Charles Boarman was a career officer in the United States Navy. He entered the naval service shortly before the War of 1812 and served until 1876, subsequently retiring as a rear admiral, he held a number of important posts, both in peace and wartime, in the Mediterranean, West Indies and Brazil Squadrons and as commandant of the Brooklyn Navy Yard. He was assigned to special duty during the American Civil War and a member of the U. S. Naval Board at Washington, DC. After attending naval school at the Washington Navy Yard, Boarman saw service as a young midshipmen aboard the USS Jefferson during the War of 1812 and took part in anti-piracy operations in the early 1820s, he commanded a number of warships between 1827 and 1850, most notably, the USS Brandywine during the Mexican–American War. In 1876, Boarman was promoted to rear admiral on the retired list and died in Martinsburg, West Virginia three years later, he was among several of Catholic background, such as John Cassin, Patrick McDonough, Philip C.
Wederstrandt, to become high ranking naval officers in the early years of the U. S. Navy, he was at the time of his death, the longest serving naval officer on the Navy Register with 68 years service. The Boarman family home, the Boarman House, occupied by the family for over a century, is a state historical landmark in West Virginia. Charles Boarman was born in Bryantown, Maryland on December 24, 1795, he was Charles Boarman Sr. a professor at Georgetown College. The Boarmans were among the oldest families in colonial Maryland, its patriarch, Major William Boarman, was an officer and administrator under Lord Baltimore, first arriving in the colony in 1645, became a major landholder in present-day Charles County. Many of Charles Boarman's relatives were in the clergy including his uncle Rev. Sylvester Boarman and distant cousins Rev. Father Edelen and Rev. Cornelius Thomas, the latter a rector of St. Anne's Church in Baltimore. Boarman's aunt Sallie Edelen was a Sister in the Poor Clares in France before having to flee the country during the Reign of Terror.
Boarman's father was at one time, studying to enter the priesthood. He was educated at the Jesuit College of Liege and was a scholastic of the Society at the time of the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773; as a result, he was released from his vows and returned to Maryland where he met and married his future wife. The Boarman family lived on a farm in Charles County while Charles Boarman Sr. resided at Georgetown University. In 1799, he moved the family to Georgetown, where they lived in a brick house on the university grounds. After Boarman Sr. died, the house was occupied by Mrs. Susan Decatur, widow of Captain Stephen Decatur, until her death in 1860; the property was sold and the house was torn down. The younger Charles Boarman was educated at Georgetown from 1803 to 1808. In 1811, Boarman's father wrote to Robert Brent, the mayor of Washington, D. C. and U. S. Army paymaster, asking for a letter of recommendation for his son in regards to a midshipmans commission in the United States Navy. In August of that year, on behalf of Boarman's father, Brent wrote to United States Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton endorsing the commission.
In addition to the father's letter was a personal application from a 16-year-old "Charley" Boarman himself. Hamilton approved Boarman's application a day after receiving the letter, he attended instruction in the Washington Navy Yard and was under the tuition of Chaplain Andrew Hunter, a military chaplain in the Continental Army and mathematics professor in Princeton University, while in Washington. Boarman was assigned to the sloop USS Erie in Baltimore upon the completion of his training in September 1813, he served aboard the brig USS Jefferson seeing action on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. He was one of several Georgetown alumni, including Thomas Blackstone, William Ford, Thomas Robinson, John Rogers, Clement Sewall to participate in the war. Boarman returned to the Erie at the end of the war as part of the Mediterranean Squadron and won promotion to lieutenant on March 5, 1817. After a brief time sailing with the West India Squadron on the sloop USS Peacock he was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard.
On March 21, 1820, Boarman was married to Mary Ann "Nancy" Abell, daughter of John Abell and Sarah Forrest, wealthy Virginian landowners, in Jefferson County. He soon went to sea again seeing service on USS John Adams and the USS Decoy as part of the U. S. Navy's anti-piracy operations in the West Indies. On July 24, 1824, Boarman temporarily took command of the schooner USS Weazel from Commodore David Porter during which time he was on convoy duty and patrolled for pirates; that summer, Boarman captured a pirate ship off the coast of Crab Island but its crew managed to escape to shore. In September, he escorted three American merchant ships from Havana, Cuba to Campeachy, carried $65,000 from Tampico, to be shipped to New York. In July 1825, Boarman was one of several officers of the West Indies Squadron which testified at the naval court of inquiry and court martial of Commodore Porter. Boarman received his first command, the USS Weazel, transferred to the frigates USS Java and USS Delaware, both flagships of the Mediterranean Squadron.
In 1830, he was made executive officer of the Brazil Squadron's flagship the USS Hudson. In September, he took temporary command of the USS Vandalia while Captain John Gallagher left to testify in the court martial of fellow Captain Beekman V. Hoffman of the USS Boston, he went back
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire and Berkshire; the county town was Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the county town of Trowbridge. Wiltshire is characterised by its high wide valleys. Salisbury Plain is noted for being the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles and other ancient landmarks, as a training area for the British Army; the city of Salisbury is notable for its medieval cathedral. Important country houses open to the public include Longleat, near Warminster, the National Trust's Stourhead, near Mere; the county, in the 9th century written as Wiltunscir Wiltonshire, is named after the former county town of Wilton. Wiltshire is notable for its pre-Roman archaeology; the Mesolithic and Bronze Age people that occupied southern Britain built settlements on the hills and downland that cover Wiltshire. Stonehenge and Avebury are the most famous Neolithic sites in the UK.
In the 6th and 7th centuries Wiltshire was at the western edge of Saxon Britain, as Cranborne Chase and the Somerset Levels prevented the advance to the west. The Battle of Bedwyn was fought in 675 between Escuin, a West Saxon nobleman who had seized the throne of Queen Saxburga, King Wulfhere of Mercia. In 878 the Danes invaded the county. Following the Norman Conquest, large areas of the country came into the possession of the crown and the church. At the time of the Domesday Survey the industry of Wiltshire was agricultural. In the succeeding centuries sheep-farming was vigorously pursued, the Cistercian monastery of Stanley exported wool to the Florentine and Flemish markets in the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 17th century English Civil War Wiltshire was Parliamentarian; the Battle of Roundway Down, a Royalist victory, was fought near Devizes. In 1794 it was decided at a meeting at the Bear Inn in Devizes to raise a body of ten independent troops of Yeomanry for the county of Wiltshire, which formed the basis for what would become the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry, who served with distinction both at home and abroad, during the Boer War, World War I and World War II.
The Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry lives on as Y Squadron, based in Swindon, B Squadron, based in Salisbury, of the Royal Wessex Yeomanry. Around 1800 the Kennet and Avon Canal was built through Wiltshire, providing a route for transporting cargoes from Bristol to London until the development of the Great Western Railway. Information on the 261 civil parishes of Wiltshire is available on Wiltshire Council's Wiltshire Community History website which has maps, demographic data and modern pictures and short histories; the local nickname for Wiltshire natives is "Moonrakers". This originated from a story of smugglers who managed to foil the local Excise men by hiding their alcohol French brandy in barrels or kegs, in a village pond; when confronted by the excise men they raked the surface to conceal the submerged contraband with ripples, claimed that they were trying to rake in a large round cheese visible in the pond a reflection of the full moon. The officials took them for simple yokels or mad and left them alone, allowing them to continue with their illegal activities.
Many villages claim the tale for their own village pond, but the story is most linked with The Crammer in Devizes. Two-thirds of Wiltshire, a rural county, lies on chalk, a kind of soft, porous limestone, resistant to erosion, giving it a high chalk downland landscape; this chalk is part of a system of chalk downlands throughout eastern and southern England formed by the rocks of the Chalk Group and stretching from the Dorset Downs in the west to Dover in the east. The largest area of chalk in Wiltshire is Salisbury Plain, used for arable agriculture and by the British Army as training ranges; the highest point in the county is the Tan Hill–Milk Hill ridge in the Pewsey Vale, just to the north of Salisbury Plain, at 295 m above sea level. The chalk uplands run northeast into West Berkshire in the Marlborough Downs ridge, southwest into Dorset as Cranborne Chase. Cranborne Chase, which straddles the border, like Salisbury Plain, yielded much Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology; the Marlborough Downs are part of a 1,730 km2 conservation area.
In the northwest of the county, on the border with South Gloucestershire and Bath and North East Somerset, the underlying rock is the resistant oolite limestone of the Cotswolds. Part of the Cotswolds AONB is in Wiltshire, in the county's northwestern corner. Between the areas of chalk and limestone downland are clay vales; the largest of these vales is the Avon Vale. The Avon cuts diagonally through the north of the county, flowing through Bradford-on-Avon and into Bath and Bristol; the Vale of Pewsey has been cut through the chalk into Greensand and Oxford Clay in the centre of the county. In the south west of the county is the Vale of Wardour; the southeast of the county lies on the sandy soils of the northernmost area of the New Forest. Chalk is a porous rock, so the chalk hills have little surface water; the main settlements in the county are therefore situated at wet points. Notably, Salisbury is situated between the chalk of marshy flood plains; the county has green belt along its western fringes as a part of the extensive Avon green belt, reaching as far as the outskirts of Rudloe/Corsham and Trowbridge, preventing urban spr
Martinsburg, West Virginia
Martinsburg is a city in and the county seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States, in the tip of the state's Eastern Panhandle region in the lower Shenandoah Valley. Its population was 17,687 in the 2016 census estimate, making it the largest city in the Eastern Panhandle and the ninth-largest municipality in the state. Martinsburg is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martinsburg was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, adopted in December 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. Founder Major General Adam Stephen named the gateway town to the Shenandoah Valley along Tuscarora Creek in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Aspen Hall is the oldest house in the city. Part was built in 1745 by Edward Beeson, Sr. Aspen Hall and its wealthy residents had key roles in the agricultural, religious and political history of the region. Significant events related to the French and Indian War. Three original buildings are still standing, including the rare blockhouse of Mendenhall's Fort.
The first United States post office in what is now West Virginia was established at Martinsburg in 1792. At that time and the larger territory were still part of Virginia; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops were constructed in 1849 and rebuilt after the American Civil War. According to William Still, "The Father of the Underground Railroad" and its historian, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, escaped from slavery in Martinsburg on Christmas night, 1856, he rode a horse and had it swim across the freezing Potomac River. After riding forty miles, he walked in cold wet clothes to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he received assistance there from the Underground Railroad and traveled by train to Philadelphia, the office of William Still with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Brown's wife and four children had been sold, he had a likeness of his wife, locks of hair from each of them. In 1854, ten-year-old Isabelle Boyd, known as "Belle" and a noted spy for the Confederacy, moved to Martinsburg with her family.
After the Civil War began, Benjamin joined the Second Virginia Infantry, part of the Stonewall Brigade. His wife Mary was thus in charge of the Boyd home when Union forces under General Robert Patterson took Martinsburg; when a group of Patterson's men tried to raise a Union flag over the Boyd home, Mary refused. One of the soldiers, Frederick Martin, threatened Mary, Belle shot him, she was acquitted. She soon became involved in espionage, sending information to Confederate generals Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and J. E. B. "Jeb" Stuart. She was helped by Eliza Corsey, a Boyd family slave whom Belle had taught to read and write. In 1863, Belle was imprisoned. Boyd's Greek Revival home, which he had built in 1853 and sold in 1855, had numerous owners over the decades. In 1992 it was purchased by the Berkeley County Historical Society; the historical society now operates it as the Berkeley County Museum. It is known as the Belle Boyd House. Most residents of West Virginia were yeomen farmers who supported the Union and, during the Civil War, they voted to separate from Virginia.
