2002 Commonwealth Games
The 2002 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVII Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth, in terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The Games were considered a success for the host city, providing an event to display how Manchester has changed following the 1996 bombing, the Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester, and bolstered its reputation as a European and global city internationally. The opening and closing ceremonies, the athletic and the rugby sevens events were held at the City of Manchester Stadium, seventy-two nations competed in 14 individual sports and 3 team sports events. Manchester City F. C. inherited the City of Manchester Stadium, the club was taken over by the Abu Dhabi United Group led by Sheikh Mansour in 2008, without the stadium, a takeover would have been far less certain.
The Games were a moment for Manchester and Britain with then-IOC president Jacques Rogge viewing the games as an important litmus test as to whether Britain could host the Summer Olympics. The relay culminated in the arrival of the baton at the City of Manchester Stadium, the speech was removed electronically from the baton, and read by Her Majesty to open the Games. The 2002 Baton itself was designed by a company called IDEO and it weighed 1.69 kg, reached over 710 mm, and was 42.5 mm to 85 mm in diameter. The Queens message itself was held in an aluminium capsule inserted into the top of the Baton, on either side of the Baton were two sterling silver coins, designed by Mappin and Webb, which celebrated the City of Manchester as host of the XVII Commonwealth Games. The Baton was equipped with sensors that detected and monitored the Runners pulse rate and this information was conveyed to a series of light-emitting diodes, via a light behaviour module. The lens transformed the LEDs into a shaft of bright blue pulsating light which synchronised with each new Runner, the hearts of the Runner and the Baton beat as one until it was passed on, symbolising the journey of humanity and the essence of life.
The UK Baton Runners were made up of people from all walks of life including athletes, around 2500 Jubilee Runners were nominated by the community to carry the Baton, because they made a special contribution to their community or achieved a personal goal against the odds. The judging of the Jubilee Runners was conducted by a panel of judges under the supervision of The Duke of Edinburghs Award in January 2002, the relay was sponsored by Cadbury Schweppes, a major UK confectionery and soft drinks manufacturer. Cultureshock was the Commonwealth Games Cultural Programme which ran alongside the Games themselves, the events ranged from images of the athlete as hero in sculpture and photography to a Zulu performance at The Lowry. There was an exhibition at the Whitworth Art Gallery called Tales of Power, West African Textiles, the geographical range was from Cheshire in the south to Blackburn and Cumbria in the north, and included that year the various Melas that take place around the region. It coincided with the BBCs 2002 Festival Live series of concerts and celebrations around the country.
Many of the events were covered by the BBC2002 radio station covering the games. There were the maximum of 17 sports included in the schedule for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the medals were added to the final tally for each nation
Global is a British media company formed in 2007, which owns a large number of radio stations across the country. The company has expanded through a number of acquisitions, including Chrysalis Radio, GCap Media, Global has a television broadcasting division and runs artist management services. A year on 31 October 2008 Global Radio officially took control of all GCap Media, the GCap Media name was dropped at this time. The GCap purchase gave Global the network of FM stations which GCap had operated as The One Network, plus Classic FM, XFM, Capital Xtra, following the acquisition of GCap Media, Global was required to sell off a number of stations in the Midlands. The stations were bought by Orion Media, headed by Phil Riley, the remaining stations briefly formed The Hit Music Network before being merged with the Galaxy network and Capital London into the Capital network. On 25 June 2012, Global acquired GMG Radio for a sum thought to be between £50 and £70 million, it continued to be run separately while a review was conducted.
In May 2013, the Competition Commission ruled that Global would be required to sell seven stations across the network, when this failed Global Radio launched an appeal against the decision. The appeal was based on three grounds and Smooth as alternatives to the Greater Manchester stations, reliance on significant adverse effects in the North-West Globals remedy proposal. On 6 February 2014, it was announced that a number of stations would be sold to the Irish broadcaster Communicorp, most stay under their current brands though the Real stations will be renamed Heart and carry the Heart network off-peak programming as provided by Global. Global will retain control of all stations, relaunching the existing Heart North West. Real XS in Paisley will be retained by Global and join the XFM network and it was announced in June 2015 that Darren Singer would be appointed as Globals Chief Financial Officer. In February 2017, Global changed its name from This is Global Limited to Global Media & Entertainment Limited.
