Laurence Hope (artist)
Laurence Hope is an Australian artist from Sydney, best known for his Lover and Isolates paintings. Laurence Hope was raised in an artistic environment, his parents and Gertrude Hope, were practicing artists who met at Brisbane Technical College in the 1920s, his father ran a successful illustration and printing business and from early age Hope would undertake commercial artistic assignments for the family business. He had a stable early family life with his parents and older brother Norman, living first in Dee Why and moving to Seaforth during the depression years, his local primary school in Seaforth brought him into contact with a young Charles Blackman, with whom he was to form a close friendship many years later. Hope attended East Sydney Technical College and developed a mature style from an early age leading to success in a number of art awards, most notably the national Sun Youth Art Prize in 1940 for the painting Sydney Orchestra. In 1944 at the age of 17 Hope travelled to Brisbane.
Penniless, he spent a number of nights sleeping rough before meeting the poet Barrett Reid who took him to stay at his parents, this was the start of a lifelong friendship. A string of temporary jobs followed to help facilitate his art which remained concerned with depicting the dispossessed and vulnerable in society. Intellectually Hope aligned himself with the Barjai Group, a collection of writers and poets led by Barrett Reid, with members including Barbara Patterson and Charles Osborne. In 1945 along with Pamela Seeman and Laurence Collison, he formed the Miya Studios with the aim of providing exhibition space for young artists with common goals. Laurence Hope exhibited at their annual exhibition during the life of the Studios from 1945-49. During this time he became re-acquainted with Charles Blackman, the two travelled and lived together over a number of years. Blackman credited Hope with helping him adjust to life as an artist during this time. On a hitchhiking trip with Barrett Reid in 1947 he was introduced to John and Sunday Reed who were to become lifelong supporters of his art.
Though them Hope became acquainted with many of the influential avant-garde in the Melbourne art scene such as Joy Hester, Sidney Nolan, Arthur Boyd and John Perceval. In the late 40s and early 50s Hope travelled around Queensland working in a range of odd jobs and painting vivid jungle and figurative images. During this time he had a number of successful solo exhibitions in Brisbane at the Moreton Gallery and Johnstone Gallery. In 1953, he moved to Melbourne where he met Georges Mora and Mirka Mora and was adopted into their family becoming godfather to their second son William Mora, he appeared in a number of exhibitions at Mirka's studio, including a solo show in 1954. He helped re-establish the Contemporary Arts Society. During his time in Melbourne he met with a significant network of artists who matched his own ideas of true originality born of imagination, including Danila Vassilieff, John Percival, Arthur Boyd, Jean Langley and Robert Dickerson. By this time he had moved to painting with oil on board, rather than his earlier work which tended to be watercolour and gouache on paper.
This coincided with him focusing his energies on exploring the isolation and loneliness of the human condition, a subject he had explored since his teenage years and has continued to return to throughout his life. His ‘collective paintings of Lovers and Isolates depict the mood and temperament of individuals concealing more significant emotions’. Hope moved to England in 1963, after travelling across Europe. There he met up with expatriate friends – Charles Blackman, Barbara Blackman, John Perceval, Arthur Boyd and Barry Humphries. During that time he turned to acting, appearing in the Philippe Mora film Trouble in Melopolis alongside Germaine Greer. For the next five years Hope continued to travel across Europe and the Americas; these trips influenced his painting which became more ‘dramatic and colourful’, he began to paint on a larger scale ‘incorporating monuments and mythological creatures’ from Cambodia and Mayan civilisations. During this time he continued to have a number of major exhibitions including a retrospective at the Holdsworth Galleries in Sydney and the Commonwealth Art Gallery in London.
In 1977 his exhibition Opal the Rainbow Gem at the ICA in London featured photos of the gemstone taken through a microscope. In 1972 he had Danton, by his partner Marna Shapiro; this led to him painting an extensive collection of baby fantasy paintings reflecting this new period in his life. In 1989 he married his painting became more personalised and intimate. In 2002 Hope had a major retrospective exhibition at the Heide Museum of Modern Art in Melbourne touring to the Sir Hermann Black Gallery at the University of Sydney and the Customs House Gallery, University of Queensland. Laurence Hope is represented in a large number of public and private collections, including the National Gallery of Australia, National Gallery of Victoria, Art Gallery of South Australia, Queensland Art Gallery, Heide Museum of Modern Art and University Art Museum - University of Queensland. Http://artsearch.nga.gov.au/Detail.cfm? IRN=119641 http://artsearch.nga.gov.au/Detail.cfm? IRN=119642 http://www.abc.net.au/rn/arts/nclub/stories/s503656.htm
Helena Rubinstein was a Polish-American businesswoman, art collector, philanthropist. A cosmetics entrepreneur, was the founder and eponym of Helena Rubinstein Incorporated cosmetics company, which made her one of the world's richest women. Rubinstein was the eldest of eight daughters born to Polish Jews, Augusta – Gitte Shaindel Rubinstein née Silberfeld and Horace – Naftoli Hertz Rubinstein; the existentialist philosopher Martin Buber was her cousin. She was the cousin of Ruth Rappaport's mother. Diminutive at 4 ft. 10 in. Rubinstein emigrated from Poland with no money and little English, her stylish clothes and milky complexion did not pass unnoticed among the town's ladies and she soon found enthusiastic buyers for the jars of beauty cream in her luggage. She spotted a market. A key ingredient of the cream, was at hand. Coleraine, in the Western Victoria region, where her uncle was a shopkeeper, might have been an "awful place" but was home to some 75 million sheep that secreted abundant quantities of wool grease or wool wax, chemically known as lanolin.
These sheep were the wealth of the nation and the Western District's vast mobs of merinos produced the finest wool in the land. To disguise the lanolin's pungent odour, Rubinstein experimented with lavender, pine bark and water lilies. Rubinstein had a falling out with her uncle, but after a stint as a bush governess began waitressing at the Winter Garden tearooms in Melbourne. There, she found an admirer willing to stump up the funds to launch her Crème Valaze including herbs imported "from the Carpathian Mountains". Costing ten pence and selling for six shillings, it walked off the shelves as fast as she could pack it in pots. Known to her customers only as Helena, Rubinstein could soon afford to open a salon in fashionable Collins Street, selling glamour as a science to clients whose skin was "diagnosed" and a suitable treatment "prescribed". Sydney was next, within five years Australian operations were profitable enough to finance a Salon de Beauté Valaze in London; as such, Rubinstein formed one of the world's first cosmetic companies.
Her business enterprise proved immensely successful and in life, she used her enormous wealth to support charitable institutions in the fields of education and health. Rubinstein expanded her operation. In 1908, her sister Ceska assumed the Melbourne shop's operation, with $100,000, Rubinstein moved to London and began what was to become an international enterprise. In 1908, she married the Polish-born American journalist Edward William Titus in London, they had Roy Valentine Titus and Horace Titus. They moved to Paris where she opened a salon in 1912, her husband helped with writing the publicity and set up a small publishing house, published Lady Chatterley's Lover and hired Samuel Putnam to translate famous model Kiki's memoirs. Rubinstein threw lavish dinner parties and became known for apocryphal quips, such as when an intoxicated French ambassador expressed vitriol toward Edith Sitwell and her brother Sacheverell: "Vos ancêtres ont brûlé Jeanne d'Arc!" Rubinstein, who knew little French, asked a guest.
"He said,'Your ancestors burned Joan of Arc.'" Rubinstein replied, "Well, someone had to do it."At another fête, Marcel Proust asked her what makeup a duchess might wear. She summarily dismissed him because "he smelt of mothballs." Rubinstein recollected "How was I to know he was going to be famous?" At the outbreak of World War I, she and Titus moved to New York City, where she opened a cosmetics salon in 1915, the forerunner of a chain throughout the country. Helena opened up the boundless American market, she skillfully used it, despite the serious competitors and the face of Elizabeth Arden and Charles Revson; this was the beginning of her vicious rivalry with the other great lady of the cosmetics industry, Elizabeth Arden. Both Rubinstein and Arden, who died within 18 months of each other, were social climbers, and they were both keenly aware of effective marketing and luxurious packaging, the attraction of beauticians in neat uniforms, the value of celebrity endorsements, the perceived value of overpricing and the promotion of the pseudoscience of skincare.
By the way, the rivalry with Arden lasted all his life, they were too similar and went towards the same goals the same way. Rubinstein said of her rival, "With her packaging and my product, we could have ruled the world." From 1917, Rubinstein took on the manufacturing and wholesale distribution of her products. The "Day of Beauty" in the various salons became a great success; the purported portrait of Rubinstein in her advertising was of a middle-age mannequin with a Gentile appearance. In 1928, she sold the American business to Lehman Brothers for $7.3 million. After the arrival of the Great Depression, she bought back the nearly worthless stock for less than $1 million and turned the shares into values of multimillion dollars, establishing salons and outlets in a dozen U. S. cities. This saga, Rubinstein’s early business career, has been the subject of a recent Harvard Business School case, her subsequent spa at 715 Fifth Avenue included a restaurant, a gymnasium and rugs by painter Joan Miró.
She commissioned artist Salvador Dalí to design a powder compact as well a portrait of herself
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of world-famous children's fiction, notably Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. He was noted for his facility at word play and fantasy; the poems Jabberwocky and The Hunting of the Snark are classified in the genre of literary nonsense. He was a mathematician and Anglican deacon. Carroll came from a family of high church Anglicans, developed a long relationship with Christ Church, where he lived for most of his life as a scholar and teacher. Alice Liddell, daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, Henry Liddell, is identified as the original for Alice in Wonderland, though Carroll always denied this. Dodgson's family was predominantly northern English and high church Anglican. Most of Dodgson's male ancestors were Church of England clergy, his great-grandfather named Charles Dodgson, had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin. His paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, killed in action in Ireland in 1803 when his two sons were hardly more than babies.
The older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carroll's father. He went to Westminster School and to Christ Church, Oxford, he took holy orders. He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career. Instead, he became a country parson. Dodgson was born in the small parsonage at Daresbury in Cheshire near the towns of Warrington and Runcorn, the eldest boy but the third child. Eight more children followed; when Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire, the whole family moved to the spacious rectory. This remained their home for the next 25 years. Charles's father was an active and conservative cleric of the Church of England who became the Archdeacon of Richmond and involved himself, sometimes influentially, in the intense religious disputes that were dividing the church, he was high church, inclining toward Anglo-Catholicism, an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement, did his best to instil such views in his children.
Young Charles was to develop an ambiguous relationship with his father's values and with the Church of England as a whole. During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home, his "reading lists" preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious intellect: at the age of seven, he was reading books such as The Pilgrim's Progress. He suffered from a stammer – a condition shared by most of his siblings – that influenced his social life throughout his years. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Richmond Grammar School at nearby Richmond. In 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving: I cannot say... that any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again... I can say that if I could have been... secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear. Dodgson did not claim he suffered from bullying but cited little boys as the main targets of older bullies at Rugby.
Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, Dodgson's nephew, wrote that "even though it is hard for those who have only known him as the gentle and retiring don to believe it, it is true that long after he left school, his name was remembered as that of a boy who knew well how to use his fists in defense of a righteous cause", the protection of the smaller boys. Scholastically, though, he excelled with apparent ease. "I have not had a more promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby", observed mathematics master R. B. Mayor. Francis Walkingame's The Tutor's Assistant; some pages included annotations such as the one found in p. 129, where he wrote "Not a fair question in decimals" next to a question. He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at the University of Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his father's old college, Christ Church. After waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851, he had been at Oxford only two days. His mother had died of "inflammation of the brain" – meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47.
His early academic career veered between irresistible distraction. He did not always work hard but was exceptionally gifted and achievement came to him. In 1852, he obtained first-class honours in Mathematics Moderations and was shortly thereafter nominated to a Studentship by his father's old friend Canon Edward Pusey. In 1854, he obtained first-class honours in the Final Honours School of Mathematics, standing first on the list, graduating Bachelor of Arts, he remained at Christ Church studying and teaching, but the next year he failed an important scholarship through his self-confessed inability to apply himself to study. So, his talent as a mathematician won him the Christ Church Mathematical Lectureship in 1855, which he continued to hold for the next 26 years. Despite early unhappiness, Dodgson was to remain at Christ Church, in various capacities, until his death, including that of Sub-Librarian of the Christ Church library, where his office was close to the Deanery, where Alice
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
John Brack was an Australian painter, a member of the Antipodeans group. According to one critic, Brack's early works captured the idiosyncrasies of their time "more powerfully and succinctly than any Australian artist before or since. Brack forged the iconography of a decade on canvas as as Barry Humphries did on stage." John Brack was Art Master at Melbourne Grammar School. His art first achieved prominence in the 1950s, he joined the Antipodeans Group in the 1950s which protested against abstract expressionism. He was appointed Head of National Gallery of Victoria Art School, where he was an influence on many artists and the creation of the expanded school attached to the new gallery building. Brack's early conventional style evolved into one of simplified stark and areas of deliberately drab colour featuring large areas of brown, he made an initial mark in the 1950s with works on the contemporary Australian culture, such as the iconic Collins St. 5 pm, a view of rush hour in post-war Melbourne.
Set in a bleak palette of browns and greys, it was a comment on the conformity of everyday life, with all figures looking identical. A related painting The Bar was modelled on Manet's A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, satirised the six o'clock swill, a social ritual arising from the early closing of Australian pubs. Most of these early paintings and drawings were unmistakably satirical comments against the Australian Dream, either being set in the newly expanding post-war suburbia or taking the life of those who lived there as their subject matter. In the 1970s Brack produced a long series of stylised works featuring objects such as pencils in complex patterns; these were intended as allegories of contemporary life. Brack's works cover themes, he did a series of works on a particular theme over a number of years. His portraits, including self-portraits, portraits of family and commissions, his paintings of nudes were produced throughout his career. War time drawings Scenes of urban life (1952– Racecourse School, the playground Wedding Shop Windows Ballroom Dancers Gymnastics Postcards and implements (1976– Pencils and pens (1981– Mannequins (1989–90The Art of John Brack by Sasha Grishin includes a catalogue raisonné of his work to 1990.
The catalogue for the exhibition at Heide Museum of Modern Art in 2000 includes works to 1994. A major retrospective exhibition of Brack's work opened at the National Portrait Gallery in Canberra on 24 August 2007, National Portrait Gallery, Old Parliament House, 24 August 2007 – 18 November 2007; the last major exhibition for the gallery before its relocation. Brack's widow, Helen Maudsley, an artist in her own right, attended the opening and commented that Brack was not concerned with the social standing of the sitter, but rather the artistic merit of their participation in the piece. Brack's painting The Bar sold for $3.2 million in April 2006, while in May 2007 his painting The Old Time sold for $3.36 million at auction in Sydney, a record for a painting by an Australian artist. 2009 John Brack: Retrospective Exhibition, The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia 2006–2007'The Nude in the Art of John Brack', MacClelland Gallery and Sculpture Park, Langwarrin 1999'John Brack – Inside and Outside', works in the N.
G. A. Collection, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra 1998'John Brack and Fred Williams', Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide 1987–88'John Brack – A Retrospective', National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne 1981'Drawings, 1945–79', Monash University Gallery, Melbourne 1977'Paintings and Drawings, 1945–77', Australian National University 1977'Selected Paintings, 1947–77', Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Gallery, Melbourne Self-portrait 1955 Australian art Ronald Millar, John Brack, Lansdowne Press Melbourne. ISBN 978-0-7018-0370-4. Media related to John Brack at Wikimedia Commons John Brack at the Art Gallery of New South Wales Brack Retrospective at NGV May 2009 (Sunday Arts on YouTube The Sewing Machine 1955 at Ballarat Fine Art Gallery. John Brack at OnlyMelbourne Images of John Brack's prints at Prints and Printmaking
St Kilda Road, Melbourne
St Kilda Road is a street in Melbourne, Australia. It is part of the locality of Melbourne which has the postcode of 3004, along with Swanston Street forms a major spine of the city. St Kilda Road begins at Flinders Street, in the central business district and crosses Princes Bridge, which spans the Yarra River and connects the central business district of Melbourne with the suburb of St Kilda, ending at Carlisle Street, St Kilda; the road continues as Brighton Road, which becomes Nepean Highway, forming a major arterial connecting the bayside suburbs and Mornington Peninsula to the city. The east side of the road to High Street, Prahran is in the municipality of the City of Melbourne while the west side of the road and the road south of High Street is in the municipality of the City of Port Phillip; the first sale of Crown lands in St. Kilda took place on 7 December 1842. Within a few years, St Kilda became a fashionable area for wealthy settlers, with the high ground above the beach offering a cool fresh breeze during Melbourne's hot summer months.
