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Chapter V (Trey Songz album)

Chapter V is the fifth studio album by American R&B recording artist Trey Songz, released on August 21, 2012, by Atlantic Records. It was produced by several record producers, including Troy Taylor, Eric Hudson, Rico Love, Benny Blanco, among others. Recording sessions for the album took place at several recording studios in Miami—Circle House Studios and Songbook Miami Studios—and New York City—Downtown Music Studios, Engine Room Audio, Icon Studio, Lotzah Matzah Studios, Premier Digital—as well as Stanley House Studios in London; the album debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200. It was promoted with four singles, including the Grammy nominated hit "Heart Attack" UK hit "Simply Amazing" and US hit 2 Reasons. Upon its release, Chapter V received positive reviews from music critics, who complimented its sound and Songz' singing, although some were ambivalent towards its songwriting and themes. Chapter V was released on August 21, 2012, by Atlantic Records, on August 17 as a digital download.

Trey Songz toured in promotion of the album on his Anticipation 2our, a tour spanning from February 9 to March 11, 2012, in North America. Rapper Big Sean was the tour's supporting act. Music videos for "Hail Mary" and "Dive In", directed by Justin Francis, were released, on August 20 and October 7, respectively; the album's lead single, "Heart Attack", was released as a digital download on March 26, 2012. It charted at number 35 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 28 on the UK Singles Chart, its music video was featured Kelly Rowland playing Songz' love interest. The second single "2 Reasons" was released on June 12, its video was premiered on June 12 by BET's Park. "Simply Amazing" was released in the United Kingdom on August 12. It charted at number eight in the UK, its music video, directed by Justin Francis, was released on July 23. "Never Again" was released as a single in the UK in November. Its music video was released on November 21. Chapter V received positive reviews from contemporary music critics.

At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 68, based on eight reviews. Allmusic's Andy Kellman commended Songz for "singing about what can do for — rather than to" his female subjects and stated, "Those who tire of the coarse metaphors, disrobing scenes, and'panty wetter' talk can get lost in the sleek, layered work of Troy Taylor and his associates; the snaking rhythms are just as remarkable as the hypnotic synthesizer textures." Sarah Godfrey of The Washington Post complimented Songz' "signature blend of soft-core imagery and sweet nothings" and wrote that the album "highlights Songz’s unique role in R&B: He bridges the gap between sexless boy bands and unromantic raunchy singers, between young guys who sing shallow songs about strip clubs and old guys who sing heavy songs about their divorces." Jon Caramanica of The New York Times dubbed it "one of his most strong albums" in spite of the potential "conundrum" of drawing on R. Kelly and Usher as influences.

In a mixed review, Mikael Wood of the Los Angeles Times was ambivalent towards its boudior-themed songs and felt that Songz "might be R&B's most single-minded star". Jody Rosen of Rolling Stone found it to be "full of big ballads and bigger club beats that take dead aim at the pop mainstream", but added that "Songz is at his best playing to his R&B base". BBC Music's Natalie Shaw viewed that Songz does not "reveal a deeper side to his songwriting" until track nine. Ken Capobianco of The Boston Globe felt that it "could use editing", but wrote that "throughout this he sings with urgency and expressiveness." Although he viewed that Songz lacks "natural charisma", Alex Macpherson of The Guardian commended Troy Taylor for making the album "admirably cohesive" and Songz for "mov into traditional R Kelly territory", writing that it "helps to reinforce Songz's status as the formidable understudy of R&B." The album debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart, with first week sales of 135,000 copies.

It was Songz' first album to top the chart. Chapter V was Songz' first album to chart in the United Kingdom, where it peaked at number 10 on the UK Albums Chart; as of October 3, 2012, the album has sold 238,400 copies in the United States, according to Nielsen SoundScan. In August 2016, the album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for combined sales and streaming equivalent units of over 500,000 units. Notes ^ – co-production ^ – additional production Credits for Chapter V adapted from Allmusic. Chapter V at Discogs

Une autre histoire

"Une autre histoire" is a 1987 pop song recorded by French singer Gérard Blanc. It was the first single from his debut album Ailleurs pour un ailleurs and was released in May 1987, it became a smash hit in France and was covered by several artists throughout the years, thus achieving cult status. It can be deemed as the singer's signature song. In 1987, after being a member of Martin Circus band, Blanc tried to start a solo career as singer, he released his first single, "Une autre histoire", written and composed by Marc Strawzynski and himself. A music video was shot in the Moroccan desert and shows Blanc's fiancée at the time, French host Annie Pujol. A maxi vinyl containing remixes versions was produced for the discothèques. In 2004, the song was covered by Les Enfoirés on their album Les Enfoirés dans l'espace and available on their compilation La compil'. Houcine and Aurélie Konaté, two contestants of the second edition of Star Academy France, covered the song in 2002 on the album Fait sa boum.

In 2006, the contestants of French TV show. In France, the single debuted at #43 on the singles chart and reached number two for two non consecutive weeks, being blocked behind Madonna's "La Isla Bonita" behind Vanessa Paradis's "Joe le Taxi"; the single totaled 15 weeks in the top 25 weeks on the chart. It earned a Gold disc and remains to date the 416th best-selling single of all time in France and Blanc's most successful song. In December 2012, Eve Angeli made a music video for the song. 7" single"Une autre histoire" – 4:30 "Dans quelle vie" – 4:4012" maxi"Une autre histoire" – 8:52 "Une autre histoire" – 4:2712" maxi"Une autre histoire" – 4:30 "Dans quelle vie" – 5:25

Otto PĂ©rez Molina

Otto Fernando Pérez Molina is a Guatemalan politician and retired military officer, President of Guatemala from 2012 to 2015. Standing as the Patriotic Party candidate, he lost the 2007 presidential election but prevailed in the 2011 presidential election. During the 1990s, before entering politics, he served as Director of Military Intelligence, Presidential Chief of Staff under President Ramiro de León Carpio, as chief representative of the military for the Guatemalan Peace Accords. On being elected President, he called for the legalization of drugs. On 2 September 2015, beset by corruption allegations and having been stripped of his immunity by Congress the day earlier, Pérez presented his resignation, he was arrested on 3 September 2015. Perez has remained in custody since his 2015 arrest. Pérez is a graduate of Guatemala's National Military Academy, the School of the Americas and of the Inter-American Defense College, he has served as as inspector-general of the army. In 1983 he was a member of the group of army officers who backed Defence Minister Óscar Mejía's coup d'état against de facto president Efraín Ríos Montt.

While serving as chief of military intelligence in 1993, he was instrumental in forcing the departure of President Jorge Serrano. The president had attempted a "self-coup" by dissolving Congress and appointing new members to the Supreme Court. In the wake of that event, Guatemala's human rights ombudsman, Ramiro de León Carpio, succeeded as president, according to the constitution, he appointed Pérez as his presidential chief of staff, a position he held until 1995. Considered a leader of the Guatemalan Army faction that favored a negotiated resolution of the 30-year-long Guatemalan Civil War, Pérez represented the military in the negotiations with guerrilla forces, they achieved the 1996 Peace Accords. Between 1998 and 2000, Pérez represented Guatemala on the Inter-American Defense Board. In February 2001, he founded the Patriotic Party. In the general election of 9 November 2003, Pérez was elected to Congress, he was the candidate of the Patriotic Party in the 2007 presidential election, campaigning under the slogan "Mano dura, cabeza y corazón", advocating a hard-line approach to rising crime in the country.

After receiving the second-largest number of votes in the initial contest on 9 September, he lost the election to Álvaro Colom of the National Unity of Hope in the second round on 4 November 2007. During the 2007 presidential campaign, several members of the Patriotic Party were killed by armed assailants. Victims included Aura Marina Salazar Cutzal, an indigenous woman, secretary to the party's congressional delegation and an assistant to Pérez. Pérez was elected in the November 2011 presidential election with 54% of the vote, took office on 14 January 2012. Pérez was the first former military official to be elected to the presidency since Guatemala's return to democratic elections in 1986, he proposed the legalisation of drugs when he first became president while attending the United Nations General Assembly, as he said that the War on Drugs has proven to be a failure. In April 2015, international prosecutors, with help from the UN, presented evidence of a customs corruption ring in which discounted tariffs were exchanged for bribes from importers.

Vice President Roxana Baldetti resigned on 8 May, was arrested for her involvement on 21 August. On 21 August, Guatemalan prosecutors presented evidence of Pérez's involvement in the corruption ring. Congress, in a 132–0 vote, stripped Pérez Molina of prosecutorial immunity on 1 September 2015, and, on 2 September, he presented his resignation from the Presidency. On 3 September, after a court hearing in which charges and evidence against him were presented, he was arrested and sent to the Matamoros prison in Guatemala City. Vice President Alejandro Maldonado Aguirre was appointed to serve the remainder of Pérez's 4-year term in office. On 27 October 2017, Judge Miguel Ángel Gálvez of Guatemala City ordered Perez and another 26 people, including former senior officials from Guatemala's customs duty system, were ordered to stand trial on charges related to bribes channeled to officials helping businesses evade customs duties and Perez has remained in custody since his 2015 arrest. In 2011 reports were made, based on United States' National Security Archives, that Pérez was involved in the scorched earth campaigns of the 1980s under the military dictator Efraín Ríos Montt.

Pérez commanded a counterinsurgency team in the Ixil Community in 1982-3 and is accused of ordering the mass murder of civilians, destruction of villages and resettlement of the remaining population in army-controlled areas. Investigative journalist Allan Nairn interviewed Pérez Molina in Ixil in 1982, reported that Pérez Molina had been involved in the torture and murder of four suspected guerrillas. In July 2011, the indigenous organization Waqib Kej presented a letter to the United Nations accusing Pérez of involvement in genocide and torture committed in Quiché during the civil war. Among other evidence, they cited a 1982 documentary in which a military officer whom they claim is Pérez is seen near four dead bodies. In the following scene, a subordinate says that those four were captured alive and taken "to the Major" and that "they wouldn't talk, not when we asked nicely and not when we were mean."Although it is clear that Pérez Molina participated in a dirty counterinsurgency campaign, he has de

Hidden Nations, Enduring Crimes conference

On March 20, 2010, a Circassian Congress was held in the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, funded in part by the Circassian members of the Western political analysis center, the Jamestown Foundation and the Ilia State University’s International School for Caucasus Studies in Georgia. The congress passed a resolution, urging Georgia to become the first UN-recognized State to recognize the Circassian Genocide 20 March 2010 Circassians from the Diaspora and the homeland participating in the conference entitled “Hidden Nations, Enduring Crimes: The Circassians and the People of the North Caucasus Between Past and Future”, present the following request for a resolution by the Parliament of Georgia: The Circassian nation is one of the indigenous nations of the Caucasus. Due to the Russian Empire's policy of expansion in the Caucasus during the 18th and 19th centuries, Circassians lost more than 1.5 million lives. The Circassian nation continues to suffer till today as a consequence of these policies.

Circassia is a nation denied by genocide, having been deprived of its independence as a result of colonization, mass crimes, mass deportation and ethnic cleansing. Today, Circassia remains a nation in exile. Circassians, whose unity and indigenous status in historical Circassia is denied by the Russian Federation, have never received international acknowledgment of their tragedy. Circassians strive to restore historical justice and condemn the Russian Empire's historical colonialism as well as current Russian Federation policies against the interests of the Circassian people in their motherland and in the Diaspora. Based on undeniable documented historical facts corroborating the genocide of the Circassian nation in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, based on the following conventions adopted by the United Nations: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted on December 9, 1948. Circassian nationalist organizations hailed the event of the conference having occurred at all as a victory.

One youth Circassian organization stated that "The Circassian youth of the republic of Adygea received the news with great … hope for a positive decision on the part of Georgian lawmakers... The possible recognition of the genocide of our people will become an important step in the process of settling the Circassian question. Today, the problem of the Circassians is making it to the international level and the Russian government authorities will not be able to disregard this issue anymore." However, some less youthful Circassian organizations were less positively disposed to Georgia, because of its conflict with Abkhazia, which has close ethnic ties to Circassia. The response of Abkhazia's government to the congress and of pro-Abkhaz Circassians has caused an increasing rejection of Abkhazia as an ally by some Circassians, that continuing to view its government as such would be "stupid". Since the 2008 South Ossetia war Georgia has notably moved to a sympathetic position towards the peoples of the North Caucasus, including the Circassians.

Many commentators have noted that, since Russian recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Georgia has moved to an sympathetic stance towards not only the Circassians, but other independence-minded groups in the North Caucasus, such as the Chechens and Ingush, having Alla Dudayeva as an announcer in its new Russian-language news station- Georgian public broadcasting's "First Caucasus TV", for example. Three days after the congress, Georgian intellectual Giorgi Kvelashvilli submitted an opinion piece urging Georgians to support recognition of the Circassian genocide and for the government in Tbilisi to pass the bill. In his last paragraph, he states that A possible recognition of the Circassian genocide might be logically put in the aforementioned Georgian activities, which could strengthen the image of Georgia as a defender of “the Caucasus cause” in the eyes of not only Circassians but other ethnic minorities in the North Caucasus too, but if Georgia wants to achieve more than a PR success, it might be prudent to consider other additional measures as well: Georgia should act in concert with other nations, most those where Circassian diasporas reside.


SMS is a text messaging service component of most telephone and mobile device systems. It uses standardized communication protocols to enable mobile devices to exchange short text messages. An intermediary service can facilitate a text-to-voice conversion to be sent to landlines. SMS was the most used data application at the end of 2010, with an estimated 3.5 billion active users, or about 80% of all mobile subscribers. SMS, as used on modern devices, originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers that used standardized phone protocols; these were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications series of standards. The first SMS message was sent in 1992; the protocols allowed users to send and receive messages of up to 160 characters to and from GSM mobiles. Although most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologies, such as ANSI CDMA networks and Digital AMPS. SMS is employed in mobile marketing, a type of direct marketing.

According to one market research report, as of 2014, the global SMS messaging business was estimated to be worth over $100 billion, accounting for 50 percent of all the revenue generated by mobile messaging. Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices began in the early 1980s; the first action plan of the CEPT Group GSM was approved in December 1982, requesting that "The services and facilities offered in the public switched telephone networks and public data networks... should be available in the mobile system." This plan included the exchange of text messages either directly between mobile stations, or transmitted via message handling systems in use at that time. The SMS concept was developed in the Franco-German GSM cooperation in 1984 by Friedhelm Hillebrand and Bernard Ghillebaert; the GSM is optimized for telephony. The key idea for SMS was to use this telephone-optimized system, to transport messages on the signalling paths needed to control the telephone traffic during periods when no signalling traffic existed.

In this way, unused resources in the system could be used to transport messages at minimal cost. However, it was necessary to limit the length of the messages to 128 bytes so that the messages could fit into the existing signalling formats. Based on his personal observations and on analysis of the typical lengths of postcard and Telex messages, Hillebrand argued that 160 characters was sufficient to express most messages succinctly. SMS could be implemented in every mobile station by updating its software. Hence, a large base of SMS-capable terminals and networks existed when people began to use SMS. A new network element required was a specialized short message service centre, enhancements were required to the radio capacity and network transport infrastructure to accommodate growing SMS traffic; the technical development of SMS was a multinational collaboration supporting the framework of standards bodies. Through these organizations the technology was made available to the whole world; the first proposal which initiated the development of SMS was made by a contribution of Germany and France into the GSM group meeting in February 1985 in Oslo.

This proposal was further elaborated in GSM subgroup WP1 Services based on a contribution from Germany. There were initial discussions in the subgroup WP3 network aspects chaired by Jan Audestad; the result was approved by the main GSM group in a June'85 document, distributed to industry. The input documents on SMS had been prepared by Friedhelm Hillebrand with contributions from Bernard Ghillebaert; the definition that Friedhelm Hillebrand and Bernard Ghillebaert brought into GSM called for the provision of a message transmission service of alphanumeric messages to mobile users "with acknowledgement capabilities". The last three words transformed SMS into something much more useful than the prevailing messaging paging that some in GSM might have had in mind. SMS was considered in the main GSM group as a possible service for the new digital cellular system. In GSM document "Services and Facilities to be provided in the GSM System," both mobile-originated and mobile-terminated short messages appear on the table of GSM teleservices.

The discussions on the GSM services were concluded in the recommendation GSM 02.03 "TeleServices supported by a GSM PLMN." Here a rudimentary description of the three services was given: Short message mobile-terminated / Point-to-Point: the ability of a network to transmit a Short Message to a mobile phone. The message can be sent by a software application. Short message mobile-originated / Point-to-Point: the ability of a network to transmit a Short Message sent by a mobile phone; the message can be sent to a software application. Short message cell broadcast; the material elaborated in GSM and its WP1 subgroup was handed over in Spring 1987 to a new GSM body called IDEG, which had its kickoff in May 1987 under the chairmanship of Friedhelm Hillebrand. The technical standard known today was created by IDEG as the two recommendations GSM 03.40 and GSM 03.41. WP4 created a Drafting Group Message Handling, responsible for the specification of SMS. Finn Trosby of Telenor chaired the draft group through its first 3 years, in which the design of SMS was established.

DGMH had five to eight participants, Finn Trosby mentions as major contributors Kevin Holley, E

Ryleigh Buck

Ryleigh Buck is an American softball and baseball player. She is a member of the United States women's national baseball team which won a gold medal at the 2015 Pan American Games. Ryleigh Buck was born in McPherson, Kansas on January 19, 1998, she attended Wellington High School in Kansas. Buck signed her national letter of intent to play softball at the University of Central Florida. After one semester she transferred to play softball at Wichita State University, she played softball for the Wichita-based Mustangs organization. She competed for the United States women's national baseball team at the Women's baseball tournament of the 2015 Pan American Games. Ryleigh Buck on Team USA