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Charles Ammi Cutter

Charles Ammi Cutter was an American librarian. In The 1850s and 1860s he helped the re-cataloging of the Harvard College Library, producing the America's first public card catalog; the card system proved more flexible for librarians and far more useful to patrons than the old method of entering titles in chronological order in large books. In 1868 he joined the Boston Athenaeum. Cutter promoted centralized cataloging of books, which became the standard practice at the Library of Congress, he was elected to leadership positions in numerous library organizations at the local and national level. Cutter is remembered for the Cutter Expansive Classification, his system of giving standardized classification numbers to each book, arranging them on shelves by that number so that books on similar topics would be shelved together. Cutter was born in Massachusetts, his aunt was an employee of the regional library in Boston. In 1856 Cutter was enrolled into Harvard Divinity School, he was appointed assistant librarian of the divinity school while still a student there and served in that capacity from 1857 to 1859.

During that time, Cutter began designing a distinct cataloging schema for the library's outdated system. The catalog, dating from 1840, had a lack of order after the acquisition of 4,000 volumes from the collection of Professor Gottfried Christian Friedrich Lücke of University of Göttingen, which added much depth to the Divinity School Library's collection. During the 1857-58 school year, Cutter rearranged the library collection on the shelves into broad subject categories along with classmate Charles Noyes Forbes. During the winter break of 1858-59, they arranged the collection into a single listing alphabetically by author; this project was finished by the time Cutter graduated in 1859. By 1860 Cutter was a seasoned staff member of the library and a full-time librarian, he became a journeyman to assistant librarian to Dr. Ezra Abbot. At Harvard College Cutter developed a new form of index catalog, using cards instead of published volumes, containing both an author index and a "classed catalog" or a rudimentary form of subject index.

In 1868 the Boston Athenæum library elected Cutter as its head librarian. His first assignment was to organize and aggregate the inventory of the library and develop a catalog from that and to publish a complete dictionary catalog for their collection; the previous librarian and assistants had been working on this, but much of the work was sub par and, according to Cutter, needed to be redone. This did not sit well with the trustees. However, the catalog was published in five volumes known as the Athenæum Catalogue. Cutter was the librarian at the Boston Athenaeum for twenty-five years. In 1876, Cutter was hired by the United States Bureau of Education to help write a report about the state of libraries for the Centennial. Part two of this report was his Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue; this catalog was included in the organization's publication Public Libraries in the United States of America: Their History and Management. Cutter implemented many ideologies familiar to contemporary librarians during his time at the Athenaeum.

Cutter introduced characteristic structures and philosophies such as inter-library loan and furnishing every book with a pouch in the rear to encase a card in order to keep track of the item's circulating status. Cutter served as editor of the Library Journal from 1891 to 1893. Of the many articles he wrote during this time, one of the most famous was an article called “The Buffalo Public Library in 1983”. In it, he wrote, he spent a lot of time discussing practicalities, such as how the library arranged adequate lighting and controlled moisture in the air to preserve the books. In 1880 Cutter introduced an avant-garde and divergent system of cataloging he termed the Cutter Expansive Classification; this system incorporated seven levels of classification with the most basic libraries operating at the first level and the grandest, most distinguished institutions utilizing the seventh level, it was Cutter's aspiration to orchestrate a classification system for every type of library. The classification system utilized an alpha-numeric methodology used to abbreviate authors' names and generate unique call numbers known as.

These are still used today in libraries. It was this classification which laid the foundation for the Library of Congress Subject Headings and the Sear's List of subject Headings; when Cutter began to delegate a new system for the library he chose the Dewey Decimal Classification, however determined it was more beneficial to assign a more distinct adaptation for the collection. Though Cutter's Expansive Classification was recognized as a significant contribution to libraries and to the burgeoning field of library science, Cutter himself did not champion its success nor did he anticipate future editions of his system. Cutter may have established that the Dewey system was not practical for his cataloging purposes and indeed Dewey and he experienced tensions with one another while constituting the American Library Association of which they were two of the 100 founding members in 1876 he was regarded as an accomplished and sophisticated librarian and cataloger. Cutter was commissioned on at least one occasion to propose an architectural conception for the University of Toronto Library, consumed by a massive conflagration.

In response to the library's requests, Cutter admonished, "Yes, it is of little use to have a fire proof stack if the

Salsomaggiore Terme

Salsomaggiore Terme is a town and comune in northern Italy. It is located in the province of Parma, in the Emilia-Romagna region, located at the foot of the Apennines, it is a popular Spa town. The water is saline. Due to its sodium content, the mineral water of Salsomaggiore belongs to the group of salty waters, a bromo-iodine-salt variety. A hypertonic and cold water extracted from artesian wells, 800 to 1,200 metres deep, at a temperature of 16 °C and at a density of 16° on the Baumé scale; the main focus of the town lies in its baths, notably in the "terme" situated in the centre of the town. Since 2007 Salsomaggiore is home of a European Festival called Incontrarsi a Salsomaggiore, a celebration of art and theater dedicated to women and their health. Notable attractions of this town are the central piazza with its clothing shops, the main centre of the town with a gelateria, renowned throughout the area and the countryside surrounding this valley town; the town is characterized by its parks and the large number of villas and hotels some of whom used during important events such Miss Italia of which the town was an important host until 2010.

The two villages nearby and Tabiano, have their own baths. Salsomaggiore Terme is a World Trade Center. During the reign of Marie Louise as Duchess of Parma that Salsomaggiore started to be recognized as a spa attraction for therapeutic purposes. Salsomaggiore became one of the most famous and celebrated watering places in Europe. Dina Barberini, soprano Bargone, Ceriati, Contignaco-Cella, Costamarenga, Gorzano, I Passeri, Longone-Colombaia, Pie' di Via, Pieve di Cusignano, Salsominore, San Vittore, Scipione Castello, Scipione Ponte, Tabiano Bagni, Tabiano Castello, Vascelli. Luxeuil-les-Bains, France Hammam-Lif, Tunisia Yalta, Ukraine This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Salsomaggiore". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 87. Official tourism website Official Cultural Festival

Greek coinage of Italy and Sicily

Greek coinage of Italy and Sicily originated from local Italiotes and Siceliotes who formed numerous city states. These Hellenistic communities descended from Greek migrants. Southern Italy was so hellenized that it was known as the Magna Graecia; each of the polities struck their own coinage. Taras was among the most prominent city states. By the second century BC some of these Greek coinages evolved under Roman rule, can be classified as the first Roman provincial currencies. A common theme in the Italiote coinage was to include portraits of gods or other mythological figures; some featured other symbols. For instance, the coins of Sybaris portrayed goddess Minerva. Inhabitants of Kroton adorned their coinage with images of Hercules; the city of Posidonia had received its name from Greek god Poseidon whose portrait they struck in their coinage. The city was founded by Sybarite colonists, observes of Posidonian coinage included a symbol of their parent city, the bull. Taras, the most prosperous city state, struck coinage with seahorses.

The winged seahorse refers to Poseidon. A certain unusual coin from Neapolis portrayed a bull with a human face. One theory for its origin is; the city of Gelas in Sicily was founded by Rhodian settlers. It was known as Lindii after their home town Lindos, but the city was renamed after the river Gelas, they struck coinage with depictions of the local river god. Some tyrants in Magna Graecia advertised their victories in the Olympic Games by striking coinage that referred to these specific achievements. Style of figures in coins can be compared to pottery from the region; this gives clues about. Furthermore, ages of the cities such Sybaris are well known; the weights of silver coinage were inherited from Corinthian merchants. Commercial ties between Corinth and Taras were tight-knit; this brought the Persian weight standard for gold coinage to Magna Graecia. Phocaean standard had been in use in the region. Aeginetic standard appeared and was used, it had been brought to southern Italy by Chalcidian settlers.

Cities in the region adopted the Attic standard. Sicilian talent was used for gold rather than a heavier talent used in mainland Greece; the region of Magna Graecia included Greek cities such as Cumae, Kaulonia, Lokroi, Metapontum, Taras and Rhegion. The cities of Taras, Metapontum and Kroton were founded between c. 750 BC – c. 650 BC, it is that they brought their knowledge of invented minting straight from their home cities. Coins of Taras from the 4th century BC picture a mounted cavalryman equipped with a shield. At that time no other Greek military equipped cavalry with shields, it can be deduced that the influence of Taras may have been responsible for the spread of shielded cavalry to other Greek polities. Throughout the Greek world it was common that weight standards of Hellenistic coinage decreased in weight over time. One explanation is that, as worn money circulated back to the issuing state, the worn coins were recoined. More noticeable reductions in weight can be attributed to a single event.

During the Pyrrhic War coinage of Taras decreased in size noticeably, the war impacted coinage of certain other Greek polities in Italy. Silver coinage of Taras, Herakleia and Metapontum were 7.9 g in weight before the war, but decreased in weight and size to 6.6 g. Subsequent issue of Tarantine coins suffered from debasement of five percent; this downward evolution was affected by the financial strain caused by warfare for the Greek polities. For instance, countering the expansion of Rome caused considerable pressure for the Italiote city states. Naxos was the oldest Greek city on the island. Chalcidean settlers founded the city in 735 BC, it was the first city on the island to issue coinage. The city grew rich from producing wine, it honoured the god Dionysos on their first coinage. Satyrs were another common theme on their coinage. Katana, founded in 730 BC by colonists moving out of the city of Naxos, was known for its masterful engravers whose work resulted in fine coinage. Dionysios I, tyrant of Syracuse, destroyed the city of Naxos in 403 BC.

Survivors from Naxos founded the city of Tauromenion in 358 BC. Himera and Zancle were two other early issuers of coinage on the island of Sicily, they were founded by Chalcidean settlers. Nacona was a small Greek town in Sicily the existence of which, at an unknown location, is confirmed by coins bearing the legend "NAKONAION", or "ΝΑΚΩΝΑΙΩΝ”. During the 4th century BC coinage became scarce. Punic coins and Corinthian staters were the principal currencies in circulation. Carthaginian expansion in Sicily caused this disruption of the local monetary system. However, native Sicilian coinage lost more ground during the 3rd century BC and disappeared; the Second Punic War was the cause of this latter disruption. Only bronze coins were struck; the Second Punic War had similar effects in the Southern Italy. In the 6th century BC Syracuse began minting their own coinage, they used Attic-Euboic weight standard, it was adopted by the other polities of Sicily. In the 5th century a strong government and militarized society ruled by tyrants left behind abundant coinage.

By 210 BC Rome was controlling all of the Greek cities in the region. At the beginning of the next century a clear Roman influence on the Greek coinage can be noticed. Both iconography and style of the coins had changed. Greek coinage from this period can be classified as the first instanc

Adrianus Bleijs

Adrianus Cyriacus Bleijs known as A. C. Bleijs or, incorrectly, as A. C. Bleys, was a Dutch architect and painter, known for designing several Catholic churches. Bleijs was born in Hoorn as the son of a master carpenter. Bleijs was trained in architectural skills by architect B. Blanken and engineer H. Linse. In November 1859 he moved to Roermond to join P. J. H. Cuypers’ firm. After a conflict with Cuypers in 1861, for which he refused to apologize, he was forced to leave Cuypers’ firm and went to Antwerp to pursue his further education at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, where in 1862 he was the first winner of the Premier Prix d'Excellence for architecture and where he graduated in 1864. After graduation he returned to Hoorn and started his own office, which in 1880 he moved to Amsterdam. For a Catholic architect of that period, Bleijs was unusually eclectic, he did not limit himself to the dominant neo-Gothic style but designed several churches in neo-Romanesque and neo-Renaissance style as well, despite the latter style being controversial in Catholic circles for its Protestant character.

Besides fourteen churches he designed, among other things, two Amsterdam hospitals. His best known work is the St. Nicolas Church in Amsterdam. Among his students were such notable architects as Willem Kromhout and Jan Stuyt. After ca. 1900 no further assignments came, in 1903 Bleijs closed his office and became a civil servant in's-Hertogenbosch. He died in Kerkdriel and after a funeral mass at the St. Nicholas Church in Amsterdam he was buried at the Catholic cemetery De Liefde

Urmila Pawar

Urmila Pawar is an Indian writer and activist. She is a prominent figure in the dalit and feminist movements in India and her works, all of which are written in Marathi language, have been hailed as a critique of social discrimination and the savarna exploitation by commentators and media outlets. Pawar's short stories including "Kavach" and "A Childhood Tale" are read and form the part of the curriculum at various Indian universities, her documentation with Meenakshi Moon on the participation of dalit women was a major contribution to the construction of dalit history from a feminist perspective in India. Pawar's autobiography Aidan, one of the first of its kind account by a dalit woman, won her acclaim and numerous accolades; the book was translated into English by Wandana Sonalkar and released under the title The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Woman’s Memoirs. Pawar was born in 1945 in Adgaon village of Ratnagiri district in the Konkan district of Bombay Presidency; when she was 12 years old and her family converted to Buddhism along with other members of their community after B. R. Ambedkar called for people from the Dalit community to renounce Hinduism.

Pawar was acutely aware of her caste identity as a child because of the repeated instances of discrimination and humiliation she faced in her school and other places. She talks about an incident in school where her classmates invited her for a potluck lunch but told her not to bring any food. Post-lunch, she found herself as a topic of gossip for having eaten too much food, she narrates an incident where her English teacher humiliated her for her poor English. She has described how her community lived in the centre of the village, unlike Dalit communities elsewhere in the Presidency that were expected to live at the periphery, her father was a teacher in a school for untouchable children. She has noted that her father neither participated in the Mahad Satyagraha organised by Ambedkar nor inter-dining arranged by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, although her elder sister, Shantiakka missed school to attend the inter-dining lured by sweet delicacies served there. Pawar has a Master of Arts in Marathi literature.

She retired as an employee of the Public Works Department of the state of Maharashtra. Aaidan her autobiography written in Marathi has been translated into English and titled as The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Woman’s Memoirs. In her foreword to the English translation, Wandana Sonalkar writes that the title of the book The Weave is a metaphor of the writing technique employed by Pawar, "the lives of different members of her family, her husband's family, her neighbours and classmates, are woven together in a narrative that reveals different aspects of the everyday life of Dalits, the manifold ways in which caste asserts itself and grinds them down" Pawar won the Laxmibai Tilak award for the best published autobiography given by the Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad, Pune for Aaidan. Pawar rejected the award. In a letter to the Parishad, she explained that the intent to start the programme with a prayer to goddess Saraswati indicated an attempt to project symbols and metaphors of a single religion.

She questioned. Pawar was awarded the Matoshree Bhimabai Ambedkar Award by the Sambodhi Pratishthan in 2004 for her work in the fields of literature and activism

9921 Rubincam

9921 Rubincam, provisional designation 1981 EO18, is a stony asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt 4 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 2 March 1981, by American astronomer Schelte Bus at the Siding Spring Observatory in Australia, named after American geophysicist David Rubincam. Rubincam is a stony S-type asteroid that orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.2–2.5 AU once every 3 years and 8 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 2 ° with respect to the ecliptic. A first precovery was taken at Palomar Observatory in 1953, extending the body's observation arc by 28 years prior to its official discovery at Siding Spring. In February 2010, two rotational lightcurves of Rubincam were obtained from photometric observations at the Palomar Transient Factory in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 8.01 and 8.014 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.33 and 0.31 in magnitude, respectively. According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Rubincam measures 4.250 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.204, while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 4.1 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 14.3.

This minor planet was named after David Rubincam, an American solid-earth geophysicist and planetary geodynamicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. He was the first to study the influence of the radiation recoil effects on an asteroid's rotation period and spin axis, which he named the Yarkovsky–O'Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack effect or YORP effect for short; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 28 September 2015. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 9921 Rubincam at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 9921 Rubincam at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters