In ancient Rome and balneae were facilities for bathing. Thermae usually refers to the large bath complexes, while balneae were smaller-scale facilities, public or private. Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were not only for bathing. Roman bath-houses were provided for private villas, town houses and they were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more normally, by an aqueduct. The water would be heated by a log fire before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms, the design of baths is discussed by Vitruvius in De Architectura. Thermae, balineae and balineum may all be translated as bath or baths, thus Cicero terms the baths at the villa of his brother Quintus balnearia. Balneae and balineae, which according to Varro have no number, were the public baths. Pliny also, in the sentence, makes use of the neuter plural balnea for public. Writers, use these terms without distinction, thus the baths erected by Claudius Etruscus, the freedman of the Emperor Claudius, are styled by Statius balnea, and by Martial Etrusci thermulae.
In an epigram by Martial—subice balneum thermis—the terms are not applied to the whole building, a public bath was built around three principal rooms, the caldarium, the tepidarium and the frigidarium. Some thermae featured baths, the sudatorium, a moist steam bath, and the laconicum. By way of illustration, this article describe the layout of Pompeiis Forum Baths adjoining the forum. The references are to the floor plan pictured to the right, the whole building comprises a double set of baths, one for men and the other for women. It has six different entrances from the street, one of which gives admission to the womens set only. Five other entrances lead to the department, of which two, communicate directly with the furnaces, and the other three with the bathing apartments. These together formed the vestibule of the baths, in which the servants waited and this atrium was the exercise ground for the young men, or perhaps served as a promenade for visitors to the baths. Within this court the keeper of the baths, who exacted the quadrans paid by each visitor, was stationed.
In this court, advertisements for the theatre, or other announcements of general interest, were posted up, one of which, announcing a gladiatorial show, at the sides of the entrance were seats
Vespasian was Roman emperor from AD69 to AD79. Vespasian founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for twenty-seven years, Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide, after Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt, on 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared Emperor by the Senate. Little information survives about the government during Vespasians ten-year rule and he reformed the financial system at Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects.
He began the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum, in reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain, after his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty. Vespasian was born in a village north-east of Rome called Falacrinae and his family was relatively undistinguished and lacking in pedigree. His paternal grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, became the first to himself, rising to the rank of centurion. Subsequently he became a debt collector, petros son, Titus Flavius Sabinus, worked as a customs official in the province of Asia and became a money-lender on a small scale among the Helvetii. He gained a reputation as a scrupulous and honest tax-farmer, Sabinus married up in status, to Vespasia Polla, whose father had risen to the rank of prefect of the camp and whose brother became a Senator.
Sabinus and Vespasia had three children, the eldest of whom, a girl, died in infancy, the elder boy, Titus Flavius Sabinus entered public life and pursued the cursus honorum. He served in the army as a tribune in Thrace in 36. The following year he was elected quaestor and served in Crete, the younger boy, seemed far less likely to be successful, initially not wishing to pursue high public office. He followed in his brothers footsteps when driven to it by his mothers taunting, during this period he married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of Flavius Liberalis from Ferentium and formerly the mistress of Statilius Capella, a Roman equestrian from Sabrata in Africa. They had two sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus and Titus Flavius Domitianus, and a daughter and his wife Domitilla and his daughter Domitilla both died before Vespasian became Emperor in 69
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg. It is the oldest and one of the largest universities in Russia, the university has two primary campuses, one on Vasilievsky Island and the other in Peterhof. During the Soviet period, it was known as Leningrad State University and it was named after Andrei Zhdanov in 1948. Saint Petersburg State University is the second best multi-faculty university in Russia after Moscow State University, the university has a reputation for having educated the majority of Russias political elite, these include presidents Vladimir Putin and Dimitry Medvedev, both of whom studied Law at the university. The university is Russias oldest university, founded in 1724 by Peter the Great, Saint Petersburg state university is included in all ratings and lists of the best universities in the world and is one of the leaders in all indicators in Russia. The university was the first from Russian universities to join The Coimbra Group and it is disputed by the university administration whether Saint Petersburg State University or Moscow State University is the oldest higher education institution in Russia.
The Petersburg Pedagogical Institute, renamed the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1814, was established in 1804, in 1823 most of the university moved from the Twelve Collegia to the southern part of the city beyond the Fontanka. In 1824 a modified version of the charter of Moscow University was adopted as the first charter of the Saint Petersburg Imperial University, in 1829 there were 19 full professors and 169 full-time and part-time students at the university. In 1830 Tsar Nicholas returned the building of the Twelve Collegia back to the university. In 1835 a new Charter of the Imperial Universities of Russia was approved, Pyotr Pletnyov was reappointed Rector and ultimately became the longest-serving rector of Saint Petersburg University. In 1855 Oriental studies were separated from the Faculty of History and Philology, in 1859–1861 female part-time students could attend lectures in the university. In 1861 there were 1,270 full-time and 167 part-time students in the university, of them 498 were in the Faculty of Law, many Russian, Georgian etc.
managers and scientists studied at the Faculty of law therefore. During 1861–1862 there was student unrest in the university, and it was closed twice during the year. The students were denied freedom of assembly and placed under police surveillance, after the unrest, in 1865, only 524 students remained. A decree of the Emperor Alexander II of Russia adopted on 18 February 1863 restored the right of the university assembly to elect the rector and it formed the new faculty of the theory and history of art as part of the faculty of history and philology. In March 1869, student unrest shook the university again but on a smaller scale, by 1869,2,588 students had graduated from the university. In 1880 the Ministry of National Enlightenment forbade students to marry, in 1882 another student unrest took place in the university. In 1884 a new Charter of the Imperial Russian Universities was adopted, on March 1,1887 a group of the university students was arrested while planning an attempt on the life of Alexander III of Russia
Chersonesus, in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. The colony was established in the 6th century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica, the ancient city is located on the shore of the Black Sea at the outskirts of Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula, where it is referred to as Khersones. It has been nicknamed the Ukrainian Pompeii, the site is now part of the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos. The name Chersonesos in Greek means peninsula, and aptly describes the site on which the colony was established and it should not be confused with the Tauric Chersonese, the name often applied to the whole of the southern Crimea. During much of the classical period Chersonesus was a democracy ruled by a group of elected archons, as time passed the government grew more oligarchic, with power concentrated in the hands of the archons. A form of oath sworn by all the citizens since the 3rd century BC has survived to the present day, in 2013, Chersonesus was listed as a World Heritage Site.
Greek colonies In the late 2nd century BC Chersonesus became a dependency of the Bosporan Kingdom and it was subject to Rome from the middle of the 1st century BC until the 370s AD, when it was captured by the Huns. It became a Byzantine possession during the Early Middle Ages and withstood a siege by the Göktürks in 581, Byzantine rule was slight, there was a small imperial garrison more for the towns protection than for its control. Among its more famous inmates were Pope Clement I and Pope Martin I, according to Theophanes the Confessor and others, Chersonesus was the residence of a Khazar governor in the late 7th century. It remained in Byzantine hands until the 980s, when it fell to Kiev. Vladimir the Great agreed to evacuate the fortress only if Basil IIs sister Anna Porphyrogeneta would be him in marriage. The demand caused a scandal in Constantinople, as a pre-condition for the marriage settlement, Vladimir was baptized here in 988, thus paving the way to the Baptism of Kievan Rus. Since this campaign is not recorded in Greek sources, historians have suggested that this account actually refers to the events of the Rus-Byzantine War and to a different Vladimir.
In fact, most valuables looted by the Slavs in Korsun made their way to Novgorod, one of the most interesting items from this Korsun Treasure is the copper Korsun Gate, supposedly captured by the Novgorodians in Korsun and now part of the St. Sophia Cathedral. After the Fourth Crusade, Chersonesus became dependent on the Byzantine Empire of Trebizond, in 1299, the town was sacked by the Mongol armies of Nogai Khans Golden Horde. In 1333 a Latin Church diocese of Chersonnesus was established, but it appears that it had only a bishop, Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians, President of Synod of the Armenian Catholic Church Chersonesus ancient ruins are presently located in one of Sevastopols suburbs. They were excavated by the Russian government, starting from 1827 and they are today a popular tourist attraction, protected as an archaeological park. The buildings mix influences of Greek and Byzantine culture, the defensive wall was approximately 3.5 kilometres long,3.5 to 4 metres wide and 8 to 10 metres high with towers at a height of 10 to 12 metres
The Swallows Nest is a decorative castle located at Gaspra, a small spa town between Yalta and Alupka, in the Crimean Peninsula. The Swallows Nest is one of the most popular attractions in Crimea. The building is compact in size, measuring only 20 m long by 10 m wide and its original design envisioned a foyer, guest room, stairway to the tower, and two bedrooms on two different levels within the tower. The interior of the guest room is decorated with wooden panels, an observation deck rings the building, providing a view of the sea, and Yaltas distant shoreline. The first building on the Aurora Cliff was constructed for a Russian general circa 1895, the first structure he built was a wooden cottage romantically named the Castle of Love. Later on, the ownership of the passed to A. K. Tobin. The Scots Baronial and Moorish Revival styles had been introduced in the Crimea in the 1820s by Edward Blore, in 1914, von Steingel sold the building to P. G. Shelaputin to be used as a restaurant. For a short time after the 1917 Russian Revolution, the building was used only as a tourist attraction, in 1927, the Swallows Nest survived a serious earthquake rated at 6 to 7 on the Richter scale.
The building was not damaged apart from some small items that were thrown into the sea along with a small portion of the cliff. However, the cliff itself developed a huge crack and restoration of the building was started only in 1968. The project involved the restoration of a portion of the castle. Since 1975, a restaurant has operated within the building, in 2011, the Swallows Nest was closed for three months due to major restoration work estimated to cost 1,200,000 hryvnias. Owing to its important status as the symbol of the Crimeas southern coast and it was used as the setting of Desyat Negrityat, the 1987 Soviet screen version of Agatha Christies And Then There Were None. Archived from the original on June 12,2011
A dacha is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities. In some cases, dachas are occupied for part of the year by their owners, people in dachas are colloquially called dachniks, the term usually refers not only to presence in dacha, but to a whole distinctive lifestyle. The Russian term is said to have no exact counterpart in English. Dachas are very common in Russia, and are widespread in most parts of the former Soviet Union. It was estimated that in 1995 about 25% of Russian families living in cities had dachas. Most dachas are in colonies of dachas and garden plots near large cities, that have existed since the Soviet era and they were initially intended only as recreation getaways of city dwellers and for the purpose of growing small gardens for food. Dachas are used today for fishing and other leisure activities, dachas originated as small country estates given as a gift by the tsar, and have been popular among the upper and middle classes ever since.
During the Soviet era, many dachas were state-owned, and were given to the elite of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, state dachas continue to be owned by the government of the Russian Federation, for use by the president and other officials. In the 1980s, the rules were loosened, and since 1990, the first dachas in Russia began to appear during the 17th century, initially referring to small estates in the country that were given to loyal vassals by the tsar. In archaic Russian, the word means something given, from the verb дать - to give. During the Age of Enlightenment, Russian aristocracy used their dachas for social and cultural gatherings, by the end of the 19th century, the dacha became a favorite summer retreat for the upper and middle classes of Russian society. In the tsarist era, dachas tended to have pleasure gardens, anton Chekhov wrote a novelette entitled Dachniki, about newlywed city-dwellers living a simple summer life of walks in the countryside. Following the Russian Revolution, most dachas were nationalised, all but a few dachas remained the property of the state and the right to use them was usually revoked when a dacha occupant was dismissed or fell out of favour with the rulers of the state.
Building new dachas required permission from officials and was rarely granted during the early years of the Soviet Union. The seniormost Soviet leaders all had their own dachas, and Joseph Stalins favourite was in Gagra, new dachas started to build in larger numbers during the 1930s, and dacha colonies for artists, or soldiers, or various classes of party functionaries, started to form. There were legal restrictions for dacha houses in the Soviet era. They had to have not more than 60 m2 of living area, for that reason, they usually had a mansard roof, which was considered by authorities as just a large garret or attic, not a second storey. Often ill-equipped and without indoor plumbing, dachas were nevertheless a solution for millions of working-class families, having a piece of land offered an opportunity for city dwellers to indulge themselves in growing their own fruits and vegetables
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias. Published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia, the GSE claimed to be the first Marxist-Leninist general-purpose encyclopedia. The idea of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia emerged in 1923 on the initiative of Otto Schmidt, involved was Anatoly Lunacharsky, Commissar of Enlightenment, who had previously been involved with a proposal by Alexander Bogdanov and Maxim Gorky to produce a Workers Encyclopedia. The first edition of 65 volumes was published during 1926–1947, the editor being Otto Schmidt. The second edition of 50 volumes was published in 1950–1958, chief editors, Sergei Vavilov and Boris Vvedensky, the third edition of 1969–1978 contains 30 volumes. Volume 24 is in two books, one being a book about the USSR, all with about 21 million words. In the third edition, much attention was paid to the problems of natural sciences and chemical sciences. From 1957 to 1990, the Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia was released annually with up-to-date articles about the Soviet Union, the first online edition, an exact replica of text and graphics of the third edition, was published by Rubricon. com in 2000.
With exhaustive completeness it must show the superiority of socialist culture over the culture of the capitalist world, operating on Marxist-Leninist theory, the encyclopedia should give a party criticism of contemporary bourgeois tendencies in various provinces of science and technics. The third edition of the GSE subsequently expanded on the role of education, Education is essential to preparing for life and it is the basic means by which people come to know and acquire culture, and it is the foundation of cultures development. A. Vvedensky stating their compliance with the 1949 decree of the Council of Ministers and they are working under a government directive that orders them to orient their encyclopedia as sharply as a political tract. The encyclopedia was planned to provide the intellectual underpinning for the Soviet world offensive in the duel for mens minds. The Soviet government ordered it as a propaganda weapon. And the government attaches such importance to its political role that its board of editors is chosen by and is only to the high Council of Ministers itself.
The third edition was translated and published into English in 31 volumes between 1974 and 1983 by Macmillan Publishers, not all entries were translated into English, these are indicated in the index. Articles from the English edition are available online by TheFreeDictionary. com. The third edition was translated into Greek and published in 34 volumes between 1977 and 1983, all articles that were related to Greece or Greek history and society were expanded and hundreds of new ones were written especially for the Greek edition. Thus the encyclopedia contains, for example, both the Russian entry on Greece as well as a larger one prepared by Greek contributors
A vexillatio was a detachment of a Roman legion formed as a temporary task force created by the Roman army of the Principate. It was named from the standard carried by legionary detachments, the vexillum, although commonly associated with legions, it is likely that vexillationes included auxiliaries. The term is found in the singular, referring to a single detachment, Vexillationes were assembled ad hoc to meet a crisis on Romes extensive frontiers, to fight in a civil war, or to undertake an offensive against Romes neighbours. They varied in size and composition, but usually consisted of about 1000 infantry and/or 500 cavalry, because the Roman Army was not large enough to garrison the vast size of the empire, most of it was stationed along the frontiers. This placed the empire in a position when serious threats arose in the interior or along a remote frontier. There was no central reserve and it was possible to take a full legion, or even a major portion of one. The only logical solution was to take detachments from different legions, as soon as it was taken care of, these vexillationes were dissolved, and the detachments returned to their parent legions.
The Roman emperors had from the time of Augustus had at their unit in Italy. Over time these units would increase, Augustus created the praetorians who at the time of Domitianus constituted a force of ten cohorts, each of 1000 men strength on paper and who supplied a disputed number of horsemen. Traianus created the Imperial horseguards, the Equites Singulares Augusti formed from his proconsular horseguard he had when he was the legate of Germania Inferior of about 1000 horsemen, septimius made many changes in the Roman military. He doubled the number of the horseguards to 2000 horsemen and he filled the ranks of the Praetorians with provincial soldiers. He levied a new legion, Legio II Parthica, and for the first time in Roman history stationed it on the outskirts of Rome, whenever the emperor went on campaign these guards units stationed in the city of Rome would accompany him. Added to these came the vexillationes of the border legions, but during the Crisis of the Third Century vexillationes were shifted so rapidly from one area to another that units became hopelessly mixed up and became practically independent.
Legions that would proclaim a commander as emperor could have a vexillatio in the real emperors field army or garrisoned on the frontier, under the Dominate, vexillatio refers to a cavalry unit of the Roman army. From the time of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, and possibly as early as the reign of Gallienus, in the 4th century the Vexillationes palatinae and Vexilationes comitatenses of the Roman field armies are thought to have been either 300 or 600 men strong. The Notitia Dignitatum lists 88 vexillationes, other units, such as infantry cohortes and centuriae, and cavalry alae and turmae, may have had their own vexilla. Dupuy, The Encyclopedia Of Military History, From 3500 B. C, pat Southern and Karen Dixon, The Late Roman Army, chapter 2
Legio I Italica
Legio prima Italica, the epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22,66. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century, the emblem of the legion was a boar. In the aftermath of the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Emperor Nero levied the I Italica with the name phalanx Alexandri Magni, for a campaign in Armenia, the sources mention the peculiar fact that the original legionaries were Italics, all over six feet tall. However, since the Jewish Revolt broke out a few weeks later, the governor of Gaul, Gaius Julius Vindex, rose in revolt in early 68 and I Italica was redirected there, arriving just in time to see the end of the revolt. The new emperor sent I Italica to the province of Moesia in 70 and they encamped at Novae which became the legions provincial base for centuries. The legion served on campaign during the Dacian wars of Trajan, the legion was responsible for bridge construction over the Danube.
Building activities seem to have been an area of expertise for the legion, around 140, a centurion from I Italica was responsible for the construction of a section of the Antonine Wall. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, I Italica was involved in the wars against the Germanic tribes that threatened to cross the Danube, after a long war, the Romans had conquered much territory on the left side of the Danube. In 193, the Governor of Pannonia Superior, Septimius Severus claimed the purple, I Italica supported Severus, but did not move to Italy. The legion fought against Severus rival, Pescennius Niger, besieging Byzantium together with XI Claudia, the First possibly took part in the Parthian campaign of Severus. In the 3rd century, during the rule of Caracalla, the took part in the construction of the Limes Transalutanus, a defensive wall along the Danube. Under Alexander Severus, some vexillationes of the I Italica moved to Salonae, capidava List of Roman legions livius. org account of Legio I Italica Legio I Italica - reenactment group
They inherited the possessions and castles of the ducal Biron family in Courland, such as the Rundale Palace. Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften Teil 2,3, Estland, Görlitz 1930 Information about Shuvalov Palace - Fabergé Museum website