Madonna del Pilone, Turin
The church of the Madonna del Pilone is a seventeenth-century church in Turin, Italy. Built in 1645, the church was constructed by wish of the Queen Regent Christine Marie of France to remember the miraculous rescue from the year of a girl from the river. The miracle was attributed to the intervention of an image of the Virgin of the Annunciation, the painting became such an item of devotion, that this church was built at the site, enlarged in 1779, and furnished with a baptistery in 1807. The main altar houses the icon dating from 1587, now thoroughly restored. The miracle for which the church was built recalls that the riverbank nearby once housed a number of mills, a flour millers daughter fell into the river at dusk. Her Mother, hearing her cries, but unable to see where she was to rescue her, knelt before a shrine built next to the mill. Legend holds a shaft of light illuminated the spot where her daughter was. News of the led to the erection of a church by 1645. The picture of the Madonna behind the main altar recalls the event, information extracted from Italian Wikipedia Official website with history of miracle
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million, in 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, many of Turins public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion, the city used to be a major European political center.
Turin was Italys first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, from 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italys best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, in addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana. Turins attractions make it one of the worlds top 250 tourist destinations, Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the worlds 78th richest city by purchasing power, as of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, the Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.
In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibals forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum, both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurinis country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans created a military camp, the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the path of the Roman citys decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani. The Porta Palatina, on the side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral
The term chapel usually refers to a place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. Chapel has referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside of the established church, the earliest Christian places of worship are now often referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars, which if they occupied a distinct space, in Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them. The most famous example is the Iberian Chapel, although chapels frequently refer to Christian places of worship, they are commonly found in Jewish synagogues and do not necessarily connote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law—non-denominational or inter-faith chapels in such institutions may nonetheless be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop, non-denominational chapels are commonly encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, university or prison.
Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel, the earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individuals home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation, people who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them. The word, like the word, chaplain, is ultimately derived from Latin. The other half he wore over his shoulders as a small cape, the beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, and Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk, bishop. This cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, the tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names chapel, the word appears in the Irish language in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland.
While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais, a new word, séipéal, in British history, chapel or meeting house, was formerly the standard designation for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. As a result, chapel is used as an adjective in the UK to describe the members of such churches. A proprietary chapel is one that belonged to a private person. In the 19th century they were common, often being built to cope with urbanisation, frequently they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more privately, with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favorite preachers and they are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there. Historically many Anglican Churches were Proprietary Chapels, over the years they have often been converted into normal Parishes.
While the usage of the chapel is not exclusively limited to Christian terminology
Royal Palace of Turin
The Royal Palace of Turin is a historic palace of the House of Savoy in the city of Turin in Northern Italy. It was originally built in the 16th century and was modernized by Christine Marie of France in the 17th century. The palace includes the Palazzo Chiablese and the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, in 1946, the building became the property of the state and was turned into a museum. In 1997, it was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list along with 13 other residences of the House of Savoy, construction of the palace was ordered by the Regent Maria Christina in 1645. She wanted a new residence for the court after her son returned from the civil war. The chosen location was the previous Bishops Palace, which had built in the middle of the new capital of Savoy, during the reign of Emmanuel Philibert. Its advantages included an open and sunny position, in addition to being close to buildings where the court met. The Duke was able to monitor the two entrances of the city from the Bishops Palace, the Bishops Palace in Turin was captured by the French in 1536 and served as a residence of the French Viceroys of Savoy, who were appointed by Francis I of France.
Opposite the Bishops Palace was the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo di San Giovanni and this building, disparagingly known as Pasta con Tonno because of its architecture, was replaced by the grand Ducal Palace. Thus the old Bishops Palace became the seat of power and was expanded by Emmanuel Philibert to house his ever growing collection of art, marbles. Emmanuel Philibert died in Turin in August 1580 and the Savoyard throne was handed down to his son, Charles Emmanuel I and his son, the future Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, entered into a prestigious marriage when he married the French Princess Christine Marie of France. Their marriage took place in Paris at the Louvre in 1619, Victor Amadeus I succeeded to the Duchy of Savoy in 1630. He had previously spent his youth in Madrid at the court of his grandfather and his wife set the tone for Victor Amadeus Is reign. Christine Marie had the court moved from the palace in Turin to the Castello del Valentino. Many of Victor Amadeus I and Christine Maries children were born at Valentino, including Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy and his successor Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy.
Christine Marie became the regent of Savoy after the death of her husband in 1637 on behalf of her two sons, who succeeded as Dukes of Savoy. During the reign of Victor Amadeus II, the Daniel gallery was created and named after Daniel Seiter, Victor Amadeus II had a collection of summer apartments built to look onto the court and a winter apartment overlooking the gardens. His wife was the niece of Louis XIV, born Anne Marie dOrléans, Louis XVs mother and aunt were born in the palace in 1685 and 1688, respectively
Turin Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Turin, northern Italy. Dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, it is the seat of the Archbishops of Turin and it was built during 1491–98 and is adjacent to an earlier campanile built in 1470. Designed by Guarino Guarini, the Chapel of the Holy Shroud was added to the structure in 1668–94, the church lies in the place where the theatre of the ancient Roman city was located. The original Christian sacred house included three churches, dedicated to the Holy Saviour, Saint Mary of Dompno and, the main of three, St. John the Baptist. According to some sources, the consecration was carried on by Agilulf. Here, in 662, Duke of Turin was assassinated in the church by a follower of Godepert, the three churches were demolished between 1490 and 1492. The new cathedral, again entitled to St. John the Baptist, was begun in 1491 under design of Amedeo de Francisco di Settignano, known as Meo del Caprino, the bell tower, remained the one erected in 1469, which is still visible today.
Filippo Juvarra brought some modifications in the 17th century, pope Leo X officially confirmed it as metropolitan see in 1515. Quadris design was based on a project by Carlo di Castellamonte. In 1667 Guarino Guarini was called in to complete the project, the dome, whose works dragged for 28 years, was completed in 1694 under the direction of Marie Jeanne of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel IIs widow. The cathedral is the place of Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati, Turin native, avid athlete. He was beatified by John Paul II in 1990, while the chapel of the Holy Shroud behind the cathedral was undergoing renovation during 2009, the Shroud was kept in a small chapel within the cathedral. Several royal consorts and princesses are buried here
The Palatine Gate is a Roman Age city gate located in Turin, Italy. The gate provided access through the city walls of Julia Augusta Taurinorum from the North side and, as a result, the Palatine Gate represents the primary archaeological evidence of the citys Roman phase, and is one of the best preserved 1st-century BC Roman gateways in the world. Together with the ancient theatres remains, located a distance away, it is part of the so-called Archaeological Park. The name Porta Palatina literally refers to a palazzo placed near the gate, a second theory hints to the presence of an alleged adjacent amphitheatre built near present-day Borgo Dora, a historical neighbourhood developing right outside the old city walls. This facility might rapidly have fallen into disrepair and, as a result, over the centuries, the Palatine Gate was known by some other names, such as Porta Comitale, Porta Doranea or Porta Doranica and as Porta Palazzo. The Porta Principalis Dextra served as an access to the cardo maximus, currently identified in Via Porta Palatina and its impressive remains are currently visible at the center of an open area, todays Piazza Cesare Augusto.
Erected on a base, the two angular towers are more than thirty metres high and feature a sixteen-sided structure. The grooves along the inner walls suggest the original presence of the so-called cateractae. On the ground near the gate is part of the guardhouse added in the Roman period. The pair of statues depicting Augustus Caesar and Julius Caesar are not the original statues but copies from the last. However, they are object of discussion as they were placed in the internal area occupied by the statio and not outside the gate. This facility served as a city gate for a time and was turned into a castrum in the 11th century. In 1404, after centuries of incursions and partial decay, the tower was rebuilt. The Palatine Gate was supposed to be torn down in the early 18th century, the dismantling was not implemented thanks to the intervention of the architect and engineer Antonio Bertola, who convinced the duke to preserve the ancient architectural work. Torricella, Giuseppe - Torino e le sue vie, Turin, E Symcox, G.
