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Characteristic impedance

The characteristic impedance or surge impedance of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line. Alternatively and equivalently it can be defined as the input impedance of a transmission line when its length is infinite. Characteristic impedance is determined by the geometry and materials of the transmission line and, for a uniform line, is not dependent on its length; the SI unit of characteristic impedance is the ohm. The characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission line is purely real, with no reactive component. Energy supplied by a source at one end of such a line is transmitted through the line without being dissipated in the line itself. A transmission line of finite length, terminated at one end with an impedance equal to the characteristic impedance appears to the source like an infinitely long transmission line and produces no reflections; the characteristic impedance Z of an infinite transmission line at a given angular frequency ω is the ratio of the voltage and current of a pure sinusoidal wave of the same frequency travelling along the line.

This definition extends to DC by letting ω tend to 0, subsists for finite transmission lines until the wave reaches the end of the line. In this case, there will be in general a reflected wave which travels back along the line in the opposite direction; when this wave reaches the source, it adds to the transmitted wave and the ratio of the voltage and current at the input to the line will no longer be the characteristic impedance. This new ratio is called the input impedance; the input impedance of an infinite line is equal to the characteristic impedance since the transmitted wave is never reflected back from the end. It can be shown that an equivalent definition is: the characteristic impedance of a line is that impedance which, when terminating an arbitrary length of line at its output, produces an input impedance of equal value; this is. Applying the transmission line model based on the telegrapher's equations as derived below, the general expression for the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is: Z 0 = R + j ω L G + j ω C where R is the resistance per unit length, considering the two conductors to be in series, L is the inductance per unit length, G is the conductance of the dielectric per unit length, C is the capacitance per unit length, j is the imaginary unit, ω is the angular frequency.

Although an infinite line is assumed, since all quantities are per unit length, the characteristic impedance is independent of the length of the transmission line. The voltage and current phasors on the line are related by the characteristic impedance as: V + I + = Z 0 = − V − I − where the superscripts + and − represent forward- and backward-traveling waves, respectively. A surge of energy on a finite transmission line will see an impedance of Z0 prior to any reflections arriving, hence surge impedance is an alternative name for characteristic impedance; the differential equations describing the dependence of the voltage and current on time and space are linear, so that a linear combination of solutions is again a solution. This means that we can consider solutions with a time dependence e j ω t, the time dependence will factor out, leaving an ordinary differential equation for the coefficients, which will be phasors depending on space only. Moreover, the parameters can be generalized to be frequency-dependent.

Let V ≡ V e + j ω t and I ≡ I e + j ω t Take the positive direction for V and I in the loop to be clockwise. We find that d V = − I d x = − Z I d x and d I = − V d x = − Y V d x or d

