Aonghas MacNeacail, nickname Aonghas dubh or Black Angus) is a contemporary writer in the Scottish Gaelic language. MacNeacail was born on Uig, on the Isle of Skye on 7 June 1942, he was raised in Idrigil. He was registered at birth as Angus Nicolson, but changed his official name to "Aonghas MacNeacail," the Scottish Gaelic version of his name, he attended Uig Primary School and Portree High School, from 1968 the University of Glasgow where he was one of a group of young writers who gathered around Philip Hobsbaum which included James Kelman, Tom Leonard, Alasdair Gray, Liz Lochhead and Jeff Torrington. Besides drawing on Gaelic traditions, MacNeacail is influenced by the Black Mountain School of the USA, he has held writing fellowships in Scotland, including residences at the Gaelic college of Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, reads his work at festivals around the world. He has collaborated with musicians and visual artists, written drama, his poetry has been published throughout the English speaking world in journals such as Ploughshares, Poetry Australia, World Poetry Almanac, JuxtaProse Literary Magazine.
He has received wide recognition and critical acclaim for his screenwriting and songwriting. MacNeacail won the Stakis Prize for Scottish Writer of the Year with his third collection, Oideachadh Ceart, in 1997, his most recent collection Laoidh an Donais òig was published by Polygon in 2007. His partner is writer Gerda Stevenson. Textualities entry Official website
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Kathleen Jessie Raine CBE was a British poet and scholar, writing in particular on William Blake, W. B. Yeats and Thomas Taylor. Known for her interest in various forms of spirituality, most prominently Platonism and Neoplatonism, she was a founding member of the Temenos Academy. Kathleen Raine was born in Essex, her mother was from Scotland and her father was born in Wingate, County Durham. The couple had met as students at Armstrong College in Newcastle upon Tyne. Raine spent part of World War I,'a few short years', with her Aunty Peggy Black at the manse in Great Bavington, Northumberland, she commented, "I loved everything about it." For her it is the declared foundation of all her poetry. Raine always remembered Northumberland as Eden: "In Northumberland I knew myself in my own place; this period is described in the first book of Farewell Happy Fields. Raine noted that poetry was ingrained in the daily lives of her maternal ancestors: "On my mother's side I inherited Scotland's songs and ballads…sung or recited by my mother and grandmothers, who had learnt it from their mothers and grandmothers… Poetry was the essence of life."
Raine read the Bible daily at home and at school, coming to know much of it by heart. Her father was an English master at County High School in Ilford, he had studied the poetry of Wordsworth for his M. Litt thesis and had a passion for Shakespeare and Raine saw many Shakespearean plays as a child. From her father she gained a love of etymology and the literary aspect of poetry, the counterpart to her immersion in the poetic oral traditions, she wrote that for her poetry was "not something invented but given…Brought up as I was in a household where poets were so regarded it became my ambition to be a poet". She confided her ambition to her father, sceptical of the plan. "To my father" she wrote "poets belonged to another plane. Her mother encouraged Raine's poetry from babyhood. Raine was educated at County High School and read natural sciences, including botany and zoology, on an Exhibition at Girton College, receiving her master's degree in 1929. While in Cambridge she met Jacob Bronowski, William Empson, Humphrey Jennings and Malcolm Lowry.
In life she was a friend and colleague of the kabbalist author and teacher, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi. Raine married Hugh Sykes Davies in 1930, she left Davies for Charles Madge and they had two children together, but their marriage broke up. She held an unrequited passion for Gavin Maxwell; the title of Maxwell's most famous book Ring of Bright Water, subsequently made into a film of the same name starring Bill Travers and Virginia McKenna, was taken from a line in Raine's poem "The Marriage of Psyche". The relationship with Maxwell ended in 1956 when Raine lost his pet otter, indirectly causing the animal's death. Raine held herself responsible, not only for losing Mijbil but for a curse she had uttered shortly beforehand, frustrated by Maxwell's homosexuality: "Let Gavin suffer in this place as I am suffering now." Raine blamed herself thereafter for all Maxwell's misfortunes, beginning with Mijbil's death and ending with the cancer from which he died in 1969. From 1939 to 1941, Raine and her children shared a house at 49a Wordsworth Street in Penrith with Janet Adam Smith and Michael Roberts and lived in Martindale.
She was a friend of Winifred Nicholson. Raine's two children were James Wolf Madge. In 1959, James married Jennifer Alliston, the daughter of Raine's friend and town planner Jane Drew with architect James Alliston. Drew was a direct descendant of the neoplatonist Thomas Taylor whom Raine wrote about, thus a link was made between Taylor by the two children of her son's marriage. At the time of her death, following an accident, Raine lived in London, she died of pneumonia after being knocked over by a reversing car after having posted a letter. Her first book of poetry, Stone And Flower, was published by Tambimuttu, illustrated by Barbara Hepworth. In 1946 the collection, Living in Time, was released, followed by The Pythoness in 1949, her Collected Poems drew from eleven previous volumes of poetry. Her classics include Who Are We? There were many subsequent prose and poetry works, including her scholarly masterwork, the two-volume Blake and Tradition, which demonstrated the antiquity and integrity of William Blake's philosophy, refuting T S Eliot's assertion to the contrary.