- Storia di Torino, Einaudi,2006. Lintervento di restauro degli anni novanta, in Liliana Mercando, Archeologia a Torino, dalletà preromana allAlto Medioevo, Umberto Allemandi & C. Claudio Franzoni, Le mura di Torino, riuso e potenza delle tradizioni, in Enrico Castelnuovo, prima capitale dItalia, I luoghi dellarte, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani, Rome,2010, pp. 13-22. Gruppo Archeologico Torinese, Guida archeologica di Torino, Turin, p.102, politecnico di Torino Dipartimento Casa-Città, Beni culturali ambientali nel Comune di Torino, Società degli Ingegneri e degli Architetti in Torino, Torino 1984, p.286
Camillo-Guarino Guarini was an Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque, active in Turin as well as Sicily and Portugal. He was a Theatine priest and writer and he was accepted as a Theatine novice in 1639, spent his novitiate at the monastery of San Silvestro al Quirinale in Rome, and returned to Modena in 1647, where he was ordained in 1648. He rose quickly in the Theatine hierarchy, becoming first auditor, superintendent of works, lecturer in philosophy, prince Alfonso supported another candidate and Guarini was soon replaced and had to leave Modena. The next few years are poorly documented and he wrote four mathematical books in both Latin and Italian, of which Euclides adauctus is a work on descriptive geometry. In 1665, he published a mathematical-philosophical tract Placita Philosophica defending the universe against Copernicus. The Palazzo Carignano is regarded as one of the finest urban palaces of the half of the 17th century in Italy. Guarini appears to have influenced by Borromini.
Between 1657 and 1659 he stayed in Spain, where he studied Moorish buildings, in architecture, his successors include Filippo Juvarra, and Juvarras pupil Bernardo Vittone. The latter published his designs in Architettura Civile in 1737 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Guarini, Camillo-Guarino. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600–1750, optical Illusion and Projection, A Study of Guarino Guarinis Dome in Santissima Sindone Books on line, http, //architectura. cesr. univ-tours. fr/Traite/Auteur/Guarini. asp. param=en
Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians, Turin
The Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians is a church in Turin, northern Italy. Originally part of the home for boys founded by John Bosco, it now contains the remains of Bosco. The basilica enshrines an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Our Lady Help of Christians, pope Leo XIII granted a Canonical coronation to the painted image on 17 May 1903 via his Papal legate, Cardnal Agostino Richelmy. In addition, the church housing Boscos relics was conceived by Antonio Spezia, the consecration took place in 1868. According to legend, a vision of the Virgin Mary appeared in a dream to John Bosco in 1844 or 1845 and revealed the site of the martyrdom of the Turinese saints Solutor, the Basilica dellAusiliatrice was built on the site of their death. The church houses the relics of these saints, Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians, Belmont Abbey Roman Catholic Marian churches Short history of the sanctuary
National Museum of Cinema
The National Museum of Cinema located in Turin, is an Italian motion picture museum, fitted out inside the Mole Antonelliana tower. It is operated by the Maria Adriana Prolo Foundation, and the core of its collection is the result of the work of the historian and it was housed in the Palazzo Chiablese. In 2008, with 532,196 visitors, it reached the place among the most visited Italian museums. The museum houses pre-cinematographic optical devices such as magic lanterns and current film technologies, stage items from early Italian movies, along the exhibition path of about 35. A movie screen located in the Massimo multiplex, near to the museum, is reserved to retrospectives, the museum hosts several film festivals, the major and most prestigious of them being the Torino Film Festival. It is the museum with the biggest vertical extension of the world
Bulletproof glass is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck. Like any material, however, it is not completely impenetrable and it is usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. The softer layer makes the glass more elastic, so it can instead of shatter. The index of refraction for both of the used in the bulletproof layers must be almost the same to keep the glass transparent and allow a clear. Bulletproof glass varies in thickness from 3⁄4 to 3 1⁄2 inches, bulletproof glass is used in windows of buildings that require security, such as jewelry stores and embassies, as well as military and private vehicles. Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using layers of laminated glass, the more layers the higher the protection. When a weight reduction is needed 3mm of polycarbonate is laminated onto the safe side, the aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms.