St Kilda Road was a dirt track. The road was impassable by carriage after rains. Prior to the building of the first bridge spanning the Yarra River in 1844, traffic crossed the river by operated punts. In 1844, a built wooden trestle toll bridge was built across the river at Swanston Street. In 1850, a government-built sandstone free bridge replaced the wooden bridge. In 1853, the Immigrants' Aid Society established the Immigrant's Home in St Kilda Road, which accommodated'neglected' and orphaned children and had a reformatory for children; the Home existed until 1902. In 1854, Kings Domain garden was established. In the same year the government offered four religious groups land on, it offered the Wesleyan Methodist Church 10 acres facing St Kilda Road. It took a while to find sufficient funds to build the actual school; the foundation stone of Wesley College was laid on 4 January 1865 and the school was opened on 11 January 1866. In 1855, the government granted 15 acres on St Kilda Road to the Anglican Church on which Melbourne Grammar School was built.
The foundation stone was laid on 30 July 1856 and the school was opened on 7 April 1858. During the early 1850s, St Kilda Road was the scene of frequent hold-ups by armed bandits and bushrangers which collectively became known as the St Kilda Road robberies. Victoria Barracks were built between 1856 and 1872. In the 1860s, St Kilda was a major bayside resort village. St Kilda Road was a main arterial connecting it with Melbourne, was planned as a wide European-style boulevard to accommodate horse-drawn traffic. Fawkner Park was created in 1862. In 1865 the government made a grant of land on the corner of St. Kilda Road and High Street, Prahran, to the Victorian Deaf and Dumb Institution, which built a blue-stone building which opened in 1866; the Alfred Hospital was established in 1871. From the 1870s, some of Melbourne's wealthiest residents erected grand mansions on significant lots along the street. In 1877, Cooper and Bailey's Great American International Circus set up on the site of the present Arts Centre.
The present Princes Bridge was built in 1888 to replace the 1850 structure, cable trams commenced running from Swanston Street over the bridge along St Kilda Road to Toorak and St Kilda. At this time, the beautiful elm trees were planted along the road; the Prince Henry's Hospital was opened in St Kilda Road in 1885, existed until 1991. Until the end of the 19th century, the Yarra River was subject to regular flooding. A new channel for the Yarra River was dug from 1896 to 1900 to widen the river; the spoil was used to fill the swampy lagoons and brickmakers pits and raise the height of the river bank where Alexandra Gardens now stands. The Gardens were opened in 1901. In 1901 the Arts Centre site became home to a permanent circus, built by the Fitzgerald Brothers' Circus. In 1904, the area of the site not occupied by Fitzgerald's was developed as a fashionable meeting place called Prince's Court; this area featured a Japanese Tea House, open-air theatre, miniature train, water chute and a 15-member military band.
In 1907, Wirth Brother's Circus took over the entire site from Fitzgerald's and remained there for the next 50 years. By 1911 they had built a new circus Hippodrome and a roller skating rink, had leased the original Olympia as a cinema. During World War I some of the buildings were used as nursing homes for nurses. During the 1920s a new Green Mill Dance Hall replaced Olympia Dancing Palace. In 1925, electric trams along St Kilda Road and the side streets replaced cable trams, Prince's Bridge was reinforced to take the extra weight of the new trams; the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation opened a 1300-seat synagogue on the corner of Toorak Road in 1930. During the depression of the 1930s, many of the mansions on St Kilda Road were subdivided into units with extensions to the rear of the buildings, resulting in only a few of them remaining today; the Shrine of Remembrance was completed in September 1934. The Repatriation Commission Outpatient Clinic, the only example of an Art Deco building on St Kilda Rd north of Toorak Rd, was opened on 15 November 1937.
In the 1950s, an effort was made to introduce higher-density residential living to the area. Housing Commission of Victoria flats, like the Stanhill Flats were erected along nearby Queens Road. In the 1960s, local planning agencies changed the zoning from residential to commercial, in an effort to create more office space for a growing loc
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear