Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'
The conservation movement known as nature conservation, is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future. The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, soil conservation, sustainable forestry; the contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity. Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement, while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans. Outside the U. S. the term conservation more broadly includes environmentalism. The conservation movement can be traced back to John Evelyn's work Sylva, presented as a paper to the Royal Society in 1662.
Published as a book two years it was one of the most influential texts on forestry published. Timber resources in England were becoming dangerously depleted at the time, Evelyn advocated the importance of conserving the forests by managing the rate of depletion and ensuring that the cut down trees get replenished; the field developed during the 18th century in Prussia and France where scientific forestry methods were developed. These methods were first applied rigorously in British India from the early-19th century; the government was interested in the use of forest produce and began managing the forests with measures to reduce the risk of wildfire in order to protect the "household" of nature, as it was termed. This early ecological idea was in order to preserve the growth of delicate teak trees, an important resource for the Royal Navy. Concerns over teak depletion were raised as early as 1799 and 1805 when the Navy was undergoing a massive expansion during the Napoleonic Wars; the first forestry officer was appointed in 1806 to regulate and preserve the trees necessary for shipbuilding.
This promising start received a setback in the 1820s and 30s, when laissez-faire economics and complaints from private landowners brought these early conservation attempts to an end. Conservation was revived in the mid-19th century, with the first practical application of scientific conservation principles to the forests of India; the conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out. Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. Edward Percy Stebbing warned of desertification of India.
The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state management of forests in the world; these local attempts received more attention by the British government as the unregulated felling of trees continued unabated. In 1850, the British Association in Edinburgh formed a committee to study forest destruction at the behest of Dr. Hugh Cleghorn a pioneer in the nascent conservation movement, he had become interested in forest conservation in Mysore in 1847 and gave several lectures at the Association on the failure of agriculture in India. These lectures influenced the government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie to introduce the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In the same year, Cleghorn organised the Madras Forest Department and in 1860 the Department banned the use shifting cultivation.
Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent. In 1861, the Forest Department extended its remit into the Punjab. Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester, joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labor for clearing and weeding teak plantations. After seven years in Burma, Brandis was appointed Inspector General of Forests in India, a position he served in for 20 years, he helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him. Germans were prominent in the forestry administration of British India; as well as Brandis, Berthold Ribbentrop and Sir William P. D. Schlich brought new methods to Indian conservation, the latter becoming the Inspector-General in 1883 after Brandis stepped down.
Schlich helped to establish the journal Indian Forester in 1874, became the founding director of the first forestry school in England at Cooper's Hill in 1885. He authored the five-volume Manual of Forestry on silviculture, forest management, forest protection, fores
The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property, in the towns of Punta Chueca and El Desemboque on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island and San Esteban Island were part of their traditional territory, they were seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures; the Seri people are not related culturally or linguistically to other groups that have lived in the area, such as the Opata, Yaqui, O'odham, or Cochimí. The Seri language is considered a language isolate. Beside the Apache and Yaqui, the Seri are best known as fierce warriors for their fierce resistance against subjugation by the Spanish and Mexicans; the name Seri is an exonym of uncertain origin. Their name for themselves is Comcaac; the Seri were divided into six bands.
They were: Xiica hai iicp coii or Xica hai iic coii known as Tepocas or Saliñeros, who inhabited a large area to the north of the other bands, along the coast between Puerto Lobos and Punta Tepopa and somewhat inland, constituting six subgroups with following camps: Zaah Hacáila, Pailc Haacöt, Xpano Hax, Haasíxp, Haxöl Ihom, Xapoyáh Xiica xnaai iicp coii or Xica xnai iic coii known as Tastioteños who inhabited the coast from Bahía Kino to Guaymas. Tahejöc comcaac or Tahéjöc comcáac known as the Seris or Tiburones, who inhabited the coasts of Tiburón Island, the coast of Mexico opposite it, north of the Xiica xnaai iicp coii. Constituting five subgroups with following camps: Hajháx, Sacpátix, Hatquísa, Taij It, Inóohcö Quixaz, Tacáta, Hast Hax, Soosni Itáaai, Xoxáacöl, Caail iti ctamcö, Hax Ipac Xoxáacöl Heeno comcaac or Heno comcáac, who inhabited the central valley of Tiburón Island. Xnaamotat or Xnaa motat known as Upanguaymas or Guaymas, who inhabited a small strip south of Guaymas between the Xiica hai iic coii and the Tahejöc comcaac.
Xiica hast ano coii or Xica hast ano coii, hast ano ctam, hast ano cmaam ), who inhabited San Esteban Island and the southern coast of Tiburón Island. Three of the bands were further subdivided. Relations between bands were not always friendly, internal conflict sometimes occurred; some bands were living on the Baja California Peninsula, they were called Hant Ihiini comcaac. It has been said that these groups spoke mutually intelligible dialects, it is thought that the first dialect was spoken by the Xiica hai iic coii, Xiica xnaai iic coii, Tahejöc comcaac and Heeno comcaac Bands and presently this variant is the only dialect spoken and is the ancestor of modern-day Seri. The second dialect was spoken by the Xnaamotat Band, but it is extinct and there was little data collected regarding this dialect; the third dialect is extinct and was spoken by the Xiica hast ano coii Band. Speakers sometimes make remarks regarding certain expressions being characteristic of particular Bands of the Xiica hast ano coii Band.
These communication differences were thought to have kept the groups from having much social interaction with each other. After the Seri population was reduced by conflicts with the Mexican government and the O'odham, epidemics of smallpox and measles, the remaining Seris grouped together and the band divisions were lost; the autoethnonym of the Seri people, was first recorded by United States Boundary Commissioner John Russell Bartlett, in the area for a short visit in early 1852. The word was included in the list of 180 words that Bartlett archived in the Bureau of American Ethnology, he recorded the word as "komkak". Other word lists, obtained by other people during the last half of the nineteenth century, confirm that pronunciation; the phonetic rule by which the consonant /m/ is pronounced as a velar nasal in this context may not have come about until sometime in the early twentieth century or researchers may have encountered slow-speech deliberate pronunciations for which the assimilation was held in abeyance.
The singular form, was first recorded by French explorer and philologist Alphonse Pinart in 1879. He recorded the word as "kmike", which must have reflected the pronunciation of the word at that time; the phonetic rule by which the consonant /m/ is pronounced as a nasalized velar approximant in this context may not have come about until sometime in the mid t
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
Kejimkujik National Park
Kejimkujik National Park is a National Park of Canada, covering 404 km2 in the southwest of Nova Scotia peninsula. It consists of two separate land areas: an inland part, coincident with the Kejimkujik National Historic Site of Canada, the Kejimujik National Park Seaside on the Atlantic coast; the Historic site is a cultural landscape 404 square kilometres forested upland plain between the South Shore and the Annapolis Valley. In it is found petroglyph sites, habitation sites and hunting sites, travel routes and burial grounds, which attest to Mi’kmaq occupancy of this area for thousands of years; the seaside part is a wilderness protection area featuring coastal bogs, intertidal areas, abundant flora and fauna. The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada has designated the park a dark-sky preserve; the park is named after the largest lake in the park. Canoe routes in the park have been used for thousands of years by natives to travel from the Bay of Fundy to the Atlantic shore. There are four Mi'kmaw petroglyph sites in the park.
They are found in slate beds on the eastern side of Kejimikujik Lake. There are no slates beds on the western side, they are protected. Only one site can be visited by the public via a guided tour in the summer; the petroglyphs show aspects of Mi'kmaw life after European contact, are dated to the 1700s and 1800s. Many are sometimes ambiguous. Motifs associated with traditional culture include canoes, traditional constume, decorative designs. There are images of prey animals, but none of plants. European motifs include ships, women in dresses, Christian symbols, five-pointed stars; the Tent Dwellers is a book by Albert Paine which chronicles his travels through inland Nova Scotia on a trout fishing trip. Published in 1908, it takes place in what is now Kejimkujik National Park and the Kejimkujik Seaside Tobeatic Game Reserve; the main Jeremy's Bay campground has 355 campsites, many suitable for large RVs, generates about $1 million per year in fees. A group campground for up to 80 people is at Jim Charles Point, named after the eponymous local First Nations Guide who lived there in the mid 1800s.
There are backcountry primitive campsites accessible by canoe, bicycle or hiking. There are 15 hiking trails for skiing, or snowshoeing. Backcountry campsites can be accessed on foot. Winter camping is possible. Most of the park's forest is second growth, although it does contain significant areas of intact original habitat; the park's shallow lakes and marshes are a habitat to a greater variet of amphibians and reptiles than anywhere else in Atlantic Canada. The park is situated in the Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve in a region characterized as Acadian forest. Among the 34 species of mammal found in the park, the more common are: shrews, the star-nosed mole, Snowshoe Hare, beaver, voles, red fox, white-tailed deer. Common birds of the park include the Hermit Thrush, White-breasted Nuthatch, American Woodcock, Northern Parula, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Piping Plover, Ruffed Grouse, Common Loon, Barred Owl, the black duck. At the Kejimkujik seaside, harbor seals can be seen; the Little Port Joli Basin and Basin Lake are being used for European green crab research.
The removal of the green crabs are essential in research into the dwindling fish stocks on the East Coast. Invasive species include the small-mouth bass; the park is habitat to many endangered or threatened species, including the Blanding's turtle, ribbon snake, piping plover, Canada Warbler, Common Nighthawk, Chimney Swift, Monarch butterfly, Harlequin Duck.loons in the park have the highest levels of methyl mercury in their blood of any loons in North America, the result of bioaccumulation. This is reducing their reproduction rates. Yellow perch, 10-15cm long, is their main source of food, these have been found to have more than twice the mercury level than loons from neighbouring New Brunswick. After years of research, the ultimate source of the mercury remains unknown. Mercury is present in many fish across Nova Scotia, there are province-wide advisories on all species, except rainbow trout; the federal government Kejimkujik Ecological Research and Monitoring Centre has run dozens of projects in the park.
The park is located in a flat plain. Its highest point, Mount Tom, is at 180m. Precambrian to Ordovician quartzite and slate form the bedrock, along with Devonian granite; these rocks provide few nutrients to the soils. Podzols are found in well-drained areas, which poorly-drained areas are dominated by Gleysols and peat bog. Fifteen per cent of the park is covered by lakes. Evidence of the Last Glacial Period include drumlins and eskers. Major rivers include the Mersey, the Shelburne, major lakes include Kejimikujik, Luxton. Kejimujik National Park Seaside includes coastal wetland areas; the park has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons. Being located inland, in the western part of Nova Scotia, the park has warmer temperatures and higher precipitation than eastern sections of Nova Scotia. Winters are cold with a January average of −6.1 °C. During this time of the year, the maximum temperature stays below freezing although frequent mild spells push maximum temperatures above freezing and above 10 °C when the wind is from the southwest.
On average, there are 8 days where the temperature falls below −20 °C. Winters are characterized by stretches of unsettled weather, resulti
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC