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Charles's law is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated. A modern statement of Charles's law is: When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be in direct proportion; this relationship of direct proportion can be written as: V ∝ T So this means: V T = k, o r V = k T where:V is the volume of the gas, T is the temperature of the gas, k is a non-zero constant. This law describes. For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as: V 1 T 1 = V 2 T 2 or V 2 V 1 = T 2 T 1 or V 1 T 2 = V 2 T 1; the equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas increases in proportion. The law was named after scientist Jacques Charles, who formulated the original law in his unpublished work from the 1780s. In two of a series of four essays presented between 2 and 30 October 1801, John Dalton demonstrated by experiment that all the gases and vapours that he studied expanded by the same amount between two fixed points of temperature.

The French natural philosopher Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac confirmed the discovery in a presentation to the French National Institute on 31 Jan 1802, although he credited the discovery to unpublished work from the 1780s by Jacques Charles. The basic principles had been described by Guillaume Amontons and Francis Hauksbee a century earlier. Dalton was the first to demonstrate that the law applied to all gases, to the vapours of volatile liquids if the temperature was well above the boiling point. Gay-Lussac concurred. With measurements only at the two thermometric fixed points of water, Gay-Lussac was unable to show that the equation relating volume to temperature was a linear function. On mathematical grounds alone, Gay-Lussac's paper does not permit the assignment of any law stating the linear relation. Both Dalton's and Gay-Lussac's main conclusions can be expressed mathematically as: V 100 − V 0 = k V 0 where V100 is the volume occupied by a given sample of gas at 100 °C; this equation does not contain the temperature and so has nothing to do with what became known as Charles's Law.

Gay-Lussac's value for k, was identical to Dalton's earlier value for vapours and remarkably close to the present-day value of ​1⁄2.7315. Gay-Lussac gave credit for this equation to unpublished statements by his fellow Republican citizen J. Charles in 1787. In the absence of a firm record, the gas law relating volume to temperature cannot be named after Charles. Dalton's measurements had much more scope regarding temperature than Gay-Lussac, not only measuring the volume at the fixed points of water, but at two intermediate points. Unaware of the inaccuracies of mercury thermometers at the time, which were divided into equal portions between the fixed points, after concluding in Essay II that in the case of vapours, “any elastic fluid expands nearly in a uniform manner into 1370 or 1380 parts by 180 degrees of heat”, was unable to confirm it for gases. Charles's law appears to imply that the volume of a gas will descend to zero at a certain temperature or −273.15 °C. Gay-Lussac was clear in his description that the law was not applicable at low temperatures: but I may mention that this last conclusion cannot be true except so long as the compressed vapours remain in the elastic state.

At absolute zero temperature the gas possesses hence the molecules restrict motion. Gay-Lussac had no experience of liquid air, although he appears to have believed that the "permanent gases" such as air and hydrogen could be liquified. Gay-Lussac had worked with the vapours of volatile liquids in demonstrating Charles's law, was aware that the law does not apply just above the boiling point of the liquid: I may however remark that when the temperature of the ether is only a little above its boiling point, its condensation is a little more rapid than that of atmospheric air; this fact is related to a phenomenon, exhibited by a great many bodies when passing from the liquid to the solid state, but, no longer sensible at temperatures a few degrees above that at which the transition occurs. The first mention of a temperature at which the volume of a gas might descend to zero was by William Thomson in 1848: This is what we might anticipate, when we reflect tha

The Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth & Families is a Rhode Island state government agency headquartered in Providence, the state capitol, with regional offices throughout the state. DCYF provides services for children and families such as foster care, behavioral health, juvenile justice; the DCYF is under the auspices of Rhode Island's Executive Office of Human Services. DCYF was led by embattled Director Trista Piccola from January 2017 when she was appointed by Governor Gina Raimondo until her resignation in July 2019 due to child fatalities, near-fatalities and other issues; the acting Director is longtime DCYF lawyer Kevin Aucoin. The Rhode Island DCYF has come under fire due to its high rate of deaths and near-deaths of children in its care. In a period between January 2016 and December 2017, there were 31 fatalities or near fatalities of children in its care, with eight being confirmed fatal. In an Associated Press article about foster care by AP investigative reporter David Klepper that appeared in over 100 newspapers, Rhode Island government employee and whistleblower Nicholas Alahverdian disclosed that Rhode Island had been spending millions of dollars on sending children out of Rhode Island.

Alahverdian reported that he was not allowed to contact anyone while in the Florida and Nebraska foster homes, including the courts, the police, his social worker, Rhode Island legislators, or anyone else that could help him escape the torture. Representative Roberto DaSilva, who introduced several bills on behalf of Nicholas Alahverdian, spoke to the Associated Press along with Alahverdian, their joint efforts to reform DCYF received national coverage in August 2011. DaSilva's financial and ethical concerns were noted. Alahverdian noted; these are the most vulnerable people in Rhode Island. We have the ability to provide for them here, and we're spending all this money to ship them across the country." DaSilva agreed. There are facilities here in Rhode Island, and who does the oversight on these out-of-state facilities? Are they being watched as as the ones right here?" From the late 1990s until the mid-2000s, DCYF engaged in a practice wherein a foster child without a home or otherwise any relative to stay with would be subjected to spending their days in a DCYF office building until the agency could find a temporary bed for them to be sheltered for the night, hence the name "night-to-night."

Former DCYF director Jay Lindgren promised that there would be "no kids in the hallways at DCYF late in the afternoon" in 2003, but the practice was not ended until much later. Longtime Providence Journal columnist Bob Kerr credited Nicholas Alahverdian and his fervent advocacy for reform with ending the brutal practice where kids were shuffled from unsafe home to unsafe home, unable to go to school, spend time participating in extra-curricular activities, sport, or preparing for university. Kerr said “regardless of what happens in federal court or at the State House, Alahverdian has left his mark. Night-to-night placement has been ended forever. Alahverdian, I have to believe, had something to do with those changes.” Night-to-night was one of the programs for which Alahverdian is known as a whistleblower since he alerted legislators and the media of the practice, first as a Rhode Island state government employee and as a lobbyist until he was sent to Nebraska and Florida where he was raped and prevented from speaking to anyone until his 18th birthday.

Due to the legislators having the opportunity to get the facts from Alahverdian, the Rhode Island House of Representatives read and passed a resolution that requested "that the Department of Children and Families present a plan to the General Assembly on or before May 1, 2002 which will eliminate night to night placement in Fiscal Year 2002."The practice was condemned in yet another House of Representatives Resolution as it was still being practiced years in 2011. Rep. Arthur Handy introduced a resolution creating an Emergency Oversight Commission on DCYF at the request of Lobbyist Alahverdian, he was joined in the resolution by Rep. Anastasia P. Williams. In June 2013, a child's arm was broken at DCYF facility Harmony Hill School and a toddler in foster care was found dead. Following these incidents, The Providence Phoenix asserted that those in power in Rhode Island listen to Nicholas Alahverdian and his legislative ideas so that foster care abuse and deaths can be prevented. In August 2018, DCYF project manager Maxim Fetissenko alleged in a Rhode Island Superior Court complaint that his supervisors misused a \$2 million federal government grant under his purview.

Fetissenko alleges that senior DCYF staff altered his report to the supervising federal agencies and continued to do so despite his objections. A girl, aged 9, in the care of a DCYF foster carer died in a bathtub in January 2019; the girl, who had cerebral palsy, died after spending at least eight hours in the bathtub. One state representative, Patricia Serpa, noted that "This is murder." The criticism of DCYF was aimed at its Director, Trista Piccola. Lima said at a Rhode Island House of Representatives Oversight Committee hearing that "None of you deserve to be there, none of you. If you had any honor, or any dignity, you would hand in your resignations and walk away." In October 2018, the Administration for Children and Families, a division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, ordered DCYF to improve in 33 of 36 areas assessed. The federal report noted that DCYF services were "inadequate, not developed when needed, or lacked consi

The Attawapiskat River is a river in Kenora District in northwestern Ontario, that flows east from Attawapiskat Lake to James Bay. The Attawapiskat River travels a distance of 748 kilometres, has a drainage area of 50,500 square kilometres; the source of the river is Attawapiskat Lake at an elevation of 241 metres. The main rivers flowing into the lake that are thus part of the Attawapiskat River drainage basin are the Marten-Drinking River, the Otoskwin River and the Pineimuta River. There are two outflows from the Attawapiskat Lake into the Attawapiskat River: a southern and a northern channel; the southern channel is named by the Atlas of Canada as the Attawapiskat River, is the source location listed in the Infobox at right. The northern channel is named by the Atlas of Canada as the North Channel, is the more navigated route for canoeing; the North Channel outflow from Attawapiskat Lake is at 52°11′35″N 87°28′35″W and consists of two short streams that lead into Windsor Lake. The elevation of the river drops along these two outflow channels, descending from the higher ground of the Canadian Shield to the flatter and more boggy Hudson Bay Lowlands.

After a series of rapids, the North Channel rejoins the Attawapiskat River at 52°06′04″N 87°06′07″W at an elevation of 210 metres. The river continues east, makes a bend to the north at Pym Island at 52°12′20″N 86°19′28″W at an elevation of 174 metres; the Streatfeild River joins from the right at an elevation of 148 metres, the outlet river from McFaulds Lake, centre of the Northern Ontario Ring of Fire geological area, joins from the left 17 kilometres further downstream at 52°48′10″N 85°54′45″W at an elevation of 139 metres. Further downstream, the river heads east once again; the Muketei River joins the Attawapiskat from the left at 53°08′36″N 85°17′38″W at an elevation of 105 metres, the Missisa River joins from the right 28 kilometres further downstream at 53°01′36″N 84°54′02″W at an elevation of 98 metres. At 52°56′32″N 83°10′10″W at an elevation of 30 metres the Lawashi Channel begins and takes part of the Attawapiskat's flow into the Lawashi River at a point 8.5 kilometres upstream of that river's mouth at James Bay.

The mouth of the Lawashi River is 11 kilometres southeast of the mouth of the Attawapiskat. After the Lawashi Channel branching, the main river continues east, past the community of Attawapiskat 10 kilometres upstream from the mouth, exits into the James Bay at the Akimiski Strait, across from Akimiski Island. Less than 100 kilometres from its mouth, the Attawapiskat has carved out several clusters of spectacular high limestone islands, nicknamed by canoeists the "Birthday Cakes"; the formations are unique to the region, the Swampy Cree word for which, tawâpiskâ, gives name to the river. The Attawapiskat kimberlite field lies astride the river. Otoskwin/Attawapiskat River Provincial Park includes parts of the river from Attawapiskat Lake to a point just upstream of the confluence with the Muketei River. Since June 26, 2008, the De Beers Victor Diamond Mine, in the Attawapiskat kimberlite field, has operated near the river about 90 kilometres west of the community of Attawapiskat; the mine was expected to produce 600,000 carats of diamonds a year.

Missisa River Muketei River Streatfeild River North Channel Attawapiskat Lake Otoskwin River Marten-Drinking River Pineimuta River List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of Ontario River islands formed of ancient reefs, Attawapiskat River, Ontario & Cliff-bound islands, Attawapiskat River and Mouth of Attawapiskat River, James Bay coast, Ontario. Photos from the Ontario - Hudson Bay Lowlands section of the Canadian Landscapes Photo Collection, Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 2009-08-18. "Attawapiskat River". The Canadian Encyclopedia

Gary Duncan was an American guitarist and singer. He was guitarist with The Brogues most notably with Quicksilver Messenger Service, where the complex interplay between himself and fellow-guitarist John Cipollina did much to define the unique sound of that San Francisco based band. Born in San Diego, Duncan grew up in Ceres, where he played guitar for the Ratz until they finished their performance itinerary as an opening act for the Byrds and the Rolling Stones at the War Memorial Auditorium in San Jose, California, it was in 1965 when, as Gary Cole, he joined the Brogues, in Merced and met future Quicksilver Messenger Service drummer Greg Elmore. It was with the Brogues, he stayed with them until they broke up in 1965. In late 1965 Duncan received a call from John Cipollina offering an audition for himself and fellow Brogues member Greg Elmore to join Quicksilver Messenger Service; the group first performed in December 1965 at The Matrix. The complex guitar interplay between Duncan and John Cipollina had a big influence on the sound of psychedelic rock.

In early 1969, after recording two albums, Duncan left Quicksilver and as he describes it, "I left for a year and rode motorcycles and lived in New York City and Los Angeles and just kind of went crazy for about a year."By the beginning of 1970 Duncan rejoined Quicksilver Messenger Service along with singer/guitarist Dino Valenti which pushed the group toward a more folk rock sound. By 1971 the original group had splintered with Cipollina, David Freiberg and Nicky Hopkins all leaving while Duncan and Valenti continued to perform as Quicksilver Messenger Service until the end of the 1970s. In the mid-1980s Duncan revived the Quicksilver name and began touring with his own band releasing an album, Peace by Piece, he released a few more albums into the 1990s with the Quicksilver name but was the only original member in the group. He began touring with a four-piece band up until 2001. After that Duncan recalled there were no more shows to play and he tore down his home studio for financial reasons.

He said: "I tore the Studio apart by myself... no help from any of my friends... in fact not a word... they all came and got the stuff they had stored and left the stuff they didn’t want so I could haul it away and they just never spoke to me again..."Duncan walked away from the music industry for the next few years until 2004, when he began releasing music from his Quicksilver band in the 1980s and 1990s. In 2006 Duncan began touring again as the Quicksilver Messenger Service, they were still performing up to his death. According to confirmed reports by people close to the musician, Gary Duncan died on June 29, 2019 in Woodland, California due to a fall and subsequently suffering a seizure and falling into a coma. Quicksilver Messenger Service Happy Trails Just for Love What About Me Quicksilver Comin' Thru Solid Silver Peace by Piece Shape Shifter Live at Field Stone Six-String Voodoo The Hermit Strange Trim Snake Language Aol.com/artist/Gary Duncan Interview with Gary Duncan, 2001

Kevin Patterson is a character created and played by the British comedian Harry Enfield. In a 2001 Channel 4 poll, Kevin was ranked 15th on their list of the 100 greatest TV characters. Kevin originated in 1990 in the "Little Brother" sketches of Harry Enfield's Television Programme as an annoyingly energetic boy who vexed his older brother with his irritating catchphrases and habit of bursting into his room when he was with a girl. In the first episode of Harry Enfield and Chums, who despite the same name and similar initial manner was separate from the earlier character, reached his thirteenth birthday; the sketch showed his parents watching in horror as Kevin lost his sense of dress and posture as the clock struck midnight on the day of his thirteenth birthday, thus becoming Kevin the Teenager, one of the most memorable of Enfield's comic creations. Unlike the previous sketches which included an older brother, this incarnation of Kevin was an only child; as a teenager, wearing a baseball cap the wrong way round and with his red hair flopping over his face, Kevin is rude to his despairing parents shouting "I hate you, I wish I'd never been born!" at them, insisting that everything is "so unfair!"

In one sketch, when his father asks him to wash his car, Kevin ends up taking the entire day to complete the task due to his inability to get out of bed before noon and an apparent allergy to work, in another sketch, though wide awake, he made the most primitive of attempts at tidying his room when required to do so. The character is heavily dictated by peer pressure, was seen in various other sketches trying to sound like Ali G, or Liam Gallagher, his best friend is another teenaged boy named Perry Carter. They starred in a 2000 feature film, Perry Go Large; the sketches suggest that teenage boys are always polite to all parents except their own. Kevin and Perry heap immense amounts of abuse on their own respective parents yet are polite to each other's parents. In one sketch, Kevin's ends with the house being trashed. Despite his frequent declarations of hatred towards his parents, Kevin ends up crying whilst his long-suffering mother gives him a much-needed hug. Aside from playing video games, Kevin's one aim in life is to lose his virginity, or at least to prove that he has a girlfriend.

From boasting about the joys of sex to placing the nozzle of a vacuum cleaner to his neck to look as though he has received a love bite, he is determined to prove that he has "done it". He does lose his virginity during a drunken party in the final episode of Harry Enfield and Chums; the following morning, he wakes up transformed into a nice and helpful young man. This is however revealed to be a dream by his mother in the first of the two Christmas specials, with Kevin still behaving as before. Kevin and Perry both lose their virginities in Ibiza in the movie Kevin & Perry Go Large; the term "Kevin the Teenager", has entered British vernacular to describe any adolescent, bad-tempered or rebellious. It can be applied to female adolescents. Early in his career Andy Murray was sometimes called Kevin the Teenager due to his bad-tempered on-court demeanour. Kevin's father (named Dave in one of the earlier sketches, Frank has been played by three actors: Duncan Preston in Harry Enfield and Chums first series, 1994 Stephen Moore in Harry Enfield and Chums - Moore replaced Preston in the second series, 1997.

James Fleet in Kevin & Perry Go Large - a full-length feature film based on the character. When Kevin was "Little Brother", his father was played by Martyn Whitby and his mother was played by Caroline Quentin. Kevin's mother, in contrast to Kevin's father, was played by Louisa Rix in both the series and the movie

Montrell Teague is an American harness racing driver. He won the 2015 Dan Patch Rising Star Award at the age of 24 after winning the Little Brown Jug and Meadowlands Pace with 2015 Harness Horse of the Year Wiggle It Jiggleit, he is noted for becoming the youngest driver to win a major stakes race at Hoosier Park in 2011 at the age of 20. Teague is a Delaware native, the son of well known horseman George Teague Jr. who owns Teague Stable and Farm in Harrington, Delaware. His father started to teach him to drive. Teague races at Harrington Raceway and Harrah's Philadelphia. In 2010, he won two \$100,000 Delaware Standardbred Breeder Fund championships with No Bad Luck. In 2011, he scored his first major win in the \$300,00 Max Hempt Memorial with Custard the Dragon and trained by his father; the two won the \$500,000 Hoosier Cup, making Teague the youngest driver to win a major stakes race at Hoosier Park. In 2015, he reached national prominence for his partnership with Wiggle It Jiggleit, earning Teague the Dan Patch Rising Star Award.

The highlight of the year was their victory in the Little Brown Jug considered to be one of the greatest harness races of all time. "I had a guy come up to me a few days at and he said'I've been watching harness racing for 50 years and I want to say thank you for giving me the thrill of my lifetime, to watch the best race I've seen.' I never would have expected that," recalled Teague in a interview. The pair's other wins included the Meadowlands Pace, Carl Milstein Memorial Pace, Matron Male Stakes and Hap Hansen Progress Pace. In 2016, Teague continued to travel around North America with Wiggle It Jiggleit, with major wins including the Dan Patch Stakes at Hoosier Park and Canadian Pacing Derby at Mohawk Racetrack. "A lot of horses can't travel around like that and still race good," said Teague. "He's the exception. I've never seen it done, it hasn't bothered him yet. Harrington is his home, it seems. When people know he is racing at their track, they try to make it out there to see him live."Teague earned his 1,000th career win with Henry The Dragon on September 27, 2016 in a \$20,000 division of the Delaware Standardbred Breeders Fund stakes