Polycarbonate designs usually consist of such as Armormax, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak. The polycarbonate usually has one of two types of coating to resist abrasion, a coating that heals after being scratched or a hard coating that prevents scratching. The plastic in laminate designs provides resistance to impact from physical assault from blunt, the plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance. The glass, which is harder than plastic, flattens the bullet. The ability of the layer to stop projectiles with varying energy is directly proportional to its thickness. Laminated glass layers are built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, when treated with chemical processes, the glass becomes much stronger. This design has been in use on combat vehicles since World War II. It is typically thick and is extremely heavy. Bullet-resistant materials are tested using a gun to fire a projectile from a set distance into the material, levels of protection are based on the ability of the target to stop a specific type of projectile traveling at a specific speed.
When projectiles do not penetrate, the depth of the dent left by the impact can be measured and related to the projectile’s velocity and thickness of the material. Some researchers have developed models based on results of this kind of testing to help them design bulletproof glass to resist specific anticipated threats. S
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of forms of Buddhism, Islam, Shamanism. Relic derives from the Latin reliquiae, meaning remains, and a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to leave behind, a reliquary is a shrine that houses one or more religious relics. In ancient Greece, a city or sanctuary might claim to possess, without necessarily displaying, the sanctuary of the Leucippides at Sparta claimed to display the egg of Leda. The bones were not regarded as holding a power derived from the hero, with some exceptions. Miracles and healing were not regularly attributed to them, their presence was meant to serve a tutelary function, the bones of Orestes and Theseus were supposed to have been stolen or removed from their original resting place and reburied. Plutarch says that the Athenians were likewise instructed by the oracle to locate, the body of the legendary Eurystheus was supposed to protect Athens from enemy attack, and in Thebes, that of the prophet Amphiaraus, whose cult was oracular and healing.
As with the relics of Theseus, the bones are sometimes described in sources as gigantic. On the basis of their size, it has been conjectured that such bones were those of prehistoric creatures. The head of the poet-prophet Orpheus was supposed to have transported to Lesbos. The 2nd-century geographer Pausanias reported that the bones of Orpheus were kept in a stone vase displayed on a pillar near Dion, his place of death and these too were regarded as having oracular power, which might be accessed through dreaming in a ritual of incubation. The accidental exposure of the bones brought a disaster upon the town of Libretha, according to the Chronicon Paschale, the bones of the Persian Zoroaster were venerated, but the tradition of Zoroastrianism and its scriptures offer no support of this. In Hinduism, relics are less common than in other religions since the remains of most saints are cremated. The veneration of corporal relics may have originated with the movement or the appearance of Buddhism.
In Buddhism, relics of the Buddha and various sages are venerated, after the Buddhas death, his remains were divided into eight portions. Afterward, these relics were enshrined in stupas wherever Buddhism was spread, some relics believed to be original remains of the body of the Buddha still survive, including the much-revered Sacred Relic of the tooth of the Buddha in Sri Lanka. A stupa is a building created specifically for the relics, many Buddhist temples have stupas and historically, the placement of relics in a stupa often became the initial structure around which the whole temple would be based. Today, many hold the ashes or ringsel of prominent/respected Buddhists who were cremated