The new state was admitted to the Union during the war. The city of Martinsburg was incorporated by an act of the new West Virginia Legislature on March 30, 1868. Martinsburg became a center of its workers; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began July 14, 1877 in this city at the B&O shops and spread nationwide. Telephone service was established in Martinsburg in 1883. In 1889, electricity began to be furnished to Martinsburg as part of a franchise granted to the United Edison Manufacturing Company of New York; the Interwoven mills began operations in Martinsburg in 1891. Construction of the "Apollo Civic Theatre" was completed in 1913. Over one thousand men from Berkeley County participated in World War I. Of these, forty-one were killed and twenty-one were wounded in battle. A monument to those who fell in battle was erected in Martinsburg in 1925. During World War II, the Newton D. Baker Hospital in Martinsburg treated thousands of soldiers wounded in the war. In 1946 this military hospital became a part of the Veterans Administration.
The VA Medical Center in Martinsburg still provides care to United States veterans. Due to restructuring beginning in the late 1940s and continuing through the 1970s, many of the mills and factories operating in Martinsburg shut down and went out of business, dealing a major blow to the local economy. Jobs were moved to the Deep South and offshore. Martinsburg is located at 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W. Martinsburg is 24 miles southeast of Hagerstown, 89 miles west of Baltimore, 92 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 138 miles east of Morgantown. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of town, Interstate 81 passes along the northern side of the town. Martinsburg is 212 miles distant from the state capital of Charleston. However, it is closer to no less than five other state capitals: Harrisburg PA - 80 miles, Annapolis MD - 85 miles, Dover DE - 132 miles, Richmond VA - 135 miles, Trenton NJ - 179 miles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles, of which 6.65 square
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The last occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977 and the World Health Organization certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980; the risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies. Those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin and some were left blind; the initial symptoms of the disease included vomiting. This was followed by formation of sores in a skin rash. Over a number of days the skin rash turned into characteristic fluid filled bumps with a dent in the center; the bumps scabbed over and fell off leaving scars. The disease used to spread via contaminated objects. Prevention was by the smallpox vaccine. Once the disease had developed, certain antiviral medication may have helped; the origin of smallpox is unknown. The earliest evidence of the disease dates back to the 3rd century BCE in Egyptian mummies; the disease occurred in outbreaks.
In 18th-century Europe, it is estimated 400,000 people per year died from the disease, one-third of the cases resulted in blindness. These deaths included those of a queen consort. Smallpox is estimated to have killed up to 300 million people in the 20th century and around 500 million people in the last 100 years of its existence; as as 1967, 15 million cases occurred a year. Edward Jenner discovered in 1798. In 1967, the WHO intensified efforts to eliminate the disease. Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011; the term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the 15th century to distinguish the disease from syphilis, known as the "great pox". Other historical names for the disease include pox, speckled monster, red plague. There were two clinical forms of smallpox. Variola major was the most common form, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. Variola minor was a less common presentation, a much less severe disease, with historical death rates of one percent or less.
Subclinical infections with Variola virus were not common. In addition, a form called variola sine eruptione was seen in vaccinated persons; this form was marked by a fever that occurred after the usual incubation period and could be confirmed only by antibody studies or by virus isolation. The incubation period between contraction and the first obvious symptoms of the disease was around 12 days. Once inhaled, variola major virus invaded the oropharyngeal or the respiratory mucosa, migrated to regional lymph nodes, began to multiply. In the initial growth phase, the virus seemed to move from cell to cell, but by around the 12th day, lysis of many infected cells occurred and the virus was found in the bloodstream in large numbers, a second wave of multiplication occurred in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes; the initial symptoms were similar to other viral diseases such as influenza and the common cold: fever of at least 38.3 °C, muscle pain, malaise and prostration. As the digestive tract was involved and vomiting and backache occurred.
The prodrome, or preeruptive stage lasted 2–4 days. By days 12–15, the first visible lesions – small reddish spots called enanthem – appeared on mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue and throat, temperature fell to near normal; these lesions enlarged and ruptured, releasing large amounts of virus into the saliva. Smallpox virus preferentially attacked skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples associated with the disease. A rash developed on the skin; the macules first appeared on the forehead rapidly spread to the whole face, proximal portions of extremities, the trunk, lastly to distal portions of extremities. The process takes no more than 24 to 36 hours. At this point, variola major infection could take several different courses, resulting in four types of smallpox disease based on the Rao classification: ordinary, modified and hemorrhagic. Smallpox had an overall fatality rate of about 30 percent. Ninety percent or more of smallpox cases among unvaccinated persons were of the ordinary type.
In this form of the disease, by the second day of the rash the macules became raised papules. By the third or fourth day the papules filled with an opalescent fluid to become vesicles; this fluid became turbid within 24 -- 48 hours, giving them the appearance of pustules. By the sixth or seventh day, all the skin lesions have become pustules. Between seven and ten days the pustules reached their maximum size; the pustules were raised round and firm to the touch. The pustules were embedded in the dermis, giving them the feel of a small bead in the skin. Fluid leaked from the pustules, by the end of the second week the pustules deflated, started to dry up, forming crusts. By day 16–20 scabs had formed over all the lesions, which had started to flake off, leaving depigmented scars. Ordinary smallpox produced a discrete rash, in which the pustules stood out on the skin separately; the distribution of the rash was densest on the face.
The Mokelumne River is a 95-mile -long river in northern California in the United States. The river flows west from a rugged portion of the central Sierra Nevada into the Central Valley and the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, where it empties into the San Joaquin River. Together with its main tributary, the Cosumnes River, the Mokelumne drains 2,143 square miles in parts of five California counties. Measured to its farthest source at the head of the North Fork, the river stretches for 157 miles; the river is colloquially divided into the Upper Mokelumne River, which stretches from the headwaters to Pardee Reservoir in the Sierra foothills, the Lower Mokelumne River, which refers to the portion of the river below Camanche Dam. In its lower course, the Mokelumne is used for irrigation and provides water for the east San Francisco Bay Area through the Mokelumne Aqueduct. Several major tributaries of the river have been developed for the generation of hydroelectric power; the name is Plains Miwok and is constructed from moke, meaning fishnet, -umne, a suffix meaning "people of".
The town of Mokelumne Hill was named for the river in about 1850. The Mokelumne is formed by the confluence of several forks that rise in the central Sierra Nevada in the Stanislaus National Forest; the 62-mile North Fork is the largest, originating at Highland Lakes at an elevation of 8,584 feet. From its source it flows north west for 28 miles to Salt Springs Reservoir. Below Salt Springs it receives the Bear River from the north and passes through the smaller Tiger Creek Reservoir before joining with the Middle Fork southeast of Pine Grove; the lower portion of the North Fork defines the border between Calaveras Counties. The 28-mile Middle Fork rises near Ganns, it flows west, past Wilseyville and West Point, to its confluence with the North Fork. The South Fork begins at an elevation of 6,380 feet near the head of the Middle Fork, flows west 26 miles parallel and south of the Middle Fork, to join the Middle Fork about 1.3 miles above the confluence of the North and Middle Forks. The confluence of the North and Middle Forks forms the Mokelumne River proper.
The main stem flows west-southwest past Mokelumne Hill into Pardee Reservoir, formed by the 345-foot -high Pardee Dam. Below Pardee the river flows directly into Camanche Reservoir, formed by Camanche Dam; the entire stretch of the Mokelumne between the forks and a point just above Camanche Dam defines the Amador—Calaveras county line. The Camanche Dam is the first non-passable barrier for anadromous fish. Below Camanche Dam the Mokelumne meanders 34 miles to its confluence with the San Joaquin River, first continuing southwest out of the Sierra foothills past Lockeford and turning northwest at Lodi, where the small Woodbridge Dam impounds the river, forming Lodi Lake; the river receives Dry Creek from the east near Thornton and shortly afterwards receives its major tributary, the Cosumnes River, from the northeast. At this point, the river has reached its northernmost point about 25 miles south of Sacramento; the river continues west south into the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta where it becomes tidal and splits into a pair of distributaries, the North and South Mokelumne River which together encircle the 9,100 acres of Staten Island.
About 7 miles downstream the branches rejoin, two miles below this point the Mokelumne flows into the San Joaquin River. The Mokelumne River watershed drains 2,143 square miles in parts of Alpine, Calaveras, San Joaquin, Sacramento Counties. Elevations range from sea level at the confluence with the San Joaquin River to 10,400 feet at the crest of the Sierra Nevada in the headwaters of the North Fork; the Mokelumne watershed divide borders the basins of the American River on the north, the Calaveras and Stanislaus rivers to the south, the Carson River to the east. The American and Stanislaus rivers, like the Mokelumne, drain westwards into the Central Valley, while the Carson flows eastwards into the Great Basin. Drainage within the Mokelumne watershed occurs from east to west with all of the perennial streams originating in the Sierra Nevada; the Mokelumne River and its headwater forks above Lodi drain the southernmost part of the basin. The part of the basin above Pardee Dam is referred to as the Upper Mokelumne River Basin and drains about 550 square miles, or 25.7% of the total watershed.
The Cosumnes River and its own North and South forks drain about 724 square miles in the northern part of the basin, or about 33.8% of the total watershed. Dry Creek, which itself is formed by four Sierra streams – Jackson, Sutter and Rancheria Creeks – drains most of the area between the upper Mokelumne and Cosumnes basins, or about 324 square miles; the upper watershed is situated principally in Alpine and Calaveras Counties and consists of wilderness managed under various federal designations. Most of the Mokelumne and Cosumnes River headwaters lie within the Stanislaus and Eldorado National Forests. Much of the upper watershed is protected under the 105,165-acre Mokelumne Wilderness; the Salt Springs State Game Refuge is located along the Mokelumne River near Salt Springs Reservoir. There are significant private holdings in the upper basin including commercial timber land and protected watershed areas administered by the East Bay Municipal Utility District
Society of California Pioneers
Established in 1850, the Society of California Pioneers is dedicated to the study and enjoyment of California art and culture. Founded by individuals arriving in California before 1850 and thriving under the leadership of several generations of their direct descendants, The Society has continuously served its members, the academic community, the public; as the oldest organization West of The Mississippi, The Society opened the first library in California, as well as a grand hall for meetings and social events. Today The Society operates a public museum and a research library, both housed in one of the iconic Montgomery Barracks Buildings on The Presidio of San Francisco’s historic Main Post. Pioneer Hall features rotating exhibitions of art and artifacts amassed since 1850; the Alice Phelan Sullivan Research Library, which houses a large portion of The Society’s collections, is open to the public by appointment, allowing researchers and historians access to The Society’s held repository of rare primary source materials.
The Society's service to the community is designed to support scholarship and encourage new interpretations that illuminate and honor the diverse experiences of those who came before us. According to its constitution, The Society's mission is "to collect and preserve information connected with the early settlement and formation of this new state."The Society continues to be a membership organization, "Membership is open to direct descendants of those who arrived in California prior to January 1, 1850." The Society has its headquarters in San Francisco. Pioneer Hall at The Presidio, which includes a museum and a research library is on the historic Main Post at 101 Montgomery, Suite 150 - Presidio of San Francisco, 94129; the Society of California Pioneers’ archives document the founding and early history of California, including The Gold Rush, The Earthquake and Fire of 1906, other defining events. The collection includes manuscripts and letters, paintings and drawings, books, maps and journals, the business ledgers of mining and transportation companies, as well as historic artifacts and decorative objects.
An extensive collection of overland and pioneer diaries includes those of John A. Sutter and a letter by Henry W. Bigler, both primary sources announcing the discovery of gold in California. Works by Carleton Watkins, Eadweard Muybridge, Lawrence & Houseworth, Turrill & Miller are held in our archive of photographs and daguerreotypes. Notable for its nineteenth-century holdings, the painting collection includes works by Thomas Hill, William Coulter, Jules Tavernier, Maynard Dixon. Together with The Society’s collection of ephemera and prints, these form a vivid, visual record of life in California over time; the museum exhibits art and artifacts from the Society's collections on a rotating basis. Official website
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter