music, replacing polyphony and monophony as the dominant form, but spread to secular music, for which it is one of the standard forms today. In 20th century classical music some of the "triad-oriented accompanimental figures such as the Alberti bass have disappeared from usage and, rather than the traditional interdependence of melodic and chordal pitches sharing the same tonal basis, a clear distinction may exist between the pitch materials of the melody and harmony avoiding duplication. However, some traditional devices, such as repeated chords, are still used. Jazz and other forms of modern popular music feature homophonic influences, following chord progressions over which musicians play a melody or improvise. Homophony has appeared in several non-Western cultures particularly in regions where communal vocal music has been cultivated; when explorer Vasco da Gama landed in West Africa in 1497, he referred to the music he heard there as being in "sweet harmony".
While the concept of harmony in that time was not the same as the concept of homophony as understood by modern scholars, it is accepted that homophonic voice harmonies were commonplace in African music for centuries before contact with Europeans and is common in African music today. Singers harmonize voices in homophonic parallelism moving in parallel thirds or fourths; this type of harmonic model is implemented in instrumental music where voices are stacked in thirds or fourths. Homophonic Parallelism is not restricted to thirds and fourths, however all harmonic material adheres to the scalar system the particular tune or song is based on; the use of harmony in sixths is common in areas. For instance, the Fang people of Gabon use homophony in their music. In eastern Indonesia, two-part harmonies are common in intervals of thirds, fourths or fifths. Additionally, Chinese music is thought to be homophonic, since instruments provide accompaniment in parallel fourths and fifths and double the voice in vocal music, heterophony being common in China.
In melody-dominated homophony, accompanying voices provide chordal support for the lead voice, which assumes the melody. Some popular music today might be considered melody-dominated homophony, voice taking on the lead role, while instruments like piano and bass guitar accompany the voice. In many cases, instruments take on the lead role, the role switches between parts, voice taking the lead during a verse and instruments subsequently taking solos, during which the other instruments provide chordal support. Monody is similar to melody-dominated homophony in that one voice becomes the melody, while another voice assumes the underlying harmony. Monody, however, is characterized by a single voice with instrumental accompaniment, whereas melody-dominated homophony refers to a broader category of homophonic music, which includes works for multiple voices, not just works for solo voice, as was the tradition with early 17th-century Italian monody. Melody dominated homophony in Chopin's Nocturne in E Op. 62 No. 2.
The left hand provides chordal support for the melody played by the right hand. Harmony Counterpoint
Harmonice Musices Odhecaton
The Harmonice Musices Odhecaton was an anthology of polyphonic secular songs published by Ottaviano Petrucci in 1501 in Venice. It was the first book of polyphonic music to be printed using movable type; the Odhecaton was hugely influential both in publishing in general and in dissemination of the Franco-Flemish musical style. Seeing the business potential for music printing, in 1498 Petrucci had obtained an exclusive 20-year license for all printing activities related to music anywhere in the Venetian Republic. Three years in 1501, he brought out his first anthology, 96 secular songs polyphonic French chansons, for three or four voice parts, calling it the Harmonice musices odhecaton. For this work he printed two parts on the right-hand side of a page, two parts on the left, so that four singers or instrumentalists could read from the same sheet; the type was designed and cast by Francesco Griffo and Jacomo Ungaro, both of whom were in Venice at the time. The collection included music by some of the most famous composers of the time, including Johannes Ockeghem, Josquin des Prez, Antoine Brumel, Antoine Busnois, Alexander Agricola, Jacob Obrecht, Hayne van Ghizeghem.
Many of the works contained. The book was edited by Petrus Castellanus, a Dominican friar, maestro di cappella of San Giovanni e Paolo. Inclusion of composers in this famous collection did much to enhance their notability, since the prints, the technology, were to spread around Europe in the coming decades; the Odhecaton used the triple-impression technique, in which first the musical staff was printed the text, the notes. Most of the 96 pieces, although they were written as songs, were not provided with the text, implying that instrumental performance was intended for many of them. Texts for most can be found in other manuscript sources or publications; the first edition of the Odhecaton does not survive complete, the exact publication date is not known, but it includes a dedication dated May 15, 1501. The second and third editions were printed on May 25, 1504, respectively; each corrected several errors of the previous editions. Petrucci published the Canti B and Canti C, in 1502 and 1504, respectively.
Petrucci's publication not only revolutionized music distribution: it contributed to making the Franco-Flemish style the international musical language of Europe for the next century, since though Petrucci was working in Italy, he chiefly chose the music of Franco-Flemish composers for inclusion in the Odhecaton, as well as in his next several publications. A few years he published several books of native Italian frottole, a popular song style, the predecessor to the madrigal, but the inclusion of Franco-Flemish composers in his many publications was decisive on the diffusion of the musical language. Amherst Early Music has published a spiral-bound performance edition of the Odhecaton which lies flat and contains no page turns. Facsimile of Harmonice Musices Odhecaton by Ottaviano Petrucci: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project