The Ahom kingdom was a kingdom originating in Medieval India, in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam, India. It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India. Established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, it began as a mong in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra based on wet rice agriculture, it expanded under Suhungmung in the 16th century and became multi-ethnic in character, casting a profound effect on the political and social life of the entire Brahmaputra valley. The kingdom became weaker with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion, subsequently fell to repeated Burmese invasions of Assam. With the defeat of the Burmese after the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, control of the kingdom passed into East India Company hands. Though it came to be called the Ahom kingdom in the colonial and subsequent times, it was multi-ethnic, with the ethnic Ahom people constituting less than 10% of the population toward the end.
The 1901 census of India enumerated 179,000 people identifying as Ahom. The latest available census records over 2 million Ahom individuals, estimates of the total number of people descended from the original Tai-Ahom settlers are as high as 8 million; the total population of Assam being at 31 million according to the 2011 census, they presently constitute over 25%. The Ahoms called their kingdom Mong Dun Shun Kham; the British-controlled province after 1838 and the Indian state of Assam came to be known by this name. The Ahom kingdom was established in 1228 when the first Ahom king Sukaphaa came from Mong Mao and entered the Brahmaputra valley, crossing the rugged Patkai mountain range, he was accompanied by his three queens, two sons, several nobles and officials and their families, soldiers totaling more than nine thousand persons. He crossed the Patkai and reached Namruk on 2 December 1228 and occupied a region on the south bank with the Burhidihing river in the north, the Dikhau river in the south and the Patkai mountains in the east.
He befriended the local groups, the Barahi and the Marans settled his capital at Charaideo and established the offices of the Dangarias— the Burhagohain and the Borgohain. In the 1280s, these two offices were given independent regions of control and the check and balance that these three main offices accorded each other was established; the Ahoms brought with them the technology of wet rice cultivation that they shared with other groups. The people that took to the Ahom way of life and polity were incorporated into their fold in a process of Ahomization; as a result of this process the Barahi people, for instance, were subsumed, some of the other groups like some Nagas and the Maran peoples became Ahoms, thus enhancing the Ahom numbers significantly. This process of Ahomization was significant till the 16th century when under Suhungmung, the kingdom made large territorial expansions at the cost of the Chutiya and the Kachari kingdoms; the expansion was so large and so rapid that the Ahomization process could not keep pace and the Ahoms became a minority in their kingdom.
This resulted in a change in the character of the kingdom and it became multi-ethnic and inclusive. Hindu influences, which were first felt under Bamuni Konwar at the end of the 14th century, became significant. Rudra Singha introduced Islamic prayers in the court; the Assamese language entered the Ahom court and co-existed with the Tai language for some time in the 17th century before replacing it. The rapid expansion of the state was accompanied by the installation of a new high office, the Borpatrogohain, at par with the other two high offices and not without opposition from them. Two special offices, the Sadiakhowa Gohain, the Marangikowa Gohain were created to oversee the regions won over from the Chutiya and the Kachari kingdoms respectively; the subjects of the kingdom were organized under the Paik system based on the phoid or kinship relations, which formed the militia. The kingdom came under attack from Turkic and Afghan rulers of Bengal. On one occasion, the Ahoms under Ton Kham Borgohain pursued the invaders and reached the Karatoya river, the Ahoms began to see themselves as the rightful heir of the erstwhile Kamarupa kingdom.
The Ahom kingdom took many features of its mature form under Pratap Singha. The Paik system was reorganized under the professional khel system, replacing the kinship-based phoid system. Under the same king, the offices of the Borphukan, the Borbarua were established along with other smaller offices. No more major restructuring of the state structure was attempted until the end of the kingdom; the kingdom came under repeated Mughal attacks in the 17th century, on one occasion in 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla occupied the capital, Garhgaon. The Mughals were unable to keep it, in at the end of the Battle of Saraighat, the Ahoms not only fended off a major Mughal invasion but extended their boundaries west, up to the Manas river. Following a period of confusion, the kingdom got itself the last set of kings, the Tungkhungia kings, established by Gadadhar Singha; the rule of Tungkhungia kings was marked by peace and achievements in the Arts and engineering constructions. The phase of the rule was marked by increasing social conflicts, leading to the Moamoria rebellion.
The rebels were able to capture and maintain power at the capital Rangpur for some years but were removed with the help of the British under Captain Welsh. The following repr
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
Mongnai known as Möngnai, Mone, Mōng Nai or Monē, was a Shan state in what is today Burma. It belonged to the Eastern Division of the Southern Shan States, its capital was Mongnai town. Möngnai state was founded before 1800. According to tradition a predecessor state named Saturambha had existed in the area. Mongnai included the substates of Kenghkam; the latter was annexed in 1882. C.1802 – 1848: Maung Shwe Paw 1848 – 1850: Maung Yit 1850 – 1851: U Po Ka 1852: U Shwe Kyu Ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunthiri Pawara Thudamaraza. 1852 – 1875: Hkun Nu Nom 1875 – 1882: Hkun Kyi 1882 – 1888: Twet Nga Lu 1888 – 1914: Hkun Kyi 1914 – 1928: Hkun Kyaw Sam 1928 – 1949: Hkun Kyaw Ho 1949 – 1958: Sao Pye "Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan states" The Imperial Gazetteer of India
Laihka State was a state in the central division of the Southern Shan States of Burma, with an area of 3711 km². The general character of the state was hilly and broken, with a mean altitude of a little under 3000 ft; the main rivers were the Nam Teng, an important tributary of the Salween, the Nam Pawn. Laihka, located in the plain of the Nam Teng, was the capital; the town of Panglong, where the Panglong Agreement took place, is located close to Laihka. Traditional legends talk about a predecessor kingdom in the area named Hansavadi. Laihka State was founded in 1505 as a state subordinated to Hsenwi State. On the downfall of King Thibaw civil war broke out, reduced the population to a few hundred. In 1901 it had risen again to 25,811. About seven-ninths of the land under cultivation consisted of wet rice cultivation. A certain amount of upland rice was cultivated, cotton and garden produce made up the rest. Laihka, the capital, was noted for its ironwork, both the iron and the implements made being produced at Pang Long in the west of the state.
This and lacquerware were the chief exports, as a considerable amount of pottery. The imports were chiefly salt; the rulers bore the title Myosa until mid nineteenth century. 1734 - 1794 Khun Lek 1794 - 1803 Law Na 1803 - 1807 La Hkam 1807 - 18.. Hkun Lek The ritual style was Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunths Thiri Thudamaraza. 18.. - 1854 Hkun Lek 1854 - 1856 Shwe Ok Hka 1856 - 1860 Hkun Long 1860 - 1862 Sao Hkam Mawng 1862 - 1866 Hkun Hkawt 1866 - 1868.... 1868 - 1879 Sao Hkam Mawng 1879 - 1882 Vacant 1882 - 1928 Hkun Lai 1928 - 1952 Sao Num "Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan states"
British rule in Burma
British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, independence. The region under British control was known as British Burma. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; the annexed territories were designated the minor province, British Burma, of British India in 1862. After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province in 1897; this arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. British rule was disrupted during the Japanese occupation of much of the country during the World War II. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948.
Burma is sometimes referred to as "the Scottish Colony", due to the heavy role played by Scotsmen in colonising and running the country, one of the most notable beings Sir James Scott, the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company. Because of its location, trade routes between China and India passed straight through the country, keeping Burma wealthy through trade, although self-sufficient agriculture was still the basis of the economy. Indian merchants traveled along the coasts and rivers throughout the regions where the majority of Burmese lived, bringing Indian cultural influences into the country that still exist there today. Burma was one of the first Southeast Asian countries to adopt Buddhism, which went on to become the patronised religion. Before the British conquest and colonisation, the ruling Konbaung Dynasty practiced a centralized form of government; the king was the chief executive with the final say on all matters, but he could not make new laws and could only issue administrative edicts. The country had two codes of law, the Rajathat and Dammathat, the Hluttaw, the center of government, was divided into three branches—fiscal and judicial.
In theory the king was in charge of all of the Hluttaw but none of his orders got put into place until the Hluttaw approved them, thus checking his power. Further dividing the country, provinces were ruled by governors who were appointed by the Hluttaw and villages were ruled by hereditary headmen approved by the king. Conflict began between Burma and the British when the Konbaung Dynasty decided to expand into Arakan in the state of Assam, close to British-held Chittagong in India. After Burma's defeat of the Kingdom of Arakan in 1784–1785, in 1823, Burmese forces again crossed the frontier; this led to the First Anglo-Burmese War. The British dispatched a large seaborne expedition that took Rangoon without a fight in 1824. In Danuphyu, south of Ava, the Burmese general Maha Bandula was killed and his armies routed. Myanmar was forced to cede other northern provinces; the 1826 Treaty of Yandabo formally ended the First Anglo-Burmese War, the longest and the most expensive war in the history of British India.
Fifteen thousand European and Indian soldiers died, together with an unknown number of Burmese army and civilian casualties. The campaign cost the British five million pounds sterling to 13 million pounds sterling or (5 million pounds = 24 million dollars. In 1852, the Second Anglo-Burmese War was provoked by the British, who sought the teak forests in Lower Burma as well as a port between Calcutta and Singapore. After 25 years of peace and Burmese fighting started afresh and continued until the British occupied all of Lower Burma; the British were victorious in this war and as a result obtained access to the teak and rubies of northern Myanmar. King Mindon tried to readjust to the thrust of imperialism, he made Burma more receptive to foreign interests. But the British initiated the Third Anglo-Burmese War, which lasted less than two weeks during November 1885; the British government justified their actions by claiming that the last independent king of Myanmar, Thibaw Min, was a tyrant and that he was conspiring to give France more influence in the country.
