Chapters (Anekdoten album)
Chapters is a double album compilation by Swedish progressive rock band Anekdoten, released in May 2009. The first disc contains the band's favourite tracks from their 3 latest albums, From Within, Gravity and A Time of Day, it features the newly recorded track "When I Turn", a track written for the From Within album. The second disc focuses on the band's earlier years, including the first Anekdoten track "Sad Rain", which only was available as bonus track on the Japanese version of Vemod, demo versions of songs from Nucleus and A Time of Day. Disc 1 "Ricochet" – 5:45 "The Great Unknown" – 6:22 "From Within" - 7:24 "In For A Ride" - 6:47 "The War Is Over" - 4:38 "Monolith" - 6:07 "A Sky About To Rain" - 6:29 "Every Step I Take" - 3:07 "Groundbound" - 5:22 "Gravity" - 8:22 "When I Turn" - 3:42 Disc 2 "Sad Rain" - 10:17 "Wheel" - 7:54 "The Old Man & The Sea" - 7:50 "Nucleus" - 5:46 "Book Of Hours" - 9:36 "This Far From The Sky" - 9:17 "30 Pieces" - 6:58 "Prince Of The Ocean" - 5:40
Chapters (Yuna album)
Chapters is the third international studio album by Malaysian singer-songwriter, Yuna released on May 20, 2016, through Verve Records. The album is the follow-up to her second international studio album Nocturnal, features guest appearances from Usher and Jhené Aiko. Chapters made its way to the top 10 of the Billboard’s Best R&B Albums of 2016: Critic’s Picks and Rolling Stone's 20 Best R&B Albums of 2016; the lead single, Crush featuring Usher was released on February 29, 2016. The song debuted at number 24 and has so far peaked at number 1 on the Malaysia Music Weekly, becoming the fastest single to top the list in just a week; as of March 9, the song peaked at number 12, 17, 6 and 3 for Indonesia, Cambodia singles chart and the United States R&B Billboard respectively. The first promotional single, "Places To Go" collaboration with DJ Premier was released on February 20, 2016. Gail Mitchell from Billboard wrote that this compelling album proves through such Sade-channeling selections as "Best Love" and "Unrequited Love."
Rolling Stone opined that Chapters, segmented like pages torn from a diary, than its occasional starry cameos or production from alt-R&B heavyweight Robin Hannibal. Her emotional sincerity is underlined by her quiet yet insistent voice, she sounds like she is whispering as she lyrically dismantles her ex-lover's arguments. Much of Chapters finds her falling out of love, but there are a few happy moments in this beautifully broken valentine
A chapter is one of the main divisions of a piece of writing of relative length, such as a book of prose, poetry, or law. A chapter book may have multiple chapters and these can be referred to by the things that may be the main topic of that specific chapter. In each case, chapters can be numbered or titled or both. An example of a chapter that has become well known is "Down the Rabbit-Hole", the first chapter from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Many novels of great length have chapters. Non-fiction books those used for reference always have chapters for ease of navigation. In these works, chapters are subdivided into sections. Larger works with a lot of chapters group them in several'parts' as the main subdivision of the book; the chapters of reference works are always listed in a table of contents. Novels sometimes use a table of contents, but not always. If chapters are used they are numbered sequentially. In older novels it was a common practice to summarise the content of each chapter in the table of contents and/or in the beginning of the chapter.
In works of fiction, authors sometimes number their chapters eccentrically as a metafictional statement. For example: Seiobo There Below by László Krasznahorkai has chapters numbered according to the Fibonacci sequence; the Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon only has chapters which are prime numbers. At Swim-Two-Birds by Flann O'Brien has the first page titled Chapter 1, but has no further chapter divisions. God, A Users' Guide by Seán Moncrieff is chaptered backwards; the novel The Running Man by Stephen King uses a similar chapter numbering scheme. Every novel in the series A Series of Unfortunate Events by Lemony Snicket has thirteen chapters, except the final instalment, which has a fourteenth chapter formatted as its own novel. Mammoth by John Varley has the chapters ordered chronologically from the point of view of a non-time-traveler, but, as most of the characters travel through time, this leads to the chapters defying the conventional order. Ulysses by James Joyce has its 18 chapters labelled with 3 books split between them.
In ancient civilizations, books were in the form of papyrus or parchment scrolls, which contained about the same amount of text as a typical chapter in a modern book. This is the reason chapters in recent reproductions and translations of works of these periods are presented as "Book 1", "Book 2" etc. In the early printed era, long works were published in multiple volumes, such as the Victorian triple decker novel, each divided into numerous chapters. Modern omnibus reprints will retain the volume divisions. In some cases the chapters will be numbered consecutively all the way through, such that "Book 2" might begin with "Chapter 9", but in other cases the numbering might reset after each part. Though the practice of dividing novels into separate volumes is rare in modern publishing, many authors still structure their works into "Books" or "Parts" and subdivide them into chapters. A notable example of this is The Lord of the Rings which consists of six'Books', each with a recognizable part of the story, although it is published in three volumes.
Asterism Chapter book Chapters and verses of the Bible Index Section Table of contents
A trade union called a labour union or labor union, is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers; the most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades, or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry; the agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, past workers, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries. Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association on wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." Karl Marx described trade unions thus: "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the working class can scarcely be overestimated.
The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level, traditionally maintained in the various branches of industry. That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value". A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."Yet historian R. A. Leeson, in United we Stand, said: Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies... the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all'labouring men and women' for a'different order of things'. Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Oddfellows, friendly societies, other fraternal organizations.
The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: We hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though of those of workmen, but whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants and journeymen. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, although Smith argued that it should remain illegal to fix wages or prices by employees or employers. There were severe penalties for including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power resulting in a body of labour law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.
The origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society taking place drew women, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles. They encountered a large hostility in their early existence from employers and government groups; this pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, would be an important arena for the development of trade unions. Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers who were not allowed to organize. Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England but their way of thinking was the one that endured dur
A chapter house or chapterhouse is a building or room, part of a cathedral, monastery or collegiate church in which larger meetings are held. When attached to a cathedral, the cathedral chapter meets there. In monasteries, the whole community met there daily for readings and to hear the abbot or senior monks talk; when attached to a collegiate church, the dean and canons of the college meet there. The rooms may be used for other meetings of various sorts. Synods, ecclesiastical courts and similar meetings took place in chapter houses; when part of a monastery, the chapter house is located on the eastern wing of the cloister, next to the church. Since many cathedrals in England were monastic foundations, this is a common arrangement there also. Elsewhere it may be a separate building; the chapter house comprises a large space, in order to hold all the monks of the monastery, is highly ornamented. There is seating around built into, all the walls of the room in stone, with the central space left open.
The seats for the senior members are larger than the others, may be raised on a dais. There is only one doorway, though the room is well-lit where the location allows, the windows are too high to allow a view in from outside. Many larger chapter houses are designed with vestibules for attendants and those waiting to be called, where opening onto a cloister does not provide such a space. There is a fireplace, altars are found in some examples, sometimes added later. Many medieval rooms use stone vaulting supported by columns in the centre of the space, as used for other more utilitarian large rooms in monasteries with a generous budget. Others have much higher roofs; the shape of the room is designed to allow good audibility for speakers from all parts of the room. It may be rectangular, tending towards the square, but octagonal and other near-circular plans are an English speciality, with that at Worcester Cathedral the earliest. Most, like those at Wells Cathedral, Lichfield Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and Lacock Abbey have a single central column, from which the high roof vaulting spreads.
York Minster has no central column. Many have elaborate benched arcades round the wall, with crocketed frames for the seats. English chapter houses tend to be more elaborate and decorated than Continental ones, the octagonal shape allowed for spectacular displays of stained glass, now lost, though not at York. Except at Westminster Abbey any paintings have been lost, but English designs, with their emphasis on carved arcades and windows, did not leave the large wall spaces found in most Continental chapter houses. At Westminster the chapter house, opposite the Palace of Westminster, was used from the erection of the present building for royal meetings, including many of the royal council, was the usual location for meetings of the House of Commons until the reign of Henry VIII, it was converted into the first home of what is now the Public Record Office soon after the English Reformation and the late Gothic paintings added behind the seats preserved hidden behind bookshelves until the 19th century.
In some Romanesque or Gothic monasteries, the entrance to the chapter house has an elaborate façade with a door surrounded by decorated archivolts when it is a separate building. Many chapterhouses feature elaborate carving or frescos, which include some masterpieces of religious art, but were sometimes secular; the paintings from Arlanza, now spread across museums in Spain and the United States decorated the monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza, contain huge bold mythical beasts that are some of the finest survivals of Romanesque palace decoration. In modern settings, the chapterhouse may be or use an ordinary office boardroom or meeting room; when it is a separate building, this consists of just the single main room. The community of monks would meet in the chapter house with the abbot to "hold chapter"; the first meeting took place after the church services of Prime or Terce. The monks might sit along the length of the walls in strict age-order, apart from the office-holders; the Carolingian Plan of St Gall is the plan for an ideal 9th century monastery, with a great variety of buildings and rooms, but none that can be assigned the function of chapterhouse.
But the chapter house is mentioned in the proceedings of the Council of Aachen in 816. The church or cloister may have been used for all meetings in earlier monasteries, or there was a refectory, but by at least 1000 such a room had become normal in large monastic establishments. The east side of the cloister on which the chapter house was located was the first to be constructed. Important examples of chapter houses from an architectural or artistic point of view can be seen at: Monastery of Santa María de Sigena, whose important Romanesque frescos are now in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya in Barcelona Elgin Cathedral - octagonal, unusually for Scotland Wąchock Abbey, Romanesque in Poland Westminster Abbey Canterbury Cathedral rectangular chapter house Wells Cathedral palm tree
Chapter (Navajo Nation)
A Chapter is the most local form of government in the Navajo Nation. The Nation is broken into five agencies; each agency contains chapters. Chapters are semi-self autonomous, being able to decide most matters which concern their own chapter, they meet in a Chapter house, where they can express their opinions to their Navajo Nation Council Delegate, although those opinions are non-binding. As of January 2004, there were a total of 110 such meeting places in existence. There are 24 delegates who represent the 110 chapter; the number of delegates was reduced from 88 in the 2010 election. John G. Hunter, superintendent of the Leupp Agency, is given credit for the establishment of the Chapter system starting in 1922 in an effort to bolster Navajo self-determination and local governance. By 1933, more than 100 chapters operated across the territory; the chapters served as liaisons between the Navajo and the federal government, acted as precincts for the elections of tribal council delegates. But the chapters had no official authority within the structure of the Navajo Nation government.
In 1998 the Navajo Tribal Council passed the "Local Governance Act," expanding the role of the existing 110 chapters. The Act authorized Chapters to make decisions over local matters, as long as they were consistent with existing Navajo law, including customs and traditions; each agency within the Navajo Nation is further broken down into chapters. The Central Agency contains 14 chapters.