Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of King Władysław I and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty. Kazimierz inherited a kingdom made it prosperous and wealthy, he doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian". Kazimierz founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish university, he confirmed privileges and protections granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers. Kazimierz left no lawful male heir to his throne; when Kazimierz died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary. When Kazimierz attained the throne in 1333, his position was in danger, as his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków"; the kingdom was depopulated and exhausted by war, the economy was ruined.
In 1335, in the Treaty of Trentschin, Casimir was forced to relinquish his claims to Silesia "in perpetuity". Kazimierz rebuilt and his kingdom became prosperous and wealthy, with great prospects for the future, he waged many victorious wars and doubled the size of the kingdom through addition of lands in modern-day Ukraine. Kazimierz built extensively during his reign, ordering the construction of over 40 castles, including many castles along the Trail of the Eagle's Nests, he reformed the Polish army. At the Sejm in Wiślica, on 11 March 1347, Kazimierz introduced reforms to the Polish judicial system and sanctioned civil and criminal codes for Great and Lesser Poland, earning the title "the Polish Justinian", he founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish University, he organized a meeting of kings in Kraków in 1364 at which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom. Kazimierz is the only king in Polish history to both receive and retain the title of "Great". In 1355, in Buda, Kazimierz designated his nephew Louis I of Hungary as his successor should he produce no male heir, as his father had with Charles I of Hungary to gain his help against Bohemia.
In exchange Kazimierz gained a favourable Hungarian attitude, needed in disputes with the hostile Teutonic Order and Kingdom of Bohemia. Kazimierz at the time was still in his early years and having a son did not seem to be a problem. Kazimierz left no legal son, begetting five daughters instead, he tried to adopt Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania, in his last will. The child had been born to his second daughter, Duchess of Pomerania, in 1351; this part of the testament was invalidated by Louis I of Hungary, who had traveled to Kraków after Kazimierz died and bribed the nobles with future privileges. Kazimierz III had a son-in-law, Louis VI of Bavaria and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, considered a possible successor, but he was deemed ineligible as his wife, Kazimierz's daughter Cunigunde, had died in 1357 without issue, thus King Louis I of Hungary became successor in Poland. Louis was proclaimed king upon Kazimierz's death in 1370, though Kazimierz's sister Elisabeth held much of the real power until her death in 1380.
Casimir was facetiously named "the Peasants' King". He introduced the codes of law of Greater and Lesser Poland as an attempt to end the overwhelming superiority of the nobility. During his reign all three major classes — the nobility and bourgeoisie — were more or less counterbalanced, allowing Casimir to strengthen his monarchic position, he was known for siding with the weak. He even supported a peasant whose house had been demolished by his own mistress, after she had ordered it to be pulled down because it disturbed her enjoyment of the beautiful landscape. On 9 October 1334, he confirmed. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism, he inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. While Jews had lived in Poland since before his reign, Casimir allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king. Casimir III was born in Kowal, he married four times. Casimir first married the daughter of Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania.
The marriage produced two daughters, married to Louis VI the Roman, the son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Elisabeth, married to Duke Bogislaus V of Pomerania. Aldona died in 1339, Casimir married Adelaide of Hesse, he divorced Adelaide in 1356, married Christina, divorced her, while Adelaide and Christina were still alive, he married Hedwig of Głogów and Sagan. He had three daughters by his fourth wife, they were still young when he died, regarded as of dubious legitimacy because of Casimir's bigamy. On 30 April or 16 October 1325, Casimir married Aldona of Lithuania, she was a daughter of Gediminas of Jewna. They had two children: Elisabeth of Poland. Casimir remained a widower for two years. On 29 September 1341, Casimir married Adelaide of Hesse, she was a daughter of Henry II, Lan
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Lublin Castle is a medieval castle in Lublin, adjacent to the Old Town district and close to the city center. It is one of the oldest preserved Royal residencies in Poland, established by High Duke Casimir II the Just; the hill it is on was first fortified with a wood-reinforced earthen wall in the 12th century. In the first half of the 13th century, the stone keep, it survives to this day and is the tallest building of the castle, as well as the oldest standing building in the city. In the 14th century, during the reign of Casimir the Great, the castle was rebuilt with stone walls. At the same time the castle's Chapel of the Holy Trinity was built to serve as a royal chapel. In the first decades of the 15th century king Władysław II commissioned a set of frescoes for the chapel, they are preserved to this day. The author was a Ruthenian Master Andrej. Due to their unique style, mixing Western and Eastern Orthodox influences, they are acclaimed internationally as an important historical monument.
Under the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty the castle enjoyed royal favor and frequent stays by members of the royal family. In the 16th century, it was rebuilt on a grandiose scale, under the direction of Italian masters brought from Kraków; the most momentous event in the castle's history was the signing in 1569 of the Union of Lublin, the founding act of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As a consequence of the wars in the 17th century the castle fell into disrepair. Only the oldest sections, the keep and the chapel, remained intact. After Lublin fell under Russian rule following the territorial settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the government of Congress Poland, on the initiative of Stanisław Staszic, carried out a complete reconstruction of the castle between 1826 and 1828; the new buildings were in English neogothic style different from the structures they replaced, their new purpose was to house a criminal prison. Only the keep and the chapel were preserved in their original state.
The castle served as a prison for the next 128 years: as a Tsarist prison from 1831 to 1915, in independent Poland from 1918 to 1939, most infamously during the Nazi occupation of the city from 1939 to 1944, when between 40,000 and 80,000 inmates, many of them Polish resistance fighters and Jews, passed through. Just before withdrawing in 1944, the Nazis massacred its remaining 300 prisoners. After 1944 the castle continued to serve as a prison of Soviet secret police and of the People's Republic of Poland, until 1954 about 35,000 Poles opposing Soviet occupation of their country rule passed through it, of whom 333 lost their lives. In 1954 the castle prison was closed. Following reconstruction and refurbishment, since 1957 it has been the main site of the Lublin Museum. Castles in Poland Lublin Castle and Lublin Museum webpage
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 349,103. Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is 170 kilometres to the southeast of Warsaw by road. One of the events that contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385. Lublin thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism. At the turn of the centuries, Lublin was recognized for hosting a number of outstanding poets and historians of the epoch.
Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the Royal Election. In 1578 Lublin was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, for centuries the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with Kraków, Poznań and Lwów. Although Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World War II, its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved; the district is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated May 16, 2007, tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland. The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment and the analytical Financial Times Group has found Lublin to be one of the best cities for business in Poland; the Foreign Direct Investment ranking placed Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category.
Lublin is noted for a high standard of living. Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin and in its environs in the 6th-7th centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the 6th century were discovered in the center of today's Lublin on Czwartek Hill; the period of the early Middle Ages was marked by intensification of habitation in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centered around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, one of the main centers of Lendians tribe; when the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the center shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin in the early medieval period. One of them was most erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century; the castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224 but was quite present from the start of the 12th or 10th century.
The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction, it was ruled by Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302. Lublin was founded as a town by Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of prince Bolesław V the Chaste. Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dated to the years 1335-1370 exists to this day. In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between Poland and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries.
In 1474 the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland. During the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly; the largest trade fairs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments were held in Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania; the Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin was one of the most influential cities of the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland; some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin. Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city.
One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin around this time. Jews established a respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue and education centre and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish
Union of Lublin
The Union of Lublin was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was abandoned; the Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno, became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium. The Commonwealth was ruled by a single elected monarch who carried out the duties of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, governed with a common Senate and parliament; the Union was an evolutionary stage in the Polish–Lithuanian alliance and personal union, necessitated by Lithuania's dangerous position in wars with Russia. Constituting a crucial event in the history of several nations, the Union of Lublin has been viewed quite differently by many historians.
Sometimes identified as the moment at which the szlachta rose to the height of their power, establishing a democracy of noblemen as opposed to absolute monarchy. Some historians concentrate on its positive aspects, emphasizing its peaceful, voluntary creation, inclusive character and its role in spreading of economical welfare and good laws; some Lithuanian historians are more critical of the Union, concluding it was an effect of domination by Polish nobles. There were long discussions before signing the union treaty. Lithuanian magnates were afraid of losing much of their powers, since the union would make their legal status equal to that of the much more numerous Polish lower nobility. Lithuania had been on the losing side of the Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars, by the second half of the 16th century, it faced the threat of total defeat in the Livonian war and incorporation into Russia; the Polish nobility, on the other hand, were reluctant to offer help to Lithuania without receiving anything in exchange.
The Polish and Lithuanian elites strengthened personal bonds and had opportunities to plan their united futures during increased military cooperation in the 1560s. Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, seeing the threat to Lithuania and to Poland, pressed for the union gaining more followers until he felt enough support to evict landowners forcibly who opposed the transition of territory from Lithuania to Poland. A clear motivation for Sigismund was that he was the last Jagiello and had no children or brothers who could inherit the throne. Therefore, the Union was an attempt to preserve the continuity of his dynasty's work since the personal union of Poland and Lithuania at the marriage of Jadwiga of Poland and Wladyslaw II Jagiello; the Union was one of the constitutional changes required to establish a formal elected monarchy, which would reign over both domains. The Sejm did not reach an agreement. One of the points of contention was the right of Poles to own land in the Grand Duchy.
After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł left Lublin on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia and the Kiev palatinate, with wide approval from the local gentry. Bratslav and eastern Podolia were transferred to Poland; those historic lands of Rus' are over half of modern Ukraine and were a substantial portion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania's territory. The Rus' nobles there were eager to capitalise on the economic and political opportunities offered by the Polish sphere, by and large, they wanted their lands to become a part of the Polish Crown; the Lithuanians were forced to return to the Sejm under the leadership of Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz and to continue negotiations, using different tactics from those of Radziwiłł. Though the Polish szlachta wanted full incorporation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Crown, the Lithuanians continued to oppose that and agreed only to a federal state.
On 28 June 1569, the last objections were overcome, on 4 July, an act was accordingly signed by the king at Lublin Castle. The Union of Lublin was superseded by the Constitution of 3 May 1791, under which the federal Commonwealth was to be transformed into a unitary state by King Stanisław August Poniatowski; the status of semi-federal state was restored by the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The constitution was not implemented and the Commonwealth was ended with the Partitions of Poland in 1795. After the Union, the Lithuanian nobles had the same formal rights as the Polish to rule the lands and subjects under their control. However, political advancement in the Catholic-dominated Commonwealth was a different matter. By the late 15th century, the Polish language was making rapid inroads among the Lithuanian and Rus' elites; the Lublin Union accelerated the process of Polonization. In culture and social life, both the Polish language and Catholicism became dominant for the Ruthenian nobility, most of whom were Ruthenian-speaking and Eastern Orthodox by religion.
However the commoners the peasants, continued to speak their own languages and after the Union of Brest converted to Eastern Catholicism. This created a significant rift between the lower social classes and the nobility in the Lithuanian and Ruthen
Graffiti is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, it has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, the Roman Empire. In modern times and marker pens have become the most used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's permission is considered defacement and vandalism, a punishable crime. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different styles of graffiti. Both "graffiti" and its occasional singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato. "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface.
A related term is "sgraffito", which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares and scratch a design into it. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used; the word originates from Greek γράφειν—graphein—meaning "to write". The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii. Use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism; the only known source of the Safaitic language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern Syria, eastern Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD; the first known example of "modern style" graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus.
Local guides say. Located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint, a number, a carved image of a woman's head; the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than they carry in today's society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, simple words of thought, compared to today's popular messages of social and political ideals The eruption of Vesuvius preserved graffiti in Pompeii, which includes Latin curses, magic spells, declarations of love, political slogans, famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by mansueta tene. Disappointed love found its way onto walls in antiquity: Ancient tourists visiting the 5th-century citadel at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka scribbled over 1800 individual graffiti there between the 6th and 18th centuries.
Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose and commentary. The majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society: royalty, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and some metalworkers; the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art and poetry. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there. One reads: Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems. Yazid al-Himyari, an Umayyad Arab and Persian poet, was most known for writing his political poetry on the walls between Sajistan and Basra, manifesting a strong hatred towards the Umayyad regime and its walis, people used to read and circulate them widely. Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. Errors in spelling and grammar in these graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin.
Examples are 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed quactiliar rog. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co"; the 83 pieces of graffiti found at CIL IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a peristyle, being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens; the graffiti were left by his workers. The brothel at CIL VII, 12, 18–20 contains more than 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients; the gladiatorial academy at CIL IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens Another piece from Pompeii, written on a tavern wall about the owner of the establishment and his questionable wine: It was not only the Greeks and Romans who produced graffiti: the Maya s
A portal is an opening in a wall of a building, gate or fortification a grand entrance to an important structure. Doors, metal gates, or portcullis in the opening can be used to control exit; the surface surrounding the opening may be made of simple building materials or decorated with ornamentation. The elements of a portal can include the voussoir, tympanum, an ornamented mullion or trumeau between doors, columns with carvings of saints in the westwork of a church; the term portal is applied to the ends of a tunnel