British troops entered Mandalay on 28 November 1885. Thus, after three wars gaining various parts of the country, the British occupied all the area of present-day Myanmar, making the territory a Province of British India on 1 January 1886; the British decided to annex all of Upper Burma as a colony and to make the whole country a province of British India. The new colony of Upper Burma was attached to the Burma Province on 26 February 1886. Burmese armed resistance continued sporadically for several years and the British commander had to coerce the High Court of Justice to continue to function. Though war ended after only a couple of weeks, resistance continued in northern Burma until 1890, with the British resorting to systematic destruction of villages and appointment of new officials to halt all guerrilla activity. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state. Intermarriage between Europeans and Burmese gave birth to an indigenous Eurasian community known as the Anglo-Burmese who would come to dominate the colonial society, hovering above
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China. Located in Southwest China, the province spans 394,000 square kilometres and has a population of 45.7 million. The capital of the province is Kunming also known as Yunnan; the province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi, Guizhou and the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as the countries Vietnam and Myanmar. Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as 3,000 metres. Yunnan has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has 17,000 or more. Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead and tin are the largest in China, there are major reserves of copper and nickel; the Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th century AD.
Nanzhao was multi-ethnic. The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s. From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier, with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China; as with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi, Hani, Zhuang and Miao; the Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian.
These people constructed simple wooden structures. Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian; the Chu general Zhuang Qiao entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing, in eastern Yunnan; the Han–Dian wars began under Emperor Wu. He dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Dian during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties; the commandery seat was at Dianchi county in present-day Jinning. Another county was called "Yunnan" the first use of the name.
To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma and India, Emperor Wu sent Tang Meng to maintain and expand the Five Foot Way, renaming it "Southwest Barbarian Way". By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly; the local people used bronze tools and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats and dogs. Anthropologists have determined, they lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese. During the Three Kingdoms, the territory of present-day Yunnan, western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong; the dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes, his seven captures of Meng Huo, a local magnate, is much celebrated in Chinese folklore. International trade flowed by din of Yunnan. In the 4th century, northern China was overrun by nomadic tribes from the north.
In the 320s, the Cuan clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian known as Kunchuan. Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan for over four hundred years. Before the rise and dominance of the Nanzhao Kingdom around Yunnan in the eighth century, many local tribes and other groups sprang up. Around Lake Erhai, the Dali area, there emerged six zhao: Mengzi, Langqiong, Dengdan and Mengshe. Zhao was an indigenous non-Chinese language term meaning "king" or "kingdom." Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five. By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake–area under its authority. In 738, the western Yunnan was united by Piluoge, the fourth king of Nanzhao, confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang dynasty as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a part in the dynamic relationship between China and Tibet. By the 750s, Nanzhao had taken eastern Yunnan into its empire and had become a potential rival to Tang China.
The following period saw conflicts between Tang China and Nanzhao. In 750, Nanzhao captured Yaozhou, the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan. In 751, Xianyu Zhongtong (
Wuntho or Waing Hso was a native state of Upper Burma when Burma, was under British control. It had an area of around 6,200 square kilometres with 150,000 inhabitants and lay midway between the Ayeyarwady River and Chindwin River. Wuntho state was founded before 1200. In 1885 the British established their rule in the region. Wuntho rebelled in 1891 but the British quelled the uprising; as a consequence a force of 1,800 British soldiers under General Sir George Wolseley occupied the town of Wuntho. In 1892 the state was formally incorporated into the District of Katha. In 22, December 2018, Wuntho was incorporated into Kawlin District along with Pinlebu, it was classed by the Burmese as a Shan state, but was never on the same footing as the Shan states to the east. The rulers of Wuntho bore the title Saopha. 1698 - 1703 Maung Sun 1703 - 1714 Kyaung Pyn 1714 - 1736 Myat Kaung 1736 - 1753 Vacant 1751 - 1756 Talaings 1756 - 1778 Aung Nyo 1778 - 1796 Maung Tin 1796 - 1798 Maung Taw Zan 1798 - 1827 Maung Tha Ywe 1827 - 1830 Maung Shwe 1830 - 1833 Maung Pe Nge 1833 - 1849 Shwe Thi 1849 - 1851 San Tit 1852 - 1878 Mama Shwe Tha 1878 - 7 Feb 1891 Maung Aung Myat Satellite map of Wuntho Maplandia The Wuntho Sawbwa's troops surrendering arms to the British authorities at Wuntho - photo University of Cambridge