Counts and dukes of Anjou
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son were viscounts of Angers until Ingelgers son Fulk the Red assumed the title of Count of Anjou, Ingelgers male line ended with Geoffrey II, Count of Anjou. Subsequent counts of Anjou were descended from Geoffreys sister Ermengarde of Anjou and Geoffrey II and their agnatic descendants, who included the Angevin kings of England, continued to hold these titles and property until the French monarchy gained control of the area. Thereafter the titles Count of Anjou and, after 1360, Duke of Anjou were granted several times, usually to members of the French ruling houses of Valois and Bourbon. The title was held by Philippe, a grandson of King Louis XIV, since then, some Spanish legitimist claimants to the French throne have borne the title even to the present day, as does a nephew of the Orléanist pretender. In 1204, Anjou was lost to king Philip II of France and it was re-granted as an appanage for Louis VIIIs son John, who died in 1232 at the age of thirteen, and to Louiss youngest son, the first Angevin king of Sicily.
In 1290, Margaret married Charles of Valois, the brother of king Philip IV of France. He became Count of Anjou in her right, in 1328, Philip of Valois ascended the French throne and became King Philip VI. At this time, the counties of Anjou, Maine, on 26 April 1332, Philip granted the county to his eldest son, Following Johns ascension to the throne as John II in 1350, the title once again reverted to the royal domain. The dukes contributed greatly to social reform in the 1300s and 1400s, on the death of Charles IV, Anjou returned to the royal domain. After the death of Henry, Count of Chambord, only the descendants of Philip V of Spain remained of the line of Louis XIV. The most senior of these, the Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, some of them used the courtesy title of Duke of Anjou. At the death of Alfonso Carlos in 1936, the Capetian seniority passed to the exiled King of Spain, Alfonso XIII. In 1941, Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, succeeded his father Alfonso XIII as the male of Louis XIV.
He adopted the title of Duke of Anjou, on December 8,2004, Count of Paris, Duke of France, Orléanist Pretender to the French throne, granted his nephew Charles Philippe the title of Duke of Anjou. For him, the title was available since 1824, because he doesnt recognize his cousins courtesy title, list of Countesses and Duchesses of Anjou Anjou Titles of the counts and dukes of Anjou in the 11-16th centuries from contemporary documents with bibliography
Within six weeks, three thousand French men and women were slain by the rebels, and the government of King Charles lost control of the island. It was the beginning of the War of the Sicilian Vespers and these lay between Hohenstaufen lands in northern Italy and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicily in the south, the Hohenstaufen at the time ruled Germany. In 1245 Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Frederick II and declared him deposed, when Frederick died in 1250, his dominion was inherited by his son, Conrad IV of Germany. A period of turmoil followed Conrads death in 1254, and the Kingdom of Sicily was seized by Manfred, King of Sicily, Fredericks illegitimate son, Manfred had no involvement in German politics, where the interregnum lasted longer and there was no emperor until 1274. He first styled himself as vicar of his nephew Conradin, Conrads son, following a false rumour that Conradin was dead, Manfred had himself crowned as king. He wished for a reconciliation with the papacy, which may have explained his support for the landless Baldwin II, Latin Emperor.
However, Pope Urban IV and Pope Clement IV were not prepared to recognize Manfred as lawful ruler of Sicily and first excommunicated sought to depose him by force of arms. After abortive attempts to enlist England as the champion of the Papacy against Manfred, Charles invaded Italy and defeated and killed Manfred in 1266 at the Battle of Benevento, becoming King of Sicily. In 1268 Conradin, who had come of age, invaded Italy to press his claim to the throne. Charles was now undisputed master of the Kingdom of Sicily, beginning on that night, thousands of Sicilys French inhabitants were massacred within six weeks. The events that started the uprising are not known for certain, the only town in Sicily not to join the rebellion was a small village called Sperlinga, which protected French soldiers in a castle excavated in sandstone. According to Steven Runciman, the Sicilians at the church were engaged in holiday festivities, a sergeant named Drouet dragged a young married woman from the crowd, pestering her with his advances.
Her husband attacked Drouet with a knife, killing him, when the other Frenchmen tried to avenge their comrade, the Sicilian crowd fell upon them, killing them all. At that moment all the bells in Palermo began to ring for Vespers. The French were attacked, first with rocks, the news spread to other cities leading to revolt throughout Sicily. By the time the furious anger at their insolence had drunk its fill of blood, there is a third version of the events that is quite close to Runcimans, varying only in the minor details. This story is part of the tradition on the island up to the present time. This oral tradition cannot be verified, but is of interest to sociologists, according to the legend, John of Procida was the mastermind behind the conspiracy
Enguerrand de Marigny
Enguerrand de Marigny was a French chamberlain and minister of Philip IV the Fair. He was born at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy, of an old Norman family of the smaller baronage called Le Portier and he married her god-daughter, Jeanne de St Martin. In 1298 he received the custody of the castle of Issoudun, after the death of Pierre Flotte at Courtrai in 1302 and de Bouville at the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle in 1304, he became Philips Grand Chamberlain and chief minister. In 1306 he was sent to preside over the exchequer of Normandy and he received numerous gifts of land and money from Philip as well as a pension from Edward II of England. Possessed of a manner, politic and astute, he acted as an able instrument in carrying out Philips plans. He shared the popular odium which Philip incurred by debasing the coinage and he acted as the agent of Philip in his contest with Louis, Count of Nevers, the son of Robert III of Flanders, imprisoning Louis and forcing Robert to surrender Lille, Douai and Béthune.
He obtained for his half-brother Philip de Marigny in 1301 the bishopric of Cambrai, and in 1309 the archbishopric of Sens, still another relative, Nicolas de Frauville, became the kings confessor and a cardinal. He addressed the States-General in 1314 and succeeded in getting further taxes for the Flemish war and this soon came to a head when the princes of the blood, eager to fight the Flemings, were disappointed by his negotiating a peace in September. He was accused of receiving bribes, and Charles of Valois denounced him to the king himself, but Philip stood by him, the death of Philip IV on November 29,1314 was a signal for a reaction against his policy. The feudal party, whose power the king had tried to limit, turned on his ministers, enguerrand was arrested by Louis X at the instigation of Charles of Valois, and twenty-eight articles of accusation including charges of receiving bribes were brought against him. He was refused a hearing, but his accounts were correct, Charles brought forward a charge of sorcery which was more effectual.
He was condemned at once and hanged on the public Gibbet of Montfaucon, Marigny founded the collegiate church of Nôtre Dame dEcouis near Rouen in 1313. He was twice married, first to Jeanne de St Martin, Marigny is a major character in Les Rois maudits, a series of historical novels by Maurice Druon, which were adapted into a television miniseries in 1972 and again in 2005. He was portrayed by André Falcon in 1972 and by Jean-Claude Drouot in 2005
Catherine I, Latin Empress
Catherine I, Catherine of Courtenay, was the recognised Latin Empress of Constantinople from 1283 to 1307, although she lived in exile and only held authority over Crusader States in Greece. She was born on 25 November 1274, the only daughter, Catherine was betrothed to three men she never married, including James of Majorca. On 28 February 1301 at the Priory of St. Cloud near Paris, she became the wife of Count Charles of Valois. On 23 April 1301, Charles became titular emperor with Catherine until her death in Paris on 11 October 1307 at the age of 32 and she was buried at the abbey of Maubuisson the following day,12 October. Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar served as one of her pallbearers, by Charles of Valois, Catherine I had four children, Count of Chartres. Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Achaea, titular Empress of Constantinople and she married Philip I of Anjou, Prince of Taranto and had issue. Married Count Robert III of Artois and had issue, isabella of Valois, Abbess of Fontevrault.
Jacques de Molay, while attending her funeral on 12 October 1307 in Paris, was arrested by King Philip IV, media related to Catherine I, Latin Empress at Wikimedia Commons
The name refers to other territorial gains made by medieval Christendom against Muslim and pagan adversaries. The Crusader States in the Levant were the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, the Eastern Romans, or Byzantines, partially recovered lost territory on numerous occasions but over time gradually lost all but Anatolia and parts of Thrace and the Balkans. In the West, the Roman Catholic kingdoms of northern Iberia launched a series of known as the Reconquista to reconquer the peninsula from the Arabized Berbers known as Moors. The conquered Iberian principalities are not customarily called Crusader states, except for the Kingdom of Valencia, professor Barber indicates that, in the Crusader State of the Kingdom of Jerusalem the Holy Sepulchre was added to in the 7th century and rebuilt in 1022, after a previous collapse. The situation represented an existential threat for the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope in Rome to send military aid with the goal of restoring the formerly Christian territories to Christian rule, the result was a series of western European military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades.
The first four Crusader states were created in the Levant immediately after the First Crusade, The first Crusader state, the Principality of Antioch, founded in 1098, lasted until 1268. The Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded in 1099, lasted until 1291, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had its origins before the Crusades, but was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Innocent III, and became fully westernized by the Lusignan dynasty. During the Third Crusade, the Crusaders founded the Kingdom of Cyprus, Richard I of England conquered Cyprus on his way to Holy Land. The Templars promptly returned the island to Richard who resold it to the displaced King of Jerusalem Guy of Lusignan in 1192. For much of its history under the Lusignan Kings, Cyprus was a prosperous Medieval Kingdom, the Kingdoms decline began when it became embroiled in the dispute between the Italian Merchant Republics of Genoa and Venice. Indeed, the Kingdoms decline can be traced to a war with Genoa in 1373–74 which ended with the Genoese occupying the principal port City of Famagusta.
Eventually with the help of Venice, the Kingdom recovered Famagusta but by it was too late and in any event, venetian rule over Cyprus lasted for just over 80 years until 1571, when the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim II Sarkhosh invaded and captured the entire island. These states faced the attacks of the Byzantine Greek successor states of Nicaea and Epirus and the Latin Empire were reconquered by the Byzantine Greeks by 1261. Descendants of the Crusaders continued to rule in Athens and the Peloponnesus until the 15th century when the area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The military order of the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John established itself on Rhodes in 1310, with influx of new blood. The island of Kastellorizo was taken by the Knights of St, other neighbouring territories temporarily under the order were, the cities of Smyrna, the city of Salona and the islands of Ikaria and Kos, all now in Greece. The coins minted in Jerusalem during the 12th century show patriarchal crosses with various modifications, coins minted under Henry I show a cross with four dots in the four quarters, but the Jerusalem cross proper appears only on a coin minted under John II
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the half of the Carolingian Empire. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a de-centralised, feudal monarchy, in Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France, during the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War.
Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars, religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France, Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America, the Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the great powers in 1814. During the years of the elderly Charlemagnes rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks, after Charlemagnes death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Viking advances were allowed to increase, and their dreaded longboats were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other waterways, wreaking havoc. During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, that was to become Normandy. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years. Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, and married Frances newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, after the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne. The death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line, under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman, so the throne passed to Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois
Philip VI of France
Philip VI, called the Fortunate and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death, Philips reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. It was held in France, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the line according to the ancient Salic Law. The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years War in 1337, after initial successes at sea, Philips navy was annihilated at the Battle of Sluys in 1340, ensuring that the war would occur on the continent. The English took another decisive advantage at the Battle of Crécy, while the Black Death struck France, in 1349, Philip VI bought the Dauphiné from its ruined ruler Humbert II and entrusted the government of this province to his grandson Charles. Philip VI died in 1350 and was succeeded by his son John II the Good, little is recorded about Philips childhood and youth, in large part because he was of minor royal birth. Philips father Charles, Count of Valois, the brother of King Philip IV of France, had striven throughout his life to gain a throne for himself but was never successful.
He died in 1325, leaving his eldest son Philip as heir to the counties of Anjou, Maine, in 1328, Philips first cousin Charles IV died without a son and with his widow Jeanne dÉvreux pregnant. Philip was one of the two claimants to the throne. The other was King Edward III of England, who was the son of Charless sister Isabella, the question arose whether Isabella should have been able to transmit a claim that she herself did not possess. The assemblies of the French barons and prelates and the University of Paris decided that males who derive their right to inheritance through their mother should be excluded according to Salic Law. He formally held the regency from 9 February 1328 until 1 April, upon this birth, Philip was named king and crowned at the Cathedral in Reims on 29 May 1328. After his elevation to the throne, Philip sent the Abbot of Fécamp, Pierre Roger, after a subsequent second summons from Philip, Edward arrived at the Cathedral of Amiens on 6 June 1329 and worded his vows in such a way to cause more disputes in years.
The dynastic change had another consequence, Charles IV had been King of Navarre, unlike the crown of France and these counties were closely entrenched in the economic and administrative entity of the Crown lands of France, being located adjacent to Île-de-France. Philip, was not entitled to that inheritance, the heiress was the surviving daughter of Louis X, the future Joan II of Navarre. His wife, the able Joan the Lame, gave the first of many demonstrations of her competence as regent in his absence, Philip initially enjoyed relatively amicable relations with Edward III, and they planned a crusade together in 1332, which was never executed. However, the status of the Duchy of Aquitaine remained a sore point, Philip provided refuge for David II of Scotland in 1334 and declared himself champion of his interests, which enraged Edward. By 1336, they were enemies, although not yet openly at war, Philip successfully prevented an arrangement between the Avignon papacy and Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV, although in July 1337 Louis concluded an alliance with Edward III
Catherine II, Latin Empress
She was Princess consort of Achaea and Taranto, and regent of Achaea from 1332–1341, and Governor of Cephalonia from 1341–1346. She was born in 1303, sometime before 15 April, the eldest daughter of Charles, count of Valois, and Catherine I. Her mother was recognized as Empress of the Latin Empire of Constantinople by the Latin states in Greece, Catherine inherited her claims as the titular Empress on 11 October 1307. She was still a child and remained in the custody of her father, an early betrothal to Hugh of Burgundy, made on 15 April 1303 when she was an infant, was renounced in 1312. In July 1313, Catherine married Philip I of Taranto, King of Albania and Prince of Achaea and she associated her husband as titular Emperor, and retained the claim to the empire after his death on 23 December 1332. Robert, his eldest surviving son, succeeded him as Prince of Taranto in 1331, Catherine became influential at the court of Naples. Her court was more worldly than the court of King Robert and his pious wife.
During the reign of her niece, Joanna I of Naples, she opposed the marriage of Joans younger sister, Maria of Calabria, to Charles and this was because Maria was heir presumptive to the throne of Naples, and the Durazzos were rivals to her own family. She and her family were compensated with a settlement from the royal treasury. In 1333, her son Robert received the Principality of Achaea through an agreement with his uncle, the thirteen-year-old boy was deemed too young to reign alone, and his mother became his co-ruler for the rest of her life. Initially ruling through appointed baillis, in summer 1338 Catherine mustered a fleet and took her whole household to Achaea and she gave refuge to Nikephoros II Orsini of Epirus, and supported him in his attempt to assert himself in his land against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Her presence in Achaea was no longer needed by the time Robert reached adulthood in 1341 and she became Governor of Cephalonia and spent the last five years of her life in this responsibility.
After the murder of Joans husband, Andrew of Hungary, Joan sought a new husband amongst her Taranto cousins, Catherine supported her younger son, Louis of Taranto, against her older son, Robert. She sheltered Charles of Artois, a son of Robert the Wise, and his son Bertrand. When asked to them up, she refused and stated she would punish them herself if they were guilty. She died in Naples in October 1346, queen Joan organized her funeral at the church of San Domenico. By Philip I of Taranto, Catherine II had four children, married Francis of Baux, by Francis, she was the mother of James of Baux, Prince of Achaea and titular Emperor of Constantinople. Robert, Prince of Taranto, titular Emperor of Constantinople, Prince of Taranto and King of Naples by right of his wife
Peter III of Aragon
Peter the Great was the King of Aragon of Valencia, and Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death. At the invitation of some rebels, he conquered Sicily and became its king in 1282, pressing the claim of his wife, Constance of Hohenstaufen and he was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs. Peter was the eldest son of James I of Aragon and his second wife Violant of Hungary, among betrothals of his youth, he was betrothed to Eudoxia Laskarina, the youngest daughter of Emperor Theodoros II of Nicaea, in or before 1260. This contract was dissolved, after Eudoxias brother lost the throne in 1261. On 13 June 1262, Peter married Constance and heiress of Manfred of Sicily, during his youth and early adulthood, Peter gained a great deal of military experience in his fathers wars of the Reconquista against the Moors. On James Is death in 1276, the lands of the Crown of Aragon were divided amongst his two sons, Peter the Great and Constance of Sicily were crowned in Zaragoza in November 1276 by the archbishop of Tarragona.
Peters first act as king was to complete the pacification of his Valencian territory, however, a revolt soon broke out in Catalonia, led by the viscount of Cardona and abetted by Roger-Bernard III of Foix, Arnold Roger I of Pallars Sobirà, and Ermengol X of Urgell. The rebels had developed a hatred for Peter as a result of the severity of his dealings with them during the reign of his father, now they opposed him for not summoning the Catalan corts, and confirming its privileges after his ascension to the throne. At the same time, a succession crisis continued in the County of Urgell, meanwhile, a good portion of the county had been repossessed by Peters father, James I, and was thus inherited by Peter in 1276. In 1278, Ermengol X, Álvaros eldest son, succeeded in recovering most of his lost patrimony, in 1280, Peter defeated the stewing rebellion led by Roger-Bernard III after besieging the rebels in Balaguer for a month. Most of the leaders were imprisoned in Lleida until 1281. When Muhammad I al-Mustansir, the Hafsid Emir of Tunisia who had put himself under James the Conqueror, died in 1277, Peter first sent an expedition to Tunis in 1280 under Conrad de Llansa designed to re-establish his suzerainty.
In 1281, he prepared to lead a fleet of 140 ships with 15,000 men to invade Tunisia on behalf of the governor of Constantine. The fleet landed at Alcoyll in 1282 and it was these Aragonese troops that received a Sicilian embassy after the Vespers of 30 March asking Peter to take their throne from Charles of Anjou. This made Peter III the heir of Manfred of Sicily in right of his wife, the Italian physician John of Procida acted on behalf of Peter in Sicily. John had fled to Aragon after Charles success at Tagliacozzo, John travelled to Sicily to stir up the discontents in favour of Peter and thence to Constantinople to procure the support of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Michael refused to aid the Aragonese king without papal approval, and so John voyaged to Rome and there gained the consent of Pope Nicholas III, who feared the ascent of Charles in the Mezzogiorno. John returned to Barcelona but the pope died, to be replaced by Simon de Brion, a Frenchman and an ally of Charles
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII, born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France and Dante Alighieri, Benedetto was born in ca.1235 in Anagni, some thirty-one miles southeast of Rome. He was a son of Roffredo Caetani, a member of a baronial family of the Papal States. Through his mother, Emilia Patrasso di Guarcino, a niece of Pope Alexander IV, he was not far distant from the seat of ecclesiastical power and his fathers younger brother, was Podestà di Orvieto. He took his first steps in the life when he was sent to the monastery of the Friars Minor in Velletri. In 1252, when his paternal uncle Pietro Caetani became Bishop of Todi, in Umbria, Benedetto followed him to Todi and he was granted a canonry of the cathedral in the familys stronghold of Anagni, with the permission of Pope Alexander. His uncle Pietro Caetani granted him a canonry in the Cathedral of Todi in 1260 and he came into possession of the small nearby castello of Sismano, a place with twenty-one fires.
Later in life he expressed his gratitude to Anagni, Todi. In 1264 Benedetto entered the Roman Curia, perhaps with the office of Advocatus and he served as secretary to Cardinal Simon de Brion, the future Pope Martin IV, on a mission to France. Cardinal Simon had been appointed by Pope Urban IV, between 25 and 27 April 1264, to engage in negotiations with Charles of Anjou, Comte de Provence, over the crown of Naples and Sicily. On 1 May 1264 he was given permission to appoint two or three tabelliones for his mission, one of whom was Benedetto. On 20 March 1265, in order to expedite the business with Charles of Anjou and this may have been the occasion on which Benedetto Caetani acquired at least some of his French benefices. On 9 April 1265, on the petition of Cardinal Simon de Brion, there would have been no point in making such a ruling if Cardinal Simon had already ceased to be Legate. Benedetto accompanied Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi, the future Pope Adrian V, another member of Cardinal Ottobonos suite was Theobaldus of Piacenza, Archdeacon of Liège, who became a friend of Prince Edward, and went on Crusade with him, he was elected Pope Gregory X.
On 29 August 1265 the Cardinal was received at the French Court by King Louis IX, there he learned that Simon de Montfort and his son Henry had been killed at the Battle of Evesham earlier that month. Cardinal Ottobono did not reach Boulogne until October 1265 and he was in England until July 1268, working to suppress the remnants of Simon de Montforts barons who were still in arms against King Henry III of England. This drawback was a concern of Cardinal Ottobono and his entourage. While in England Benedetto Caetani became rector of St. Lawrences church in Towcester, upon Benedettos return from England, there is an eight-year period in which nothing is known about his life
Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VII was the King of Germany from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg, born around 1275 in Valenciennes, he was a son of Count Henry VI of Luxembourg and Béatrice from the House of Avesnes. Raised at the French court, he was the lord of comparatively small properties in a peripheral and predominantly French-speaking part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was symptomatic of the weakness that during his rule as the Count of Luxembourg, he agreed to become a French vassal. During his rule of Luxembourg, he ruled effectively, especially in keeping the peace in local feudal disputes, Henry became caught up in the internal political machinations of the Holy Roman Empire with the assassination of King Albert I on 1 May 1308. Almost immediately, King Philip of France began aggressively seeking support for his brother, Charles of Valois, Philip thought he had the backing of the French Pope Clement V, and that his prospects of bringing the empire into the orbit of the French royal house were good.
He lavishly spread French money in the hope of bribing the German electors, although Charles of Valois had the backing of Henry, Archbishop of Cologne, a French supporter, many were not keen to see an expansion of French power, least of all Clement V. The principal rival to Charles appeared to be Rudolf, the Count Palatine, Henry of Cologne’s brother, Archbishop of Trier, won over a number of the electors, including Henry, in exchange for some substantial concessions. Consequently, Henry skillfully negotiated his way to the crown, elected with six votes at Frankfurt on 27 November 1308, Henry was subsequently crowned at Aachen on 6 January 1309. In July 1309, Pope Clement V confirmed Henrys election and he agreed to crown Henry Emperor at Candlemas 1312personally, the title having been vacant since the death of Frederick II. Yet the newly crowned king had local issues to deal with before he could seek the imperial crown, Henry was approached by part of the Bohemian nobility and some important and influential ecclesiastics to intervene in Bohemia.
In July 1310 he engineered the removal of Henry of Carinthia and he therefore confirmed them in their imperial fiefs by October 1309, in exchange, Leopold of Habsburg agreed to accompany Henry in his Italian expedition, and to provide a body of troops as well. He saw it, together with the crowns of Italy and Arles and it was hoped that this would lessen the tensions in Italy between the anti-imperial Guelphs, who looked to the King of Naples for leadership, and the pro-imperial Ghibellines. Negotiations broke down due to Robert’s excessive monetary demands, as well as through the interference of Philip, while these negotiations were taking place, Henry began his descent into northern Italy in October 1310, with his eldest son John remaining in Prague as the Imperial vicar. As Emperor, Henry had planned to restore the glory of the Holy Roman Empire, each of these contests had created bitter losers, each of whom looked to the emperor-elect for restitution. Henry expressed both his high-minded idealism and lack of craft in his plan to require all the cities of Lombardy to welcome back their exiles.
He received both parties, Guelph or Ghibelline, courteously, in the beginning he showed no obvious favoritism to either party, nevertheless, he insisted that the current rulers in all of the Italian city-states had usurped their powers. He insisted that the towns should come under the control of the Empire