Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities free. It exists in a number of regions; the word, in the modern English language, comes from the Old English ælmesse, ælmes, from Late Latin eleemosyna, from Greek ἐλεημοσύνη eleēmosynē, from ἐλεήμων, eleēmōn, from ἔλεος, eleos. In Judaism, tzedakah - a Hebrew term meaning righteousness but used to signify charity - refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just. Contemporary tzedakah is regarded as a continuation of the Biblical Maaser Ani, or poor-tithe, as well as Biblical practices including permitting the poor to glean the corners of a field, harvest during the Shmita, other practices. Tzedakah, along with prayer and repentance, is regarded as ameliorating the consequences of bad acts. In Judaism, Tzedakah is seen as one of the greatest deeds. Jewish farmers are commanded to leave the corners of their fields for the starving to harvest for food and are forbidden to pick up any grain, dropped during harvesting, as such food shall be left for the starving as well.
Famous Jewish scholar and sage Maimonides has been noted for creating a list of charity, with the most righteous form being allowing an individual to become self-sustaining and capable of giving others charity. 1) Enabling the recipient to become self-reliant 2) Giving when neither party knows the other's identity 3) Giving when you know the recipient's identity, but the recipient doesn't know your identity 4) Giving when you do not know the recipient's identity, but the recipient knows your identity 5) Giving before being asked 6) Giving after being asked 7) Giving less than you should, but giving it cheerfully 8) Giving begrudgingly In Islam, the concept of charitable giving is divided into voluntary giving, or Sadaqah, the Zakat, an obligatory practice governed by a specific set of rules within Islamic jurisprudence, intended to fulfill a well defined set of theological and social requirements. For that reason, while Zakat plays a much larger role within Islamic charity, Sadaqah is a better translation of Christian influenced formulations of the notion of'alms'.
Zakat is the third of the five pillars of Islam. Various rules attach to the practice but, in general terms, it is obligatory to give 2.5% of one's savings and business revenue and 5–10% of one's harvest to the poor. Possible recipients include the destitute, the working poor, those who are unable to pay off their own debts, stranded travelers and others who need assistance, with the general principle of zakaah always being that the rich should pay it to the poor. One of the most important principles of Islam is that all things belong to God and, wealth is held by human beings in trust; the literal meaning of the word Zakat is "to purify", "to develop" and "cause to grow". According to Shariah it is an act of worship. Our possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need; this cutting back, like the pruning of plants and encourages new growth. Zakat is the amount of money that every adult, mentally stable and financially able Muslim, male or female, has to pay to support specific categories of people.
This category of people is defined in surah at-Taubah verse 60: "The alms are only for the poor and the needy, those who collect them, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, to free the captives and the debtors, for the cause of Allah, the wayfarers. Allah is knower, Wise.". The obligatory nature of Zakat is established in the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the consensus of the companions and the Muslim scholars. Allah states in Surah at-Taubah verses 34–35: "O ye who believe! There are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in Falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder from the way of Allah, and there are those who spend it not in the way of Allah. Announce unto them a most grievous penalty – On the Day when heat will be produced out of that in the fire of Hell, with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, their backs.- "This is the which ye buried for yourselves: taste ye the ye buried!". Muslims of each era have agreed upon the obligatory nature of paying Zakat for gold and silver, from those the other kinds of currency.
Zakat is obligatory when a certain amount of money, called the nisab is exceeded. Zakat is not obligatory; the nisab of gold and golden currency is 20 mithqal 85 grams of pure gold. One mithqal is 4.25 grams. The nisab of silver and silver currency is 200 dirhams, 595 grams of pure silver; the nisab of other kinds of money and currency is to be scaled to that of gold. Zakat is obligatory after the money has been in the control of its owner for the span of one lunar year; the owner needs to pay 2.5% of the money as Zakat.. The owner should deduct any amount of money he or she borrowed from others. If the owner had enough money to satisfy the nisab at the beginning of the year, but his wealth in any form increased, the owner needs to add the increase to the nisab amount owned at the beginning of the year pay Zakat, 2.5%, of the total at the end of the lunar year. There are minor d
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help. It is short-term help until the long-term help by government and other institutions replaces it. Among the people in need are the homeless and victims of natural disasters and famines. Humanitarian aid is material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes in response to humanitarian relief efforts including natural disasters and man-made disaster; the primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering, maintain human dignity. It may therefore be distinguished from development aid, which seeks to address the underlying socioeconomic factors which may have led to a crisis or emergency. There is a debate on linking humanitarian aid and development efforts, reinforced by the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016. However, the approach is viewed critically by practitioners. I love pandas so much in 2019. Million people are going to die.7:11 5:55 Humanitarian aid aims to bring short term relief to victims until long term relief can be provided by the government and other institutions.
Humanitarian aid considers “a fundamental expression of the universal value of solidarity between people and a moral imperative”. Humanitarian aid can come from either international communities. In reaching out to international communities, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations is responsible for coordination responses to emergencies, it taps to the various members of Inter-Agency Standing Committee, whose members are responsible for providing emergency relief. The four UN entities that have primary roles in delivering humanitarian aid are United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Refugee Agency, the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Food Programme. According to The Overseas Development Institute, a London-based research establishment, whose findings were released in April 2009 in the paper "Providing aid in insecure environments:2009 Update", the most lethal year in the history of humanitarianism was 2008, in which 122 aid workers were murdered and 260 assaulted.
The countries deemed least safe were Afghanistan. In 2012, Humanitarian Outcomes reported that the countries with the highest incidents were: Afghanistan, South Sudan, Syria and Somalia; the beginnings of organized international humanitarian aid can be traced to the late 19th century. The most well known origin story of formalized humanitarian aid is that of Henri Dunant, a Swiss business man and social activist, who upon seeing the sheer destruction and inhumane abandonment of wounded soldiers from the Battle of Solferino in June 1859, cancelled his plans and began a relief response. Despite little to no experience as a medical physician, Dunant worked alongside local volunteers to assist the wounded soldiers from all warring parties, including Austrian and French casualties, in any way he could including the provision of food and medical supplies, his graphic account of the immense suffering he witnessed, written in his book “A Memory of Solferino”, became a foundational text to modern humanitarianism.
A Memory of Solferino changed the world in a way that no one, let alone Dunant, could have foreseen nor appreciated at the time. To start, Dunant was able to profoundly stir the emotions of his readers by bringing the battle and suffering into their homes, equipping them to understand the current barbaric state of war and treatment of soldiers after they were injured or killed. Beyond this, in his two-week experience attending to the wounded soldiers of all nationalities, Dunant inadvertently established the vital conceptual pillars of what would become the International Committee of the Red Cross and International Humanitarian Law: impartiality and neutrality. Dunant took these ideas and came up with two more ingenious concepts that would profoundly alter the practice of war. After publishing his foundational text in 1862, progress came for Dunant and his efforts to create a permanent relief society and International Humanitarian Law; the embryonic formation of the International Committee of the Red Cross had begun to take shape in 1863 when the private Geneva Society of Public Welfare created a permanent sub-committee called “The International Committee for Aid to Wounded in Situations of War”.
The constitutive conference of this committee in October 1863 created the statutory foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in their resolutions regarding national societies, caring for the wounded, their symbol, most the indispensable neutrality of ambulances, medical personnel and the wounded themselves. Beyond this, in order to solidify humanitarian practice, the Geneva Society of Public Welfare hosted a convention between August 8 and 22, 1864 at the Geneva Town Hall with 16 diverse States present, including many governments of Europe, the Ottoman Empire, the United States of America and Mexico; this diplomatic conference was exceptional, not due to the number or status of its attendees but rather because of its raison d'être. Unlike many diplomatic conferences before
See Elberfeld, Indiana. For the baseball player with this name, see Kid Elberfeld. Elberfeld is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal; the first official mentioning of the geographic area on the banks of today's Wupper River as "elverfelde" was in a document of 1161. Etymologically, elver is derived from the old Low German word for "river." Therefore, the original meaning of "elverfelde" can be understood as "field on the river." Elverfelde received its town charter in 1610. In 1726 Elias Eller and the pastor Daniel Schleyermacher founded a Philadelphian society, they moved to Ronsdorf in the Duchy of Berg, becoming the Zionites, a fringe sect. The 1820s saw the commencement of the Plymouth Brethren in Ireland; this evangelical religious movement spread to the Continent and emerged in Germany chiefly out of Pietist groups through the work of Julius Anton von Poseck, William Henry Darby and Carl Brockhaus. By the 1850s the resultant group had a focal point in Elberfeld and are known to the present as the Elberfelder Brethren.
They have branches beyond. A translation of the Bible into German was produced by this group and is known as the Elberfelder Bibel. In 1826 Friedrich Harkort, a famous German industrialist and politician, had a type of suspension railway built as a trial and ran it on the grounds of what is today the tax office at Elberfeld. In fact the railway, the Schwebebahn Wuppertal, was built between Oberbarmen and Vohwinkel and runs through Elberfeld. In 1888 the district of Sonnborn was incorporated into Elberfeld. In 1929 the towns of Barmen, Vohwinkel and Ronsdorf became a municipal entity called "Barmen-Elberfeld; this took place in 1930. Today Elberfeld is the largest municipal subdivision of Wuppertal. Greta Bösel, concentration camp guard executed for war crimes Arno Breker, sculptor Werner Eggerath, East German politician Karl Germer, Outer Head of the Ordo Templi Orientis Will Glahé, accordionist and bandleader Carl Grossberg, artist Walter Kaufmann, physicist Hans Knappertsbusch, conductor Erich Koch, NSDAP Gauleiter of East Prussia, Reichskommissar of Ukraine Hermann Friedrich Kohlbrugge, minister Friedrich Wilhelm Krummacher, minister Johann Peter Lange, Protestant theologian Else Lasker-Schüler, poet Wilhelm Neumann-Torborg, sculptor Friedrich Philippi, historian Julius Pluecker and physicist Sigurd Raschèr, saxophonist Sir Hans Wolfgang Singer, economist Horst Stein, conductor Horst Tappert, actor Günter Wand, Conductor Carl Wirths, politician Sulamith Wülfing, artist Elberfeld system
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. The Organizational Test: If the organization doesn't follow the exemption organizational test, it will be under mentoring, in order to meet the organizational test it has to be organized and operated.
Serving the public interest: In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter.
Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence; the Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare. The Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector, his views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions.
It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement. In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized
Octavia Hill was an English social reformer, whose main concern was the welfare of the inhabitants of cities London, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Born into a family with a strong commitment to alleviating poverty, she herself grew up in straitened circumstances owing to the financial failure of her father. With no formal schooling, she worked from the age of 14 for the welfare of working people. Hill was a moving force behind the development of social housing, her early friendship with John Ruskin enabled her to put her theories into practice with the aid of his initial investment, she believed in self-reliance, made it a key part of her housing system that she and her assistants knew their tenants and encouraged them to better themselves. She was opposed to municipal provision of housing, believing it to be impersonal. Another of Hill's concerns was the availability of open spaces for poor people, she campaigned against development on existing suburban woodlands, helped to save London's Hampstead Heath and Parliament Hill Fields from being built on.
She was one of the three founders of the National Trust, set up to preserve places of historic interest or natural beauty for the enjoyment of the British public. She was a founder member of the Charity Organisation Society which organised charitable grants and pioneered a home-visiting service that formed the basis for modern social work, she was a member of the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws in 1905. Hill's legacy includes the large holdings of the modern National Trust, several housing projects still run on her lines, a tradition of training for housing managers, the museum established by the Octavia Hill Society at her birthplace. Octavia Hill was the daughter of James Hill, corn merchant, follower of Owenism and banker, his third wife, Caroline Southwood Smith, he had been widowed twice, had six children from his previous marriages. He had been impressed by the writings on education of Caroline Southwood Smith, the daughter of Dr Thomas Southwood Smith, a pioneer of sanitary reform, he had engaged Caroline as a governess for his children in 1832, they were married in 1835, three years before Octavia was born in Wisbech, her father's eighth daughter and ninth child.
The family's comfortably prosperous life was disrupted by James Hill's financial problems and his mental collapse. In 1840 he was declared bankrupt. Caroline Hill's father gave the family financial support, took on some of Hill's paternal role. Southwood Smith was a health and welfare reformer concerned with a range of social issues including child labour in mines and the housing of the urban poor. Caroline Hill held similar views on social reform, her interest in progressive education, influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Southwood Smith's daily experience in his work at the London Hospital in the East End inspired Octavia Hill's concern for the poorest in early Victorian London, she received no formal schooling: her mother educated the family at home. The family settled in a small cottage in Finchley, now a north London suburb, but a village. Octavia Hill was impressed and moved by Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor, a book that portrayed the daily lives of slum dwellers.
She was strongly influenced by the theologian, Anglican priest and social reformer F. D. Maurice, a family friend, she began her work on behalf of London's poor by helping to make toys for Ragged school children, serving as secretary of the women's classes at the Working Men's College in Bloomsbury in central London. A co-operative guild providing employment for "distressed gentlewomen" accepted Hill for training in glass-painting when she was 13; when the work of the guild was expanded to provide work in toy-making for Ragged school children, she was invited, at the age of 14, to take charge of the workroom. The following year she began working in her spare time from the guild as a copyist for John Ruskin in Dulwich Art Gallery and the National Gallery, she was aware of the dreadful living conditions of the children in her charge at the guild. Her views on encouraging self-reliance led to her association with the Charity Organisation Society, described by Hill's biographer Gillian Darley as "a contentious body which deplored dependence fostered by kindly but unrigorous philanthropy … support to the poor had to be targeted and efficiently supervised.
In life, she began to think the COS line … was over-harsh."Hill was short, like all her family, indifferent to fashion. Her friend Henrietta Barnett wrote: "She was small in stature with short legs, she did not dress, she only wore clothes, which were unnecessarily unbecoming. Her mouth was not improved by laughter. Indeed, Miss Octavia was nicest when she was made passionate by her earnestness." Barnett spoke of Hill's streak of ruthlessness. Gertrude Bell called Hill despotic. In Hill's life, the Bishop of London, Frederick Temple, encountered her at a meeting of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, wrote, "She spoke for half an hour … I never had such a beating in all my life." Parliament and many concerned reformers had been attempting to improve the housing of the working classes since the early 1830s. When Hill began her work, the model dwelling movement had been in existence for twenty years and select committees had sat to examine the problems of urban well-being, the first of many tranches of