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Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. Chapter 11 bankruptcy is available to every business, whether organized as a corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship, to individuals, although it is most prominently used by corporate entities. In contrast, Chapter 7 governs the process of a liquidation bankruptcy, though liquidation can be done under Chapter 11 also; when a business is unable to service its debt or pay its creditors, the business or its creditors can file with a federal bankruptcy court for protection under either Chapter 7 or Chapter 11. In Chapter 7, the business ceases operations, a trustee sells all of its assets, distributes the proceeds to its creditors. Any residual amount is returned to the owners of the company. In Chapter 11, in most instances the debtor remains in control of its business operations as a "debtor in possession", is subject to the oversight and jurisdiction of the court.

A Chapter 11 bankruptcy will result in one of three outcomes for the debtor: reorganization, conversion to Chapter 7 bankruptcy, or dismissal. In order for a chapter 11 debtor to reorganize, the debtor must file a plan of reorganization. In effect, the plan is a compromise between the major stakeholders in the case, including the debtor and its creditors. Most chapter 11 cases aim to confirm a plan. If the judge approves the reorganization plan and the creditors all agree the plan can be confirmed. Section 1129 of the Bankruptcy Code requires the bankruptcy court reach certain conclusions prior to confirming or approving the plan and making it binding on all parties in the case, most notably that the plan complies with applicable law and was proposed in good faith.11 U. S. C. § 1129 The court must find that the reorganization plan is feasible in that, unless the plan provides otherwise, the plan is not to be followed by further reorganization or liquidation. Chapter 11 retains many of the features present in all, or most, bankruptcy proceedings in the United States.

It provides additional tools for debtors as well. Most 11 U. S. C. § 1108 empowers the trustee to operate the debtor's business. In Chapter 11, unless a separate trustee is appointed for cause, the debtor, as debtor in possession, acts as trustee of the business. Chapter 11 affords the debtor in possession a number of mechanisms to restructure its business. A debtor in possession can acquire financing and loans on favorable terms by giving new lenders first priority on the business's earnings; the court may permit the debtor in possession to reject and cancel contracts. Debtors are protected from other litigation against the business through the imposition of an automatic stay. While the automatic stay is in place, creditors are stayed from any collection attempts or activities against the debtor in possession, most litigation against the debtor is stayed, or put on hold, until it can be resolved in bankruptcy court, or resumed in its original venue. An example of proceedings that are not stayed automatically are family law proceedings against a spouse or parent.

Further, creditors may file with the court seeking relief from the automatic stay. If the business is insolvent, its debts exceed its assets and the business is unable to pay debts as they come due, the bankruptcy restructuring may result in the company's owners being left with nothing. All creditors are entitled to be heard by the court; the court is responsible for determining whether the proposed plan of reorganization complies with bankruptcy laws. One controversy that has broken out in bankruptcy courts concerns the proper amount of disclosure that the court and other parties are entitled to receive from the members of the creditor's committees that play a large role in many proceedings. Chapter 11 results in reorganization of the debtor's business or personal assets and debts, but can be used as a mechanism for liquidation. Debtors may "emerge" from a chapter 11 bankruptcy within a few months or within several years, depending on the size and complexity of the bankruptcy; the Bankruptcy Code accomplishes this objective through the use of a bankruptcy plan.

The debtor in possession has the first opportunity to propose a plan during the period of exclusivity. This period allows the debtor 120 days from the date of filing for chapter 11 to propose a plan of reorganization before any other party in interest may propose a plan. If the debtor proposes a plan within the 120-day exclusivity period, a 180-day exclusivity period from the date of filing for chapter 11 is granted in order to allow the debtor to gain confirmation of the proposed plan. With some exceptions, the plan may be proposed by any party in interest. Interested creditors vote for a plan. If the judge approves the reorganization plan and the creditors all agree the plan can be confirmed. If at least one class of creditors objects and votes against the plan, it may nonetheless be confirmed if the requirements of cramdown are met. In order to be confirmed over the creditors' objection, the plan must not discriminate against that class of creditors, the plan must be found fair and equitable to that class.

Upon confirmation, the plan becomes binding and identifies the treatment of debts and operations of the business for the duration of the plan. If a plan cannot be confirmed, the court may either convert the case to a liquidation under chapter 7, or, if in the best interests of the credito

1750s in Wales

This article is about the particular significance of the decade 1750 - 1759 to Wales and its people. Prince of Wales Frederick George Princess of Wales - Augusta 1750 in Wales 1751 in Wales 1752 in Wales 1753 in Wales 1754 in Wales 1755 in Wales 1756 in Wales 1757 in Wales 1758 in Wales 1759 in Wales 1750 Griffith Hughes - Natural History of Barbados Daniel Rowland - Ymddiddan rhwng Methodist Uniawngred ac un Cyfeiliornus1752 Theophilus Evans - A History of Modern Enthusiasm1757 John Dyer - The Fleece Elizabeth Griffith - A Series of Genuine Letters between Henry and Frances Joseph Harris - An Essay Upon Money and Coins Joshua Thomas - Tystiolaeth y Credadyn 1751 William Williams - Hosanna i Fab Dafydd, part 11754 William Williams - Hosanna i Fab Dafydd, part 21755 Morgan Rhys - Golwg o Ben Nebo, ar Wlad yr Addewid 1756 Elis Roberts - "Argulus"1757 Elis Roberts - "Jeils"1759 William Williams - Rhai Hymnau a Chaniadau Duwiol 1750 June - William Morgan, actuary 1751 22 January - David Richards, poet 15 October - David Samwell, naval surgeon and companion of Captain Cook 1752 2 January - Nicholas Owen and antiquary 18 January - Josiah Boydell, painter March - Edward Jones, harpist date unknown Richard Llwyd and writer Thomas Assheton Smith I, industrialist 1754 date unknown - Charles Hassall, surveyor 1755 22 February - Henry Nevill, 2nd Earl of Abergavenny 5 July - Sarah Siddons, actress 14 October - Thomas Charles of Bala, priest 1756 7 June - Edward Davies, writer 23 June - Thomas Jones, mathematician date unknown - Thomas Jones of Denbigh and author 1757 date unknown - Sir Thomas Foley, admiral 1758 August - Sir Thomas Picton, soldier 1759 16 March - Sir John Nicholl and judge 7 August - William Owen Pughe, lexicographer 18 October - Theophilus Jones, historian 1750 9 January - Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke, 56 29 November - Bussy Mansel, 4th Baron Mansel date unknown - Sir Samuel Pennant, Lord Mayor of London1751 31 March - Frederick, Prince of Wales, 44 date unknown - Thomas Mathews, admiral, 751752 31 May - "Madam" Sidney Griffith, Methodist supporter1754 10 January - Erasmus Lewis and civil servant, 83 March - Henry Vaughan, Radnorshire landowner, 33 12 July - Zachariah Williams, inventor, 811755 30 June - Edward Wynne and landowner1756 date unknown - Lewis Evans, surveyor, 56?1757 December - John Dyer, poet, 561758 24 January - William Wogan, religious writer, 79 18 March - Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Canterbury and former Bishop of Bangor, 65 24 March - Sir Thomas Mostyn, 4th Baronet, 531759 11 August - John Heylyn, Welsh-descended priest, 74 2 November - Charles Hanbury Williams and satirist, 50 date unknown - Isaac Maddox, Bishop of St Asaph, 62

Pierre Marie Gallois

Pierre Marie Gallois was a French air force brigadier general and geopolitician. He was instrumental in the constitution of the French nuclear arsenal; this earned him the nickname of father of the French atom bomb. However, Bruno Tertrais, a research fellow at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, argued in "Destruction Assurée: The Origins and Development of French Nuclear Strategy, 1945-1981," an essay in Henry Sokolski, ed. Getting Mad: Nuclear mutual assured destruction, its origins and practice, that other contemporaries of Gallois in the community of French defense intellectuals deserve a greater share of the credit. Gallois was born in Italy, in 1911 as his parents were travelling. Gallois grew fond of flying as he watched fighters during his childhood through World War I. After studies at Lycée Janson de Sailly and the War School in Versailles, he was made a Sous-Lieutenant in 1936 in a Sahara wing at Colomb-Béchar, promoted to Lieutenant the same year. In 1939, he was transferred to the General staff of the Fifth air region in Algiers.

In 1943, Gallois reached Great Britain and joined the only two French heavy bomber squadrons in Royal Air Force Bomber Command as a Halifax bomber crewman at RAF Elvington, near York. He took part in raids against German industries until March 1945. After the war, Gallois was detached to civil aviation and took part in conferences of the International Civil Aviation Organization, he rejoined the Air Force in 1948 as an aid in the cabinet of the chief of staff of the Armée de l'air. A specialist of equipment and manufacturing, he wrote the quinquennal plan for aeronautic production, accepted by the Parliament in August 1950, studied production plans at the European level, he took part in discussions regarding the use of United States aid in Western Europe. From 1953 to 1954, Gallois, by a colonel, was affected to the cabinet of the minister of Defence, he worked for the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe at the same time, working on the consequences of the existence of weapons of mass destruction on modern strategy.

From 1953, he campaigned for a French nuclear deterrence, stressing the notions of "personal deterrence" and "weak-to-strong deterrence". Gallois retired from the Army in 1957. In 2003, he co-founded the Forum pour la France, which supports "sovereignty and independence of France". Gallois campaigned against the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, he was a staunch supporter of Serbia during Balkan clashes, one of the main critics of NATO and role of NATO in Yugoslav crisis. He was respected and admired in Serbia due to that fact, he died 24 August 2010 at the age of 99. Gallois Speeches and Writings Les chroniques du général Pierre-Marie Gallois sur le site des Manants du Roi Page de la Francosphère Mexique-France


Bhupatinagar is a village, in Bhagabanpur II CD block in Contai subdivision of Purba Medinipur district in the state of West Bengal, India. Bhupatinagar police station has jurisdiction over Bhagabanpur II CD block, it covers an area of 179.23 km2 with a population of 14,258. The headquarters of Bhagabanpur II CD block are located at Bhupatinagar. 93.55% of the population of Contai subdivision live in the rural areas. Only 6.45% of the population live in the urban areas and it is behind Haldia subdivision in urbanization, where 20.81% of the population live in urban areas. Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the subdivision. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map; as per 2011 Census of India Bhupatinagar had a total population of 5,149 of which 2,661 were males and 2,488 were females. Population below 6 years was 468; the total number of literates in Bhupatinagar was 4,413. Lalat-Janka Road passes through Bhupatinagar. Mugberia Gangadhar Mahavidyalaya was established in 1964.

It is affiliated to Vidyasagar University and offers courses in arts and commerce. It offers degree and post-graduate courses in physical education; the college is named after Raisaheb Gangadhar Nanda. Bhupatinagar Mugberia Rural Hospital at Bhupatinagar is the main medical facility in Bhagabanpur II CD block. There are primary health centres at Barberia and Simulia

Battle of Maidstone

The Battle of Maidstone was fought in the Second English Civil War and was a victory for the attacking parliamentarian troops over the defending Royalist forces. In May 1648, a significant part of the Royalist uprising gathered in Essex; the Kentish Royalists assembled outside Maidstone at Penenden Heath with over 10,000 men raised for the Earl of Norwich. The force dispersed to hold various towns for the King including Gravesend, Rochester and Maidstone. Together with the rebellion in South Wales, this gathering constituted one of the main uprisings that marked the Second Civil War; the New Model Army had been split in two and the larger part sent under Cromwell to deal with the rebellion in South Wales, leaving Sir Thomas Fairfax with a force of only 6000 men. Fairfax marched on Maidstone with 4,000 veteran parliamentary troops to recapture it from the defending 2000 strong Royalist force within the town. Most of the Royalists were not soldiers, being described as'cavaliers, citizens and watermen'.

The battle took place on 1 June. After outflanking Norwich's main Royalist forces on Burham Heath and a diversionary feint towards Aylesford, Fairfax crossed the River Medway at East Farleigh bridge unopposed. Early skirmishes began on Penenden Heath, located strategically to launch an attack between the two defending Royalist forces led by Sir William Brockman and Sir John Mayney in Aylesford and Maidstone; the Earl of Norwich did not realise the significance of the attack until late afternoon when Fairfax decided to use his advantage to storm the town itself that same day from the south side. The battle moved into a phase of intense fighting in heavy rain, street by street and'inch by inch' as each Royalist barricade was ferociously defended; the battle lasted for the rest of the day with the Royalists retreating towards Gabriel's Hill Week Street before their last position in St Faith's Churchyard. Fairfax overcame fierce resistance to take command of the town just after midnight during a raging thunderstorm.

Fairfax was said to be astonished when about a thousand royalists emerged from inside St Faith's Chapel to offer their surrender. Royalist prisoners were held captive in All Saints Church. Having acquitted themselves well in a bloody defence against a professional parliamentarian attack, 1,300 Royalist men were allowed by Fairfax to return to their homes after the surrender; as a result of this parliamentary victory, the still sizeable Royalist force of around 6,000 men remaining on Burham Heath started to disperse with the bulk retreating northwards under the Earl of Norwich with a view to regrouping and taking London itself. When they found the city gates were closed, the remnant of the Royalist force moved on into Essex with Fairfax in hot pursuit; the retreating Royalists decided to make their defence from the Earl of Norwich's home town of Colchester on 13 June where the rebellion was besieged and surrendered in late August after some ten weeks of deprivation and famine. The narrow 14th-century bridge at East Farleigh is still in use today.

Several 16th- and 17th-century buildings that witnessed the battle have survived in Maidstone, such as those on Bank Street. The doublet worn by Fairfax at the battle is on display at Leeds Castle near Maidstone. A re-enactment of the battle by members of the Sealed Knot took place in the town centre on 1 June 2008, to commemorate the battle's 360th anniversary. Maidstone Wargames Society staged a table-top re-enactment at Maidstone Museum to mark the occasion. To mark the 370th anniversary of the battle, a guided tour of its sites was carried out by The Battlefields Trust on 3 June 2018. There are two commemorative plaques in the town: one in Bank Street and another on a ragstone plinth in Brenchley Gardens, unveiled on the battle's 369th anniversary in 2017

Niskayuna station

Niskayuna station is a historic railway station located at Niskayuna in Schenectady County, New York. It was built in 1843 by the Schenectady and Troy Railroad and renovated or replaced in the 1880s, it is a one-story, red brick masonry building on a foundation of rough cut quarry stone. It has a gable roof with broad eaves; the rear wall of the station is situated directly upon the steep bank of the Mohawk River. It ceased to be used as a railroad facility in 1964 was converted to a single family residence, it has been acquired by the town of Niskayuna as part of the Mohawk Hudson Hike/Bike Trail along the former railroad bed. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007 as Niskayuna Railroad Station