2011 Tanzania Music Awards

The 12th edition of the Tanzania Music Awards took place at the Diamond Jubilee Hall in Dar es Salaam, on Saturday March 26, 2011. Bongo Flava artist 20 Percent was the big winner of the night with five trophies out of seven nominations; the artist himself was not present and he was represented by his producer Man Water. Winner Lady Jaydee was absent during the Award ceremony and a fan collected the two awards on her behalf; the artist stated she had not received an invitation for the event. Singer Diamond, who won three awards in the 2010 Tanzania Music Awards and was nominated in four categories, was among those who left empty-handed. Winners are in bold text. 20 Percent Ali Kiba AY Barnaba Belle 9 Diamond Planumz Lady Jaydee Khadija Kopa Linah Mwasiti Shaa 20 Percent Ali Kiba Banana Zorro Barnaba Belle 9 Diamond Linah Khadija Kopa Lady Jaydee Mwasiti Shaa 20 Percent Barnaba Lady Jaydee Mrisho Mpoto Mzee Yusuph Linah Bob Junior Sajna Sam wa Ukweli Top C Joh Makini Chidi Benz Fid Q Godzilla Ngwear Khalid Chokoraa Ferguson Kitokololo Msafiri Diouf Toto ze Bingwa 20 Percent -'Tamaa Mbaya' 20 Percent -'Ya Nini Malumbano' Chege & Temba feat Wahu -'Mkono Mmoja' Gelly wa Ryme feat AT & Ray C -'Mama Ntilie' Sam wa Ukweli -'Sina Raha' Tip Top Connection -'Bado Tunapanda' CPWAA ft Ms. Triniti, Mangwair & Dully Sykes -'Action' 20 Percent -'Ya nini Malumbano' 20 Percent -'Tamaa Mbaya' Bob Junior -'Oyoyo' Diamond -'Mbagala' Gelly wa Ryme feat AT & Ray C -'Mama Ntilie' 20 Percent -'Ya Nini Malumbano' 20 Percent -'Tamaa Mbaya' Bob Junior -'Oyoyo' Diamond -'Mbagala' Gelly wa Rymes Ft AT & Ray C -'Mama ntilie' Ben Pol -'Nikikupata' Belle 9 -'We ni Wangu' Hussein Machozi ft Maunda Zorro -'Hello' Linah -'Atatamani' Z-Anton -'Kisiwa cha Malavidavi' Barnaba -'Nabembelezwa' Amini -'Bado Robo Saa' Linah -'Bora Nikimbie' Sam wa Ukweli -'Sina Raha' Top C -'Ulofa' JCB ft Fid Q & Chidi Benz -'Ukisikia Paah' AY & Mwana FA -'Usije Mjini' Fid Q -'Propaganda' Joh Makini -'Karibu Tena' Nick wa Pili ft Joh Makini-'Higher' JCB ft Fid Q & Chidi Benz & Jay Moe-'Ukisikia Paah' Chege & Temba ft Wahu -'Mkono Mmoja' FA & AY ft Hardmad -'Dakika Moja' Gelly wa Ryme feat AT & Ray C -'Mama Ntilie' Offside trick ft Bi Kidude -'Ahmada' Mapacha Watatu ft Mzee Yusuph -'Shika Ushikapo' Akudo -'Pongezi kwa Wanandao' Extra Bongo -'Laptop' Twanga Pepeta -'Kauli' Twanga Pepeta -'Mapenzi hayana kiapo' CPWAA ft Ms. Triniti, Mangwair & Dully Sykes -'Action' Benjamin -'My Friend' Benjamin wa Mambo Jambo ft AT -'Nimefulia' Big Jah Man ft Richard -'Far Away' Jet Man -'Kiuno Weka Busy' Hardmad ft Enika & BNV-'Ujio Mpya' Bob Lau Mwalugaja -'Reggae Swadakta' Hardmad -'What u Feel inside' Jhiko Man -'Sayuni' Ras Rwanda Magere -'Sauti ya rasta' Warriors from the East -'Misinga ya Rasta' Jahazi -'My Valentine' Isha Ramadhani -'Acheni Kuniandama' Isha Ramadhani -'Mama Nipe Radhi' Jahazi -'Langu Rohoni' Khadija Kopa -'Top in Town' / Kidum & Lady Jaydee -'Nitafanya' Alpha ft AY -'Songa Mbele' Bebe Cool -'Kasepiki' Goodlyfe Crew -'Vuvuzela' P-Unit -'Kare' Mpoki ft Cassim -'Shangazi' Mataluma -'Kariakoo' Mrisho Mpoto -'Adela' Offsidetrick ft Bi Kidude -'Ahmada' Ommy G -'Wa Mbele Mbele' Lamar Bob Junior Man Walter Marco Chali Pancho Latino to an individual: Said Mabera to an institution: Tanzania Broadcasting Radio: Institutional Award for their preservation of Tanzania's musical heritage Tanzania Music Awards Music of Tanzania Tanzania Music Awards Official website

Agneepath (2012 film)

Agneepath is a 2012 Indian action drama film produced by Hiroo Yash Johar and Karan Johar under the banner of Dharma Productions. It is a reboot of the 1990 film of the same name and was directed by Johar's former assistant Karan Malhotra; the screenplay was written by Malhotra along with Ila Dutta Bedi. After the first draft of dialogues Karan Malhotra appointed Avinash Ghodke as an Additional Dialogue writer and improviser. Johar pays tribute to Yash Johar, the producer of the original, through the film; the music of the film was composed with lyrics written by Amitabh Bhattacharya. Though publicised as a remake, the film borrows only the basic plot of the original, while making the characters and incidents different; the film's title was taken from a poem of the same name by Harivansh Rai Bachchan, which forms a thematic link through the film and metaphorically. Hrithik Roshan plays the lead role of Vijay Deenanath Chauhan and Sanjay Dutt plays the role of the antagonist Kancha Cheena played by Amitabh Bachchan and Danny Denzongpa with Rishi Kapoor portraying the newly introduced character of Rauf Lala.

The supporting cast include Om Puri as Commissioner Gaitonde, Priyanka Chopra as Kaali Gawde and Zarina Wahab as Suhasini Chauhan, with Katrina Kaif featuring in an item number. The film follows the struggle of a common man, Vijay Chauhan, as he seeks revenge from Kancha, for wrongly framing and murdering his father in the island village of Mandwa. In the process he befriends an underworld drug lord Rauf Lala and falls in love with a loquacious girl, Kaali Gawde. Principal photography of Agneepath took place in Diu and Mumbai, with several accidents taking place on the sets. After several issues such as plagiarism charges and release-date postponement, Agneepath released on 26 January 2012 in 2650 screens worldwide, coinciding with the Republic Day celebrations. Made on a budget of ₹58 crore, the film broke the highest opening day collections record in India and became a major critical and commercial success with a worldwide gross of over ₹195 crore, it has since emerged as one of the highest-grossing films of all time in Bollywood.

The following year Agneepath received five nominations at the annual Filmfare Awards ceremony, won five IIFA Awards and four Zee Cine Awards. In the island village of Mandwa, the school teacher Dinanath Chauhan is respected by the villagers; the chief of the village jealous of Dinanath's popularity in the eyes of citizens, summons his evil son Kancha to destroy Dinanath's image in citizen's eyes. Kancha has plans to start a drug cartel from Mandwa, knowing that the soil of Mandwa is rich for the cultivation of cocaine; when Kancha requests the people to lend their lands to him under the pretext of expanding the salt industry of Mandwa, Dinanath dissuades the villagers from doing so. Knowing this, Kancha decides to get rid of the school teacher, he murders a young girl inside the school, framing Chauhan for the murder. With the support of the villagers, Kancha kills Chauhan by hanging him to death from a tree, witnessed by young Vijay Chauhan, the son of the teacher. Vijay Chauhan along with his pregnant mother Suhasini Chauhan leaves the village.

Destitute, they find shelter in the city of Dongri, Mumbai but Vijay harbours intentions to go back to Mandwa and kill Kancha. While in Mumbai, Vijay's mother delivers a baby girl named Shiksha. Vijay is attracted to Rauf Lala, a local girl-trafficker and an enemy of Kancha and wants to get into his company, he earns his favour by refusing to stand as a witness in court to a crime committed by Lala and joins his gang. Meanwhile, his mother along with his baby sister leave Vijay's side as he kills a corrupt cop at a young age and resorts to violence. A grown-up Vijay now finds himself as his trusted wing-man. Once inspector and now commissioner, Gaitonde acts as a silent guardian for Vijay and tries to eliminate crime in Mumbai. During the time when Rauf's influence over the drug business in Mumbai is falling, Kancha decides to grow his influence as a drug lord in the city and sends his aid, Shantaram over to Mumbai for the process. Shantaram succeeds in bribing the Home Secretary of State of Maharashtra, Mr. Borkar in order to get the access to the interiors of Mumbai for smuggling cocaine.

Vijay catches the Home Secretary of Maharashtra, Mr. Borkar red-handed while trying to smuggle cocaine from Mandwa into Mumbai through his headquarters in Goa. Borkar and Shantaram are forced to hand over the pure cocaine to Lala, thus making them Lala's suppliers rather than rivals. Lala rewards Vijay with the territory of Dongri for his achievement, he further gains the trust of Lala by taking a bullet shot, aimed for Lala's son, Mazhar. After murdering both Mazhar and Shantaram, Vijay brings Mazhar's corpse to Lala, who falls sick and is admitted into a hospital. In the meantime, Vijay stops all the crimes committed by Lala's gang, he is contacted by Kancha and offers to go to Mandwa for a business agreement. While in Mandwa, Vijay's companions are killed and Vijay gets beaten by Kancha's men. In a wounded state, he tries to strike a deal with Kancha to hand over the drug business in Mumbai over to Kancha and in return taking Mandwa. Though Kancha suspects this deal, he agrees on the condition that Gaitonde must be killed.

Meanwhile, back in Mumbai, Lala regains health and finds out the truth be

Amit Rawal

Amit Rawal is an Indian Judge of the Kerala High Court. Rawal attended the Government Senior Model School, Sector 16, Chandigarh and participated in sports like hockey, ice skating, table tennis and cricket. After completing his graduation from DAV College, Chandigarh in 1983, he sought admission in the Law Department of Panjab University, obtained a degree in Law in 1986 and was enrolled as member of Bar Council of Punjab and Haryana, he dealt with the matters pertaining to civil, property disputes, matters involving intricate questions of law. He practiced in the matters involving matrimonial disputes, winding up/amalgamation matters, writs involving vires of various acts etc. and handled criminal matters. He represented the Bar Council of Punjab and Haryana in the High Court, besides various other institutions, he was designated as Senior Advocate on 8 May 2012. He had a short stint in the office of Punjab as Additional Advocate General, he was elevated as an Additional Judge of the Punjab and Haryana High Court on 25 September 2014 and thereafter he was appointed as Permanent Judge of the Punjab and Haryana High Court on 23 May 2016

2016 Bihar school examination scandal

The 2016 Bihar school examination scandal or topper scam is a corruption scandal in the Indian state of Bihar which came into limelight on 31 May 2016 when the Bihar School Examination Board Arts and Humanities topper Ruby Rai, Science topper Saurabh Shrestha and third topper in Science stream Rahul Kumar were interviewed by television channels and they were unable to answer to basic questions. Ruby Rai, student of Vishun Roy College, Kiratpur Raja Ram village in Vaishali district pronounced Political Science as ‘Prodigal Science’ and described it as a subject related to cooking. Science topper Saurabh Shrestha was unaware of electron and proton and wrongly said that aluminium is the most reactive element. In a grim reminder of 2016 Bihar School Examination Scandal, Ganesh Kumar, who topped the Bihar School Examination Board's Intermediate Arts 2017 exam, seemed to have a vague idea about music, in which he scored 65/70 in practicals; the examinations in February–March 2016 were fair as the Bihar government, stung by the photos of mass copying in the BSEB-conducted exams in 2015, tried its best to prevent the use of unfair means.

On 28 May 2016, the BSEB publicly declared the intermediate results, however it released its official merit list for 10 May 2016 itself but due to some issues, it made the results public on a date. Only 56.73% of students passed in arts against 86.47% in 2015. In science, 67.06% got passed against 89.32% in 2015. Some journalists visited Ruby Rai's house on May 30; when interviewed by the Aaj Tak TV channel, Ruby Rai and Saurabh Shresth were unable to answer basic questions. The arts topper Ruby Rai named "prodigal science" as one of the subjects; when asked what this subject dealt with, she answered. She stated that the exam was of 600 marks, while it was of only 500 marks; the science topper Saurabh Shresth could not describe the link between water and H2O. He wrongly named aluminium was the most reactive element. After the video of their interviews went viral, a three-member SIT was formed by the Bihar state government to look into the fraud. Manu Maharaj, Patna special SP is heading the special investigation team.

Ruby and other 13 rank holders were asked to appear for the test on June 3. Ruby Rai was sent to judicial custody in remedial home for 14 days. Vishun Roy College was de-recognised thereafter. A day after retest, the results of toppers were cancelled. Ruby Rai flunked retest in the first time. BSEB Chairman Lalkeswar Prasad Singh was on the run after that. On 6 June, Bihar government dissolved the four-member committee constituted by Bihar School Examination Board on 5 June to probe into alleged irregularities in evaluation of marks in Bihar intermediate exams and ordered registration of FIR; the decision to dissolve the committee was taken in a meeting when BSEB chairman Lalkeshwar Prasad Singh was present in that. Vishun Roy College principal Bachha Rai was arrested on 11 June. Bachcha's daughter Shalini Rai is an accused in the fraud case. Bachcha had unsuccessfully lobbied for an RJD ticket from the Paroo in Muzaffarpur district in November 2015. Bachcha's daughter Shalini had topped the state in the matriculation exams in 2010.

Her name was with-held as topper in Science stream and Saurabh Shreshtha was declared the topper in science stream. Bachcha's family are said to be die-hard supporters of Rashtriya Janata Dal. Ruby Rai's father is said to have promised six acres of land to Bachcha Rai in lieu of his "help" for his daughter. On 8 June 2016, the BSEB chairman Lalkeshwar Prasad Singh resigned after being served a show-cause notice by the Bihar state's education department. On 25 June, Ruby Rai appeared before BSEB team for re-evaluation, failed to answer a single question correctly, she was subsequently arrested. Patna Commissioner Anand Kishore took charge as BSEB chairman. On 12 June, Bihar Deputy chief minister Tejashwi Yadav tweeted pictures of Bachcha Rai with Union minister Giriraj Singh. Tejashwi said. Giriraj Singh tweeted pictures of Bachcha Rai with Lalu Prasad Yadav and Nitish Kumar. On 20 June, his wife Usha Sinha were arrested from Varanasi. Usha Sinha is a former MLA from Hilsa. BSEB chairman Lalkeshwar Prasad Singh confessed to have taken ₹20 lakh from a cheating racket kingpin to help each unworthy student become a topper.

In investigation, Ruby Rai said on June 27 that she just wanted second division but her father Avadesh Rai made her topper in collaboration with Bachcha Rai. Ruby Rai was denied bail by juvenile court on 13 July; the father of the science topper was arrested from the Kanti Road factory area in east Patna on 15 July. In an investigation of The Indian Express in July 2016, it was revealed that many schools are only on paper. Officials of G. A. Inter School Hajipur have been interrogated. Third topper Rahul Kumar was arrested in July. On 15 July, Chief Minister Nitish Kumar said that topper scam is a God-sent opportunity to rectify the system in Bihar. On 9 August 2016, Vikas Kumar, a clerk-cum-storekeeper of the Bihar Vidyalaya Pariksha Samiti and kingpin of the racket in connection with the Bihar intermediate exam scam was arrested by a joint team of the West Bengal CID and Bihar police. In September 2016, Bihar government decided to link exams to Aadhaar numbers to avoid duplication and facilitate easy access to documents.

The seven-member governing board led by BSEB chairman Anand Kishor gave its nod for creation of 135 posts, construction of nine new examination halls and setting up of nine reg

Greek military ranks

Modern Greek military ranks are based on Ancient Greek and Byzantine terminology. In the army and air force, these names are based on the unit or post that a holder of each rank usual commands. For example, a tagmatarchis is in charge of a tagma, derived from an Ancient Greek word translateable as "command", "order", or "class", in modern Greek is a unit equivalent to a battalion in other armies. A lochagos commands a lochos, which in Ancient Greece was a 100-strong hoplite unit, but in modern Greek usage is equivalent to an infantry company. Hence a lochagos is the equivalent of a captain in other armies, the modern Greek equivalent of an army first lieutenant is the modern neologism ypolochagos: "sub-captain"; the modern Greek equivalent of a sergeant is a lochias. The suffixes -agos and -archos, which are found in Greek rank names, are derived from the roots agein "to lead" and archein "to rule", respectively; the Hellenic Air Force, is the youngest of the three services. Its rank structure and insignia are based on the British Royal Air Force.

Military of Greece Royal Hellenic Army Ranks Royal Hellenic Navy rank insignia Royal Hellenic Air Force ranks Hellenic Airforce Ranks, Hellenic Air Force website Διακριτικά Ελληνικού Στρατού, Hellenic Army website Διακριτικά Βαθμών Προσωπικού ΠΝ, Hellenic Navy website