Sweden at the 1920 Summer Olympics
Sweden competed at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. 260 competitors, 247 men and 13 women, took part in 100 events in 18 sports. Twelve divers, eight men and four women, represented Sweden in 1920, it was the nation's third appearance in the sport. Four of the eight men took a medal each, the group added three fourth-place finishes. Sweden's four plain high divers took the top four places in that event, with Adlerz adding a silver in the platform. On the women's side, Olliwier was the only diver to advance to the final. MenRanks given are within the semifinal group. WomenRanks given are within the semifinal group. Thirteen swimmers, nine men and four women, represented Sweden in 1920, it was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. The breaststroke was Sweden's strength, with all five men's individual finals appearances made by three swimmers in those two events. Malmrot and Henning finished first and second in both events. Malmrot posted a new Olympic record in the 200 metre event.
The men's relay advanced to the finals, placing fourth. The women's relay team added a fifth medal just by showing up—only three teams competed; the Swedish women took bronze. Gylling advanced to each of the women's individual event finals, placing sixth in both. Ranks given are within the heat. MenWomen Sweden competed in the Olympic water polo tournament for the third time in 1920, having won a bronze and a silver medal previously. A modified version of the Bergvall System was in use at the time. Sweden had little trouble with its first two matches, against Czechoslovakia and Brazil, but fell to Belgium in the semifinals. Belgium's eventual taking of the silver medal let Sweden contest the bronze medal. In the third-place tournament, they defeated first the Netherlands and the United States to take the bronze medal. Round of 16QuarterfinalsSemifinalsBronze medal semifinalsBronze medal matchFinal rank Bronze 63 athletes represented Sweden in 1920, it was the nation's fifth appearance in athletics, a sport in which Sweden had competed each time the nation appeared at the Olympics.
Sweden had success in a variety of events. Petersson took the country's only gold medal of the Games in the long jump; the team finished with three silver and ten bronze medals, enough to put Sweden in fifth place on the athletics medals leader board despite gathering the fewest gold medals since 1900. Ranks given are within the heat. Four cyclists represented Sweden in 1920, it was the nation's third appearance in the sport. The Swedes competed only in the road time trial events, with Stenqvist posting the best time of all cyclists to take the gold medal; the combined team of the four Swedish cyclists was good for a silver medal. Twenty-two equestrians represented Sweden in 1920, it was the nation's second appearance in the sport. Sweden took four of the seven gold medals, finished with a total of nine medals; the five dressage competitors took the top five places in the individual competition, though Boltenstern was disqualified and thus the Swedes held only the top four places. It was the second straight time.
The eventers took the top two individual places, as well as the gold medal in the team event. The individual jumpers' best result was a bronze medal, while a separate group of riders took the gold in the team event; the vaulters had the most difficulty, coming in at the bottom four spots if finishing at all, though still receiving the bronze in the team event because only three nations entered. Eight fencers represented Sweden in 1920, it was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. Lindblom was the only individual fencer to advance to a final; the épée was the only team event. Ranks given are within the group. Sweden competed in the Olympic football tournament for the third time, its first match was an easy 9–0 win over Greece. The second match featured nine goals, but Sweden scored only four of them to lose in extra time. Sweden lost in the first round of the consolation tournament. First round Quarterfinals Consolation first round Final rank 8th Twenty-four gymnasts represented Sweden in 1920.
It was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. Sweden entered a team in the Swedish system competition, defeating Denmark and Belgium to win the gold medal. No Swedish gymnasts competed in the individual event, nor did Sweden enter teams in the other two team events. Sweden competed in the inaugural Olympic ice hockey tournament; the team was unfortunate in the use of the Bergvall System, which caused the Swedes to have to play six games in seven days and resulted in a fourth-place finish for a team which would have taken the silver medal in a straight single-elimination tournament. Sweden started well, beating Belgium and France by a combined score of 12–0. In the final, the team faced a dominant Canadian side and fell 12–1. In the silver medal semifinals, Sweden was again defeated, this time by the United States who went on to win the silver medal and give Sweden a chance at the bronze; the Swedes got their third win in the bronze medal semifinals, beating Switzerland. The bronze medal match pitted Sweden against the only team the Swedes had not yet played in the 1920 Olympic tournament.
QuarterfinalsSemifinalsFinalSilver medal semifinalsBronze medal semifinalsBronze medal matchFinal rank 4th Four pentathletes represented Sweden in 1920. It was the nation's second appearance in the sport, having competed at both instances of t
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
Georg von Braun
Georg Gustaf Wilhelm von Braun was a Swedish horse rider who competed in the 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics. In 1920 he and his horse Diana finished eighth in the individual eventing competition and won a gold medal with the Swedish eventing team. Four years he finished 19th in the individual jumping and was a non-scoring member of the gold medal winning Swedish team. Von Braun began his military training in 1904, after 1906 served with the Gotland Artillery Corps. In 1920–21 he worked as a Honorary Attaché at the Swedish Embassy in London. In 1930, being a captain, he was transferred to Karlsborg’s Artillery Regiment, in 1933 to the Göta Artillery Regiment, he was a major then. In 1942 he joined Stockholm’s Air Defense Reserve Regiment and retired as a colonel in 1950, his son Detlow von Braun became an Olympic sailor
Helmer Fredrik Gustafsson Mörner known as Graf Helmer Morner, was a Swedish horse rider, who won individual and team gold medals in eventing at the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1914 Mörner enlisted to the Wendish Artillery Regiment or A3 in Kristianstad, served there until 1947 when he became professor at the Uppsala University, he left no descendants after his death. Mörner was preparing for the 1920 Olympics with a Russian horse, but it had to be replaced in the last moment due to a leg injury; the substitute horse was known as Germania, but it was renamed to Geria to avoid bringing up the name of Germany at the first Games after World War I. profile
Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding; the competition may be run as a one-day event, where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event, more now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was known as Combined Training, the name persists in many smaller organizations; the term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most dressage and show jumping. Eventing is an equestrian triathlon, in that it combines three different disciplines in one competition set out over one, two, or three days, depending on the length of courses and number of entries.
This sport follows a similar format in Australia, Ireland, United Kingdom and the United States The dressage phase consists of an exact sequence of movements ridden in an enclosed arena. The test is judged by one or more judges, who are looking for balance, rhythm and most the cooperation between the horse and rider; the challenge is to demonstrate that a supremely fit horse, capable of completing the cross-country phase on time has the training to perform in a graceful and precise manner. Dressage work is the basis of all the other phases and disciplines within the sport of eventing because it develops the strength and balance that allow a horse to go cross-country and show jump competently. At the highest level of competition, the dressage test is equivalent to the United States Dressage Federation Third Level and may ask for half-pass at trot, shoulder-in, collected and extended gaits, single flying changes, counter-canter; the tests may not ask for Grand Prix movements such as canter pirouette, or passage.
Each movement in the test is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, with a score of "10" being the highest possible mark and with the total maximum score for the test varying depending on the level of competition and the number of movements. A score of 10 is rare. Therefore, if one movement is poorly executed, it is still possible for the rider to get a good overall score if the remaining movements are well executed; the marks are added together and any errors of course deducted. To convert this score to penalty points, the average marks of all judges are converted to a percentage of the maximum possible score, subtracted from 100 and the multiplied by a co-efficient decided by the governing body. Canadian example: 77 percent becomes 34.5 penalty points or x 1.5 = 34.5 Once the bell rings the rider is allowed 45 seconds to enter the ring or receive a two-point penalty an additional 45 seconds, for a total of 90 seconds, or is eliminated. If all four feet of the horse exit the arena during the test, this results in elimination.
If the horse resists more than 20 seconds during the test, this results in elimination. If the rider falls, this results in elimination. Errors on course: 1st: minus 2 marks 2nd: minus 4 marks 3rd: elimination The next phase, cross-country, requires both horse and rider to be in excellent physical shape and to be brave and trusting of each other; this phase consists of 12–20 fences, or 30–40 at the higher levels, placed on a long outdoor circuit. These fences consist of solidly built natural objects as well as various obstacles such as ponds and streams, ditches and banks, combinations including several jumping efforts based on objects that would occur in the countryside. Sometimes at higher levels, fences are designed that would not occur in nature. However, these are still designed to be as solid as more natural obstacles. Safety regulations mean that some obstacles are now being built with a "frangible pin system", allowing part or all of the jump to collapse if hit with enough impact. Speed is a factor, with the rider required to cross the finish line within a certain time frame.
Crossing the finish line after the optimum time results in penalties for each second over. At lower levels, there is a speed fault time, where penalties are incurred for horse and rider pairs completing the course too quickly. For every "disobedience" a horse and rider incur on course, penalties will be added to their dressage score. After four disobediences altogether or three disobediences at one fence the pair is eliminated, meaning they can no longer participate in the competition. A horse and rider pair can be eliminated for going off course, for example missing a fence. If the horses shoulder and hind-quarter touch the ground, mandatory retirement is taken and they are not allowed to participate further in the competition. If the rider falls off the horse they are eliminated. However, in the US this rule is being revised for the Novice level and below; the penalties for disobediences on cross-country are weighted relative to the other phases of competition to emphasize the importance of courage and athleticism.
Fitness is required as the time allowed will require a strong canter at the lower levels, all the way to a strong gallop at the higher events. In recent years, a controversy has developed between supporters of sho
Charles Pahud de Mortanges
Charles Ferdinand Pahud de Mortanges was a Dutch horse rider who competed at the 1924, 1928, 1932 and 1936 Olympics and was the flag bearer for the Netherlands in 1932. He is only one of two equestrians to win two consecutive Olympic titles in the individual three-day event. Besides his riding achievements, de Mortanges was president or vice president of the National Olympic Committee and a member of the International Olympic Committee, he was a top commanding officer of the Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade in 1944–1945 and a senior army official overseeing the official ceremonies involving the Dutch Royal Family. De Mortanges was the son of Sophia Kol from the family of Bank Vlaer & Kol financiers and Charles Ferdinand Pahud de Mortanges, a military officer overseeing the Dutch colonies, he and his elder sister were raised by their mother, after their father died in 1903. From early ages, de Mortanges was fascinated with horse riding and military, in 1915 was accepted to the Royal Military Academy.
After graduating with honors on 12 August 1918 he was assigned to The Hague regimen, where in 1919 he became a horse riding instructor. In 1922 he was noticed by K. F. Quarles van Ufford. Van Ufford became his mentor and enlisted him to the riding school of the Dutch cavalry in Amersfoort, where de Mortanges worked as instructor between July 1925 and October 1927. In 1924 he was selected for the national Olympic team. In 1924 de Mortanges won the gold medal in the team three-day event and placed fourth in the individual three-day event. Four years he won the gold medals in the team three-day event as well as in the individual three-day event. In 1932 he won again the gold medal in the individual three-day event and the silver medal in the team three-day event. At the 1936 Summer Olympics he finished out of medals at team three-day events. Besides the Olympics, between 1924 and 1936 de Mortanges took part in various international competitions and acted as a riding instructor with the Dutch cavalry.
In 1938 he injured his right wrist in a riding accident, which halted his military and riding career. In 1942 he became a German prisoner of war, he escaped in Summer 1943 during a train transfer, after traveling through the occupied Belgium and France to Gibraltar, in February 1944 was flown to England. The same year, upon advice of his admirer Prince Bernhard, de Mortanges became a leading officer of the Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade and participated in the Normandy landings and liberation of the Netherlands. After the war de Mortanges returned to sport events. On 6 July 1946 he became president of the Dutch Olympic Committee, remained in this position until 7 April 1961, with a break between 1951 and 1958 when he acted as a vice-president, he was a member of the International Olympic Committee between 4 September 1946 and 7 October 1964. In parallel, upon recommendation of Prince Bernhard, he acted as Inspector General of the Royal Army. In 1953 after promotion to brigadier general he became vice-head and head of the Royal Military House, where he was responsible for the organization of ceremonies involving the Dutch Royal Family until his retirement in December 1961.
During his late years de Mortanges suffered from rheumatism and became confined to a wheelchair. He died in 1971 at the Leiden University Hospital. On 16 December 1920 de Mortanges married, they had one son, executed by the German military after a failed attempt to cross the Franco-Swiss border in 1942. After a divorce on 4 July 1949, on 23 July 1949 de Mortanges married Theresia Gijsbertha Bernardina Daamen. Evans, Hilary. "Charles Pahud de Mortanges". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. A. J. C. M. Gabriëls, "Pahud de Mortanges, Charles Ferdinand", in Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland
Paolo Angioni is an Italian former equestrian and Olympic champion. He competed in the mixed three-day eventing and team, at the 1964 and 1968 Olympics and won a team gold medal in 1964. In 1966, Angioni was crushed by his horse at a competition in Poland, he went into a coma, but continued to compete. In retirement he wrote several books on equestrian history and techniques. Paolo Angioni at the International Olympic Committee