It changed all its social media handles from thisisglobal to global, Global combined the three sub-companies, Global Radio, Global Entertainment and Global Television into just Global. A group of playing chart music. On 3 January 2011, Capital London, The Hit Music Network, known as 95 –106 Capital, The UK’s No.1 Hit Music Station all stations ID locally as Capital. An all-urban station based in London, originally named Choice FM, until Summer 2010 it was sold as part of the Galaxy network for marketing purposes only, but retained its own separate branding and programming. From on, with Galaxy ultimately absorbed into Capital, Choice sat as its own brand within Globals lineup, on 7 October 2013 Choice FM was rebranded as Capital Xtra and made available nationally via DAB radio. Heart is a network of adult-contemporary pop stations which currently broadcasts in numerous areas of England, the network began with a single regional station in the West Midlands and subsequently a second station in London
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
It contains the athletes Olympic Village and several of the sporting venues including the London Stadium and London Aquatics Centre, besides the London Olympics Media Centre. The park is overlooked by the ArcelorMittal Orbit, an observation tower and it was simply called Olympic Park during the Games but was renamed to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The park occupies an area straddling four east London boroughs, Tower Hamlets, part of the park reopened in July 2013, with a large majority of the rest reopening in April 2014. The site covers parts of Stratford, Bow and Hackney Wick in east London, the site was previously a mixture of greenfield and brownfield land, including parts of Hackney Marshes. The Royal Mail gave the park and Stratford City the postcode E20, the park was designed by the EDAW Consortium, working with Arup and WS Atkins. Detailed landscape architecture was by LDA Design in conjunction with Hargreaves Associates, LDA design contracted Wallace Whittle to carry out various aspects of the M+E Building services design.
The NHBC carried out the Sustainability assessments, the park was illuminated with a lighting scheme designed by Sutton Vane Associates. The fencing arena was cancelled, with the events taking place at ExCeL London. The remaining indoor arenas are the Basketball Arena and the Copper Box, in addition to the Water Polo Arena, the Aquatics Centre, the final design of the park was approved by the Olympic Delivery Authority and its planning-decisions committee. The Legacy List is the independent charity for Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, Sarah Weir, who is an Executive Director of the Almeida Theatre and was running Arts Council England, found The Legacy List, the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park charity. In autumn 2013 Sarah moved on to take up the role of Chief Executive at Waddesdon Manor, during its construction over 80,000 workers were engaged on the project. The construction of the Olympic Park was managed by CLM Delivery Partner, comprising CH2M Hill, Laing ORourke, CLM specifically managed the white space between the venue construction zones, including managing the internal road network.
No one, except perhaps the admirable Oudolf, wants to do the quiet stuff, great care was taken to make the Athletes Village aesthetically orderly, to the point where it began to resemble Ceausescus Bucharest, this eruption makes such efforts futile. Robert Holden and Tom Turner, in a review of the Olympic Parks landscape architecture state that Our fundamental point is that the planning is much better than the landscape design. The landscape planning includes the opening up of the River Lea in the section of the park, the habitat-creation strategy. The landscape design is dominated by vast pedestrian concourses which will be busy during events, there is some good garden-type planting but it has not been used to make gardens, it is used more like strips of planting beside highways. The park has a number of uses after the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London finished, such as, a university exploiting the sporting facilities and high-tech communications infrastructure remaining specialising in sport science, digital media and green technology.
3,600 apartments, the East Village, next to the Stratford City neighbourhood of Stratford, the Orbit, a steel tower which is the largest public work of art in the UK and a major tourist attraction
Bellshill is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland,10 miles south east of Glasgow city centre and 37 miles west of Edinburgh. Other nearby towns are Motherwell and Coatbridge, since 1996, it has been situated in the Greater Glasgow metropolitan area. The town has a population of 20,705, the earliest record of settlement in the Bellshill area is a village called Belmill, recorded on a map by Timothy Pont published in 1654. The village consisted of a row of workers houses owned by Mr. Bell. After the quarry closed, the disappeared and a settlement developed nearby called Crossgates. About 1810, this new settlement took on the name Bellshill and continued to grow absorbing nearby villages such as Black Moss and Nesnas. According to the first Statistical Account, in the late 1700s the parish of Bothwell, a hundred or so years later, these occupations had changed places in degree of importance to the area economy. With the introduction of new machinery in the mid 19th century, demand for coal to feed British industry meant that by the 1870s 20 deep pits were in operation in the area.
The first mine to open was the Thankerton mine, the rise in the migrant Lithuanian population led to the opening of The Scottish Lithuanian Recreation and Social Club within Calder Road in the Mossend area. Iron and Steel production were central to the development of the town, developer of the revolutionary hot blast process, opened the first iron works in the area in 1839. During the industrial boom, a number of stations were situated in the area, including Mossend, Fallside. The settlement is now just served by Bellshill railway station, in the 1870s, Bothwell Parochial Board built the two-ward Bellshill Hospital. During World War I, the hospital specialised in infectious diseases, in 1917, the hospital began to change focus to become a maternity hospital, the first in the Lanarkshire area, with new dedicated maternity buildings being opened in 1958 and 1962. The hospital was the first in the world to have an Obstetric Flying Squad and it was the birthplace of many famous faces including politician Robin Cook, footballer Ally McCoist and singer Sheena Easton.
The hospital was closed in 2001 and demolished in 2003 to make way for new housing developments, according to a report by the Halifax Building Society, in the first quarter of 2005 Bellshill was the UKs property hot spot with a 46% rise in house prices. This took the property price to £105,698. In 2006, a new mosque was opened in the Mossend area of Bellshill becoming one of the largest mosques in Scotland, the streetscape project, a plan to regenerate and modernise the town centre, commenced Apr 2007 and was completed nearly three years later. The project, created a one way system on the street with more space for pedestrians
The Daily Telegraph
It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as The Daily Telegraph and Courier, the papers motto, Was, is, and will be, appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since April 19,1858. The paper had a circulation of 460,054 in December 2016 and its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 359,287 as of December 2016. The Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a newspaper in the UK. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories, articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Groups www. telegraph. co. uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. However, including an editor, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers. The Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B, Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge.
Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the paper cost 2d and was four pages long. Nevertheless, the first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists, the paper was not a success, and Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a newspaper than his main competitors in London. The same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, in 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which espoused a conservative position. Originally William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, for some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. As an result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5, in 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworths scoop that Germany was to invade Poland.
In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to almost daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, Manchester quite often printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat. The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959, in 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park, the ability to solve The Telegraphs crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The competition itself was won by F. H. W. Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes, both the Camrose and Burnham families remained involved in management until Conrad Black took control in 1986
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Labour served in the coalition from 1940 to 1945. Labour was in government from 1964 to 1970 under Harold Wilson and from 1974 to 1979, first under Wilson and James Callaghan. The Labour Party was last in government from 1997 to 2010 under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, beginning with a majority of 179. Having won 232 seats in the 2015 general election, the party is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the party organises in Northern Ireland, but does not contest elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly. The Labour Party is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance. In September 2015, Jeremy Corbyn was elected Leader of the Labour Party, the first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and largely middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party.
In the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates, Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardies roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx. The motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to coordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and it had no single leader, and in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united.
The October 1900 Khaki election came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively, only 15 candidatures were sponsored, but two were successful, Keir Hardie in Merthyr Tydfil and Richard Bell in Derby. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, the judgement effectively made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. In their first meeting after the election the groups Members of Parliament decided to adopt the name The Labour Party formally, the Fabian Society provided much of the intellectual stimulus for the party. One of the first acts of the new Liberal Government was to reverse the Taff Vale judgement, the Peoples History Museum in Manchester holds the minutes of the first Labour Party meeting in 1906 and has them on display in the Main Galleries. Also within the museum is the Labour History Archive and Study Centre, the governing Liberals were unwilling to repeal this judicial decision with primary legislation
The network, which is branded ITV by ITV plc, has vied with the British Broadcasting Corporations BBC One for the status of the UKs most watched channel since the 1950s. The company was formed by a takeover by Granada plc of Carlton Communications. Granada acquired a 68% controlling interest of the newly formed company whilst Carlton retained the 32% remaining shares and it began trading on 2 February 2004. This was the most recent stage in a process of mergers between the original ITV regional franchises. It acquired the remaining 25% of the Breakfast franchise holder, GMTV, from The Walt Disney Company in 2009, on 19 October 2015, ITV announced it would buy UTV for £100 million, with ownership transferring to ITV on 29 February 2016. ITV plc is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index, the first wave of mergers began with Yorkshire Television acquiring Tyne Tees Television in 1992, forming a parent group called Yorkshire-Tyne Tees Television Holdings. Later that year, Granada acquired London Weekend Television through a hostile takeover worth in the region of £750 million, MAI, which controlled Meridian Broadcasting, acquired Anglia Television, MAI became United News & Media after merging with United Newspapers – owners of The Daily Express in 1996.
The idiosyncrasies and business model of the future ITV plc operation can be found in the way these new conglomerates operated their franchises, Carlton re-branded all of its stations with its own name, creating a single identity across the whole expanse of its territory. By contrast and United, while keeping the names, centralised their continuity departments – Granada in Leeds. All three, merged the network operations of their franchises, creating Carlton Productions, Granada Content. By the end of the 1990s, there were three dominating owners of the ITV franchises in England and Wales, Carlton Communications, Granada plc and United News and Media. It kept the production arm of HTV, renaming it Granada Bristol and moving it out of Bath Road to a new and this arm of the company closed in 2006, following rationalisation of ITVs production operations. In 2004, Granada and Carlton merged, creating a company for all ITV franchises in England. One of the consequences of the merger was an over-capacity of studio facilities and production units around the country, which had previously been rivals, in order to make cost savings, several large regional headquarters, studio sites and programme departments closed and merged.
Among the casualties were network production and studio facilities of Tyne Tees in Newcastle upon Tyne, Meridian in Southampton, Carlton Central in Nottingham and Anglia in Norwich. In all cases, ITV moved the regional franchisee to a new complete with hi-tech facilities for news production, but with a minimal number of studios. They owned the digital channel ITV2, which had launched on December 1998, as well as consolidating its shareholding in ITN itself, the newly merged company was able to buy the final 35% stake in the ITV News Channel from ITNs original partners NTL in April 2004. A year they launched ITV4, on 27 April 2005, ITV plc bought SDN, the digital terrestrial franchise holder of Multiplex A from its shareholders, S4C and UBM for £134 million
Forte Group plc was a British hotel and restaurant company. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE100 Index until it was acquired by Granada plc and its head office was in the London Borough of Camden. Charles Forte was a British/Italian caterer and hotelier who founded the leisure, charles Forte set up his first milk bar on Regent Street in London in 1935 as Strand Milk Bar Ltd when he was 26. Soon he began expanding into catering and hotel businesses, after the Second World War, his company became Forte Holdings Ltd, and bought The Café Royal in 1954. Forte was a caterer at the Festival of Britain sites in 1951 and operated the restaurants and bars at London Airport. Forte opened the first full service station for cars at Newport Pagnell in 1960. Trust Houses Group Ltd and Forte Holdings merged in 1970 to become Trust Houses Forte or THF, the name was simplified to Trusthouse Forte in 1979. Through mergers and expansion, the Forte Group expanded into a multibillion-pound business, happy Eater and the five Welcome Break service areas were bought from Hanson Trust on 1 August 1986.
Forte was the CEO from 1971 and Chairman from 1982, in the early 1990s, the company was rebranded as Forte and the crown logo was adopted at the same time. This rebranding heralded the introduction of sub brand groups for almost all the hotels, lord Forte passed full control to Rocco in 1993, but soon the Forte Group was faced with a hostile takeover bid from Granada. Ultimately, Granada succeeded with a £3.9 billion tender offer in January 1996, Rocco now owns the Rocco Forte Hotels group. Most of the hotels used the brands, Travelodge The Forte group acquired this US brand. These no frills hotels were mainly sited alongside the groups Little Chef roadside cafes, the signage and general get up colour of Travelodges was navy blue. Forte Posthouse Hotels were mostly three-star hotels for business travellers and they were usually located in city centres or near major trunk roads. Some of these were sold to Holiday Inn, the signage and general get up colour of Posthouses was red. Forte Heritage Hotels ranged from country house style hotels, e. g.
Some of these were sold to Macdonald Hotels, others are now operated by Mercure Hotels, the signage and general get up colour of Forte Heritage hotels was dark green. Forte Crest Hotels were more upmarket business hotels than Forte Posthouse and they were mostly located in cities and were mostly four-star
The Independent is a British online newspaper. The printed edition of the paper ceased in March 2016, nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet newspaper, but changed to tabloid format in 2003. Until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as free from party political bias and it tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues. The daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had a daily circulation of just below 58,000,85 per cent down from its 1990 peak. On 12 February 2016, it was announced that The Independent, the last print edition of The Independent on Sunday was published on 20 March 2016, with the main paper ceasing print publication the following Saturday. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format and it was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds.
All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwells ownership, marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, and Whittam Smith took control of the paper. The paper was created at a time of a change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and ultimately defeated them in the Wapping dispute, production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdochs move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside, the Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his companys new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan It is, and challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years. Some aspects of production merged with the paper, although the Sunday paper retained a largely distinct editorial staff. It featured spoofs of the other papers mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, a number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony OReillys media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994, in March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into OReillys Independent News & Media, MGN, and Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, and in March 1998, OReilly bought the other 54% of the company for £30 million, brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, and Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book, My Trade