The story of her life is told in a three-volume autobiography notable for the author's attempts to impose a structure on her memories, quasi mythical, thus relating her own life to a larger pattern. This reflects patterns in her poetry, influenced by W. B. Yeats; the three books were published separately and brought together in a single volume, entitled Autobiographies, edited by Lucien Jenkins. Raine made translations of Honoré de Balzac's Cousine Illusions perdues, she was a frequent contributor to the quarterly journal, Studies in Comparative Religion, which dealt with religious symbolism and the Traditionalist perspective. With Keith Critchlow, Brian Keeble and Philip Sherrard she co-founded, in 1981, Temenos, a pe
Iain Crichton Smith
Iain Crichton Smith, was a Scottish poet and novelist, who wrote in both English and Gaelic. He was born in Glasgow, but moved to the Isle of Lewis at the age of two, where he and his two brothers were brought up by their widowed mother in the small crofting town of Bayble, which produced Derick Thomson. Educated at the University of Aberdeen, Crichton Smith took a degree in English, after serving in the National Service Army Education Corps, went on to become a teacher, he taught in Clydebank and Oban from 1952, retiring to become a full-time writer in 1977, although he had many novels and poems published. Crichton Smith was brought up in a Gaelic-speaking community, learning English as a second language once he attended school. Friend and poet Edwin Morgan notes that unlike his contemporaries, Crichton Smith was more prolific in English than in Gaelic viewing his writing in what, from Crichton Smith's view, was an imposed non-native language as a challenge to English and American poets. However, Crichton Smith produced much Gaelic poetry and prose, translated some of the work of Sorley Maclean from Gaelic to English, as well as some of his own poems composed in Gaelic.
It should be noted that much of his English language work is directly related to, or translated from, Gaelic equivalents. Crichton Smith's work reflects his dislike of dogma and authority, influenced by his upbringing in a close-knit, island presbyterian community, as well as his political and emotional thoughts and views of Scotland and the Highlands. Despite his upbringing, Crichton Smith was an atheist. A number of his poems explore the subject of the Highland Clearances, his best-known novel Consider the Lilies is an account of the eviction of an elderly woman during such times. Elderly women and alienated individuals are common themes in his work. Crichton Smith's poetry quite had a character based on his mother, he typically used natural images to convey emotion. His poetry includes: Culloden and After - an attack on that period in British history "Bonnie Charlie". Old Woman The Iolaire The Man who Cried Wolf You Lived in Glasgow You'll Take a Bath John Brown The Long River Bùrn is Aran Thistles and Roses Deer on the High Hills An Dubh is an Gorm Bìobuill is Sanasan-Reice The Law and the Grace Modern Gaelic Verse The Golden Lyric: an Essay on the Poetry of Hugh MacDiarmid At Helensburgh Consider the Lilies Ben Dorain by Duncan Ban MacIntyre From Bourgeois Land The Last Summer Iain am Measg Nan Reultan Maighstirean is Ministearan Selected Poems Survival Without Error My Last Duchess Poems to Eimhir translated from Sorley MacLean Love Poems and Elegies An t-Adhar Ameireaganach The Black and the Red Rabhndan is Rudan Eadar Fealla-dha is Glaschu Goodbye Mr Dixon Hami Autumn The Notebooks of Robinson Crusoe The Permanent Island An t-Aonaran The Hermit and Other Stories An End to Autumn River, River On the Island Murdo A Field Full of Folk Selected Poems 1955-1982 The Search Mr Trill in Hades Na h-Eilthirich The Exiles Selected Poems The Tenement Towards the Human: Selected Essays Twelve More Modern Scottish Poets editor, with C. King: A Life Burn is Aran An t-Eilean agus an Cànan In the Middle of the Wood Moments in Glasshouses editor A' Bheinn Oir Na Speuclairean Dubha The Dream Selected Poems Turas tro Shaoghal Falamh Na Guthan An Honourable Death Collected Poems An Dannsa mu Dheireadh Thoughts of Murdo An Rathad gu Somalia Ends and Beginnings The Human Face The Leaf and the Marble Country For Old Men and My Canadian Uncle Am Miseanaraidh Iain Crichton Smith, Guardate i gigli, a cura di Silvia Campanini, EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2009 New Collected Poems He was made an officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1980.
Iain Crichton Smith publications on the Carcanet website BBC bio - Làrach nam Bàrd Aberdeen University Celtic Department Experts on Iain Crichton Smith's writing in Gaelic The Contribution of Iain Crichton Smith - An essay on Crichton Smith's poetry, by Edwin Morgan Iain Crichton Smith - An extensive exploration of his life and legacy - Dissertation focusing on the Gaelic prose of Crichton Smith, by Alexander Shevellin "Real People in a Real Place" and "Between Sea and Moor" Iain Crichton Smith's essays
Richard Alexander Burns was a British rally driver who won the 2001 World Rally Championship, having finished runner-up in the series in 1999 and 2000. Born in Reading, Berkshire, he helped Mitsubishi to the world manufacturers' title in 1998, Peugeot in 2002, his co-driver in his whole career was Robert Reid. Burns was known by his smooth, methodical driving style, unusual for such a young driver of his generation, he was the patron for the Under 17 Car Club. He started driving in a field near his house at the age of eight, in his father's old Triumph 2000. At eleven Burns joined the Under 17 Car Club, where he became driver of the year in 1984. Just two years his father arranged a trip to Jan Churchill's Welsh Forest Rally School near Newtown, Powys where Burns drove a Ford Escort for the day, from that moment on he knew what he wanted to do, he badgered his father into letting him join the Craven Motor Club in his home town Reading where his talent was spotted by rally enthusiast David Williams.
In 1988 he entered his first rallies in his own Talbot Sunbeam. The car was too basic to make much impression and in 1989 he had to borrow other competitors cars to progress. To this end he rallied the stages of Panaround, Mid-Wales, Severn Valley, Kayel Graphics and the Cambrian Rally as these were all rallies which included stages used on more prestigious events. In 1990 he joined the Peugeot Challenge after David Williams bought Burns a Peugeot 205 GTI, he got his first taste of a World Rally Championship event in Great Britain as a prize for winning the Peugeot Challenge that year. In 1991 Burns met Robert Reid, the man, to become his co-driver for the next 12 years. For 1992 Williams bought Burns a Group N Subaru Legacy and with the support of Prodrive won the National Championship; this year saw Burns help out Colin McRae with his gravel notes as Prodrive saw him as a promising driver for the future. In 1993 he joined the Subaru Rally Team for the British Rally Championship alongside Alister McRae, driving a Subaru Legacy.
He won four rounds, the Vauxhall Sport, Pirelli and Manx International, became the youngest British Champion. He finished seventh on that year's snowy RAC Rally. In the wake of his 1993 success, Burns remained with Subaru for the 1994 and 1995 seasons, contesting the Asia Pacific Rally Championship, which included the New Zealand and Australia Rallies, his home WRC round, his best result was third on the 1995 RAC Rally, behind team mates Carlos Sainz and winner and world champion Colin McRae. 1996 saw an opening with Mitsubishi Ralliart at international level, seized upon with sufficient vigour to guide Burns to victory on that year's Rally New Zealand – albeit only a fixture within the Asia-Pacific Rally Championship and the FIA 2-Litre World Rally Cup. So, the fending off of such calibre competition as works-backed Subaru heavyweights Kenneth Eriksson and Piero Liatti only added gloss to an fervoured reputation. In 1997 he was driving a same car as his team-mate Tommi Makinen had, Group A Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VI, however it was re-badged as Carisma GT.
His results are improving, from 8 rallies he had participated he finished five 4th place, 2nd at Safari Rally, putting him seventh in the championship. Come 1998, he had won his maiden World Rally Championship event on the Safari, known as the most challenging and difficult rally he added a second career victory on his swansong outing for Mitsubishi on that year's Rally GB, the event where the dramatic late retirement from fourth of Toyota's Carlos Sainz secured the drivers' title for his team-mate and first leg super special stage retiree on a patch of oil, Tommi Makinen, as well as confirming the constructors' accolade for Mitsubishi. Burns returned to the Prodrive-run Subaru World Rally Team under David Richards for the 1999 season, joining Juha Kankkunen and Bruno Thiry as part of the factory team driving Subaru Impreza WRCs, replacing Ford-bound fellow Briton, Colin McRae. Burns worked his way to a career high of second place in the drivers' standings, adding to his win tally, he led Subaru to second in the constructors' series behind the Formula One departing Toyota Team Europe.
On that year's Rally Argentina, he was upstaged for victory by virtue of a team order mix-up by veteran team-mate Kankkunen. He was a long-time contender for the title in 2000, but crashed out on the Rally Finland in mid-season handing the momentum to eventual champion, future team-mate, the Peugeot driver Marcus Grönholm, competing in his first year as a full-time factory driver. So, a stirling comeback from the lower reaches of the top thirty to win on the season-ending Rally of Great Britain kept the Burns name well entrenched within public consciousness; the 2001 rally season began inauspiciously for Burns – neither of the season curtain raisers, the Monte Carlo Rally or the Swedish Rally, yielded points scores, placing in peril before it had begun, the Englishman's title bid. Fourth place in a rain-drenched Portugal kicked his campaign into action prior to second-place finishes on the gravel rallies of Argentina and Cyprus, on both occasions to Ford's Colin McRae. Nonetheless, both the Scotsman and Monte Carlo victor Tommi Mäkinen were to hit upon snags of their own, while Burns' own consistent points scoring culminated in a first and only individual rally victory of the season in New Zealand, with McRae beaten into second.
Burns finished second on the Rally Australia to close within two points of new standalone series leader McRae, although the Scotsman and Mäkinen were to struggle to fifth and sixth on this event (and the last of the drivers' points-scoring positi