United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Oswego, New York
Oswego is a city in Oswego County, New York, United States. The population was 18,142 at the 2010 census. Oswego is located on Lake Ontario in north-central New York and promotes itself as "The Port City of Central New York", it is the county seat of Oswego County. The city of Oswego is bordered by the towns of Oswego and Scriba to the west and east and by Lake Ontario to the north. Oswego Speedway is a nationally known automobile racing facility; the State University of New York at Oswego is located just outside the city on the lake. Oswego is the namesake for communities in Montana, Oregon and Kansas; the British established a trading post in the area in 1722 and fortified it with a log palisade called Fort Oswego, named after the native Iroquois place name "os-we-go" meaning "pouring out place". The first fortification on the site of the current Fort Ontario was built by the British in 1755 and called the "Fort of the Six Nations". Fort Ontario was destroyed by the French upon capturing it in the Battle of Fort Ontario, during the French and Indian War.
Construction of a second British fort began on the same site in 1759, but Fort Ontario was only used as a cannon emplacement. During the American Revolution, the British abandoned the Fort, in 1778, American troops destroyed it. In 1782, the British reoccupied Fort Ontario, didn't forfeit it to the U. S. until 1796, thirteen years after the cessation of hostilities in the Revolution. During the War of 1812, a weaker American garrison at Fort Ontario was overwhelmed by superior British forces in order to stem the flow of supplies from the interior of New York state, but were defeated near Oswego that month. Throughout the 19th Century, the U. S. military maintained a presence at Fort Ontario. During WWII the Fort was used to house interned persons Jewish refugees. In 1946, the Fort was transferred to the state of New York. At that time, it was used to their families during the post-war period. Development of the fort as a historic site began in 1949, which included the "Safe Haven Museum"; the current fort was built between 1839 and 1844.
Major masonry improvements to the forts outer wall were undertaken, but left incomplete when in 1872, Congress canceled its funding. By 1901, the old fort was abandoned. Today, Fort Ontario is being restored to its 1867–1872 appearance. Costumed interpreters recreate the lives of the officers and civilians who garrisoned the fort in 1868–1869. During the Second World War, the new fort was used as an emergency refugee shelter known as "Safe Haven". A refugee center for victims of the Nazi Holocaust, it was the only one of its kind in the United States. In 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the camp for victims of the the Holocaust; this was the only attempt by the United States government to shelter Jewish refugees during the war. 1,000 refugees were transferred to the fort from the Ferramonti di Tarsia, a concentration camp in Cosenza, Italy. The refugees came from 18 different European countries, they were placed in Fort Oswego, behind barbed wire, given no official status, having been required to sign papers accepting their eventual return to their home countries at the end of the war.
Due to political pressure, President Harry S. Truman allowed them to apply for citizenship. Oswego was incorporated as a village on March 14, 1828, the Oswego Canal, a branch of the Erie Canal, reached the area in 1829; the city was incorporated in 1848. When the city incorporated, its area and population were removed from the figures reported for the towns. In the 1850s, at the height of a popular water-cure movement occurring in the United States, in turn stimulating growth, Oswego was the home of the Oswego Water Cure establishment, which Stonewall Jackson visited in August 1850. Oswego is home to the Port of Oswego and once was a major railroad hub for several major railroads: the New York Central Railroad, the Delaware and Western Railroad, the New York and Western Railway railways. Both railways operated a coal trestle for fueling steamships at the Port of Oswego. Former NYC and DL&W passenger stations remain. Nothing remains of the O&W, abandoned in its entirety in 1957; the tunnel from the former O&W is used as a rail trail.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.2 square miles, of which, 7.7 square miles of it is land and 3.6 square miles of it is water. Oswego is located on the southeastern shore of Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Oswego River, about 35 miles north of Syracuse, New York and 69 miles east of Rochester, New York; the elevation is 298 feet above sea level. The nearest city is Fulton, located north of Syracuse; as Oswego is located on the eastern shore of Lake Ontario, in the center of the Snowbelt, the region sees prodigious lake effect snow accumulations. Oswego is one of the snowiest towns in America, with some winters totaling over 300 inches. In 2007, Oswego gained national attention when 130" of snow fell in a two-week timespan; this broke the record of the Blizzard of 1966. As a result of this storm, the school district closed all facilities for a week shifting the planned winter holiday. Oswego: the town of Oswego Minetto: the town of Minetto south of the city Scriba: the town of Scriba east of the city Southwest Oswego: a hamlet located west of the city Fruit Valley: a hamlet located west of the city New York State Route 481 runs north/south
Kingston is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, at the beginning of the St. Lawrence River and at the mouth of the Cataraqui River; the city is midway between Toronto and Montreal, Quebec. The Thousand Islands tourist region is nearby to the east. Kingston is nicknamed the "Limestone City" because of the many heritage buildings constructed using local limestone. Growing European exploration in the 17th century and the desire for the Europeans to establish a presence close to local Native occupants to control trade led to the founding of a French trading post and military fort at a site known as "Cataraqui" in 1673; this outpost, called Fort Cataraqui, Fort Frontenac, became a focus for settlement. Cataraqui would be renamed Kingston after the British took possession of the fort and Loyalists began settling the region in the 1780s. Kingston was named the first capital of the United Province of Canada on February 10, 1841. While its time as a capital city was short, the community has remained an important military installation.
Kingston was the county seat of Frontenac County until 1998. Kingston is now a separate municipality from the County of Frontenac. A number of origins of "Cataraqui", Kingston's original name, have been postulated. One is it is derived from the Iroquois word that means "the place where one hides"; the name may be derivations of Native words that mean "impregnable", "muddy river", "place of retreat", "clay bank rising out of the water", "where the rivers and lake meet", or "rocks standing in water". Cataraqui was referred to as "the King's Town" or "King's Town" by 1787 in honour of King George III; the name was shortened to "Kingston" in 1788. Cataraqui today refers to an area around the intersection of Princess Street and Sydenham Road, where a village which took that name was located. Cataraqui is the name of a municipal electoral district. Archaeological evidence suggests. Evidence of Late Woodland Period early Iroquois occupation exists; the first more permanent encampments by aboriginal people in the Kingston area began about 500 AD.
The group that first occupied the area before the arrival of the French was the Wyandot people, who were displaced by Iroquoian groups. At the time the French arrived in the Kingston area, Five Nations Iroquois had settled along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Although the area around the south end of the Cataraqui River was visited by Iroquois and other groups, Iroquois settlement at this location only began after the French established their outpost. By 1700, the north shore Iroquois had moved south, the area once occupied by the Iroquois became occupied by the Mississaugas who had moved south from the Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe regions. European commercial and military influence and activities centred on the fur trade developed and increased in North America in the 17th century. Fur trappers and traders were spreading out from their centres of operation in New France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited the Kingston area in 1615. To establish a presence on Lake Ontario for the purpose of controlling the fur trade with local indigenous people, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France established Fort Cataraqui to be called Fort Frontenac, at a location known as Cataraqui in 1673.
The fort served as a trading post and military base, attracted indigenous and European settlement. In 1674, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was appointed commandant of the fort. From this base, de La Salle explored south as far as the Gulf of Mexico; the fort was experienced periods of abandonment. The Iroquois siege of 1688 led to many deaths, after which the French destroyed the fort, but would rebuild it; the British destroyed the fort during the Battle of Fort Frontenac in 1758 and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was renamed Tête-de-Pont Barracks in 1787, it is still being used by the military. It was renamed Fort Frontenac in 1939. Reconstructed parts of the original fort can be seen today at the western end of the La Salle Causeway. In 1783, Frederick Haldimand, governor of the Province of Quebec directed Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins to lay out a settlement for displaced British colonists, or "Loyalists", who were fleeing north because of the American Revolutionary War and "minutely examine the situation and site of the Post occupied by the French, the land and country adjacent".
Haldimand had considered the site as a possible location to settle loyal Mohawks. The survey would determine whether Cataraqui was suitable as a navy base since nearby Carleton Island on which a British navy base was located had been ceded to the Americans after the war. Holland's report about the old French post mentioned "every part surpassed the favorable idea I had formed of it", that it had "advantageous Situations" and that "the harbour is in every respect Good and most conveniently situated to command Lake Ontario". Major John Ross, commanding officer of the King's Royal Regiment of New York at Oswego rebuilt Fort Frontenac in 1783; as commander, he played a significant role in establishing the Cataraqui settlement. To facilitate settlement, the British Crown entered into an agreement with the Mississaugas in October 1783 to purchase land east of the Bay of Quinte. Known as the Crawford Purchase, this agreement enabled se
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a recession, a slowdown in economic activity over the course of a normal business cycle. A depression is an extreme form of recession. Depressions are characterized by their length, by abnormally large increases in unemployment, falls in the availability of credit, shrinking output as buyers dry up and suppliers cut back on production and investment, large number of bankruptcies including sovereign debt defaults reduced amounts of trade and commerce, as well as volatile relative currency value fluctuations. Price deflation, financial crises and bank failures are common elements of a depression that do not occur during a recession. In the United States the National Bureau of Economic Research determines contractions and expansions in the business cycle, but does not declare depressions. Periods labeled depressions are marked by a substantial and sustained shortfall of the ability to purchase goods relative to the amount that could be produced using current resources and technology.
Another proposed definition of depression includes two general rules: a decline in real GDP exceeding 10%, or a recession lasting 2 or more years. There are differences in the duration of depression across definitions; some economists refer only to the period. The more common use, however encompasses the time until economic activity has returned close to normal levels. A recession is defined as a period of declining economic activity spread across the economy. Under the first definition, each depression will always coincide with a recession, since the difference between a depression and a recession is the severity of the fall in economic activity. In other words, each depression is always a recession, sharing the same starting and ending dates and having the same duration. Under the second definition and recessions will always be distinct events however, having the same starting dates; this definition of depression implies that a recession and a depression will have different ending dates and thus distinct durations.
Under this definition, the length of a depression will always be longer than that of the recession starting the same date. A useful example is the difference in the chronology of the Great Depression in the U. S. under the view of alternative definitions. Using the second definition of depression, most economists refer to the Great Depression, as the period between 1929 and 1941. On the other hand, using the first definition, the depression that started in August 1929 lasted until March 1933. Note that NBER, which publishes the recession dates for the U. S. economy, has identified two recessions during that period. The first between August 1929 and March 1933 and the second starting in May 1937 and ending in June 1938. Today the term "depression" is most associated with the Great Depression of the 1930s, but the term had been in use long before then. Indeed, an early major American economic crisis, the Panic of 1819, was described by then-president James Monroe as "a depression", the economic crisis preceding the 1930s depression, the Depression of 1920–21, was referred to as a "depression" by president Calvin Coolidge.
However, in the 19th and early 20th centuries, financial crises were traditionally referred to as "panics", e.g. the'major' Panic of 1907, the'minor' Panic of 1910–1911, though the 1929 crisis was more called "The Crash", the term "panic" has since fallen out of use. At the time of the Great Depression, the phrase "The Great Depression" had been used to refer to the period 1873–96, or more narrowly 1873–79, which has since been renamed the Long Depression. Common use of the phrase "The Great Depression" for the 1930s crisis is most attributed to British economist Lionel Robbins, whose 1934 book The Great Depression is credited with'formalizing' the phrase, though US president Herbert Hoover is credited with having'popularized' the term/phrase, informally referring to the downturn as a "depression", with such uses as "Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement", "I need not recount to you that the world is passing through a great depression". Give any country's households one-million dollars each, sixty years you will find gross inequality - consistently.
This is how successful capitalism is designed to work and monetary systems require governance or rebalancing as they mature (see Mature Capitalism, to ensure cost-of-living and incomes stay in balance as is needed to support a minimum Social Contract. In history, these cycles, their associated debt corrections, are recorded thirty-times; the Torah and Bible document them in circa 760 BCE, as does the Code of Hammurabi in 1763 BCE. Due to the lack of an agreed definition and the strong negative associations, the characterization of any period as a "depression" is contentious; the term was used for regional crises from the early 19th century until the 1930s, for the more widespread crises of the 1870s and 1930s, but economic crises since 1945 have been referred to as "recessions", with the 1970s global crisis referred to as "stagflation", but not a depression. The only two eras referred to at the current time as "depressions" are the 1870s and 1930s. To some degree this
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
John W. North
John Wesley North was a 19th-century pioneer American statesman of national reputation. He was the founder of the cities of Northfield and Riverside, where John W. North High School and the John W. North Water Treatment Plant are located and named after him, he received a Presidential appointment to Nevada's highest court, the predecessor of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada. North was born at Sand Lake, Rensselaer County, New York, January 4, 1815, his grandparents had come to New York from Connecticut shortly after the Revolutionary War. He started teaching school at the age of 15 and became a licensed lay preacher in 1833, he completed his post secondary education at Cazenovia Seminary in New York and attended Wesleyan University. He studied law and was admitted to the New York State Bar in 1845, his first wife was Emma Bacon. In 1848, he married Ann Hendrix Loomis, he moved to the Minnesota Territory in 1849. The first years in Minnesota were spent at St. Anthony. In the fall of 1850, North was elected a member of the second Minnesota Territorial Legislature of the territory.
He was defeated. He was one of the founders of the Republican Party of Minnesota in 1855. In 1857, he was a member of the Minnesota state Constitutional Convention. In 1860, he was a delegate to the Chicago Republican Convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency of the United States and was a member of the committee that went to Springfield to notify Lincoln of his nomination. In addition to his legislative career in Minnesota, North was influential in founding the University of Minnesota, wrote the act which became the University's charter and was treasurer of its board of regents from 1851–60. On August 17, 1855, North purchased 160 acres of land from three farmers: Daniel Kuykendahl, Daniel Turner, Herman Jenkins; the entire tract of 320 acres was platted in the fall of 1855, the plat of the Original Town, comprising most of what is now the First and Second wards and a small tract across the river south of the section line now marked by Fourth street, was filed in the office of the register of deeds March 7, 1856.
The town was named Minnesota. In the summer of 1855 North started work on the dam and a $4,000 saw mill which began sawing lumber about the first of December of that year. North’s wife, Ann Loomis North, three children aged four months to four years, joined him in Northfield in on January 3, 1856. A fourth child, son John Greenleaf North, was born that year; the North's had six children together. The Norths founded many of the early societies in Northfield. A college-bred man, John was keenly interested in the organization of the Lyceum Society, formed October 1, 1856, of which he was the first president. A number of the early Northfield settlers had known the Norths in Syracuse, New York, including Ann's brother and sister-in-law and Kate A. Loomis; when John North suffered financial failure in the Panic of 1857, his business interests were purchased in 1859 by his friend, Charles Augustus Wheaton, who had moved to Northfield from Syracuse on the advice of the Norths after the death of Wheaton's first wife.
The connection of John North with the community he founded lasted only about six years and he left well before the historical event that brought the most notoriety to the town—the infamous attempt by the James-Younger Gang to rob the First National Bank of Northfield in 1876. In 1861 President Abraham Lincoln appointed North to be the official surveyor of the new Territory of Nevada, North moved to Virginia City, Nevada; the territorial surveyor was a sensitive position in a mining region such as Nevada’s Comstock Lode, where the boundaries of mining claims were the constant subject of lawsuits. Lincoln may have counted on North to keep Nevada Territory loyal to the Union, to bring Nevada in as a Republican state, as he had Minnesota. North surveyed, invested in silver mining properties, began building an ore-treatment mill he named the Minnesota Mill, practiced law. In early 1863, when Justice Gordon Mott's resignation from the Supreme Court of Nevada Territory was a certainty, Judge Horatio M. Jones recommended North for the vacancy.
On August 20, 1863, President Lincoln granted North a temporary presidential appointment to Nevada's highest court, the predecessor of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada. North won praise both for his decisions and for removing the backlog of cases on his docket, he was elected president of the 1863 constitutional convention assigned to draft a proposed state constitution for Nevada. In both positions he clashed with William M. Stewart, a prominent lawyer with political ambitions and large mining companies as clients. North’s rulings supported the "many-ledge" interpretation of mining law on the Comstock Lode, which favored the smaller mining companies over the larger companies that were Stewart’s clients. Stewart accused North of accepting bribes from litigants. North denied the charge, Stewart was forced to publicly recant, but Stewart continued to attack North’s honesty, orchestrated a campaign against North in the Nevada newspapers allied with Stewart. Other newspapers supported North.
North resigned because of ill health after less than a year on the bench, but he sued Stewart for slander. North agreed to submit his suit to arbitration, after hearing both sides, the court declared that Stewart had indeed slandered North, that there was no evidence that North had engaged in corruption. North left the Territory for Cali
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria