Heltonville is an unincorporated community in Pleasant Run Township, Lawrence County, United States. Heltonville was platted in 1845, it was named for its founder, Andrew Helton, who had opened a store at the site some time before 1839. The Heltonville post office was established in 1846. Heltonville is located at 38°55′40″N 86°22′32″W. Heltonville Elementary School, a school for students in kindergarten through fifth grade, educates 300 students per year. In 2013, Heltonville Elementary received a rating of "1" out of 5 by the Indiana Department of Education. Heltonville is the birthplace of former NBA basketball player Damon Bailey, who now co-owns Hawkins-Bailey Warehouse in Bedford, Indiana. Heltonville is the hometown of the fictional character Lee Leander, portrayed by Barbara Stanwyck, in the 1940 Paramount film Remember the Night
Phlox is a genus of 67 species of perennial and annual plants in the family Polemoniaceae. They are found in North America in diverse habitats from alpine tundra to open woodland and prairie; some flower in spring, others in summer and fall. Flowers may be pale blue, pink, bright red, or white. Many are fragrant, it attracts butterflies. The name is derived from the Greek word phlox meaning flame in reference to the intense flower colors of some varieties. Fertilized flowers produce one large seed; the fruit is a longitudinally dehiscent capsule with three or more valves that sometimes separate explosively. Some species such as P. paniculata grow upright, while others such as P. subulata grow short and matlike. Paniculata or tall phlox, is a native American wildflower, native from New York to Iowa south to Georgia and Arkansas, it blooms from July to September. Creeping phlox spreads and makes great ground cover, it can be planted to cover banks, fill spaces under tall trees, spill and trail over slopes.
Creeping phlox produces long, spreading stems, which become woody with age. It was introduced into cultivation by the late 1700s; the foliage of Phlox is a food for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including dot moth, Gazoryctra wielgusi, hummingbird hawk-moth and Schinia indiana. Phlox species are a popular food source for groundhogs and deer; the species in the genus include: Several species and cultivars of phlox are grown in gardens. Most cultivated phlox, with the notable exception of Phlox drummondii, are perennial. Species from Alpine habitats require good drainage; those from woodland habitats require partial soil rich in humus. Those from waterside habitats require full moisture at the roots. Phlox are valued in the garden for their ability to attract butterflies. Phlox can be propagated from stem cuttings. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas, Austin Natural Resources Conservation Service USDA Dole, Claire H.. "Phlox: A Butterfly and Moth Magnet". Retrieved 2007-05-08.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Phlox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21. Cambridge University Press. P. 447
Lake Monroe (Indiana)
Lake Monroe is a reservoir located about 10 miles southeast of Bloomington, United States. The lake is the largest situated in Indiana with 10,750 acres of water surface area spread over the counties of Monroe and Brown. Capacity varies from 292 gigalitres to 428 gigalitres depending on water level, it is home to 13,202 acres of protected forest and three recreational areas. Indiana's only federally protected U. S. Wilderness Area, the 13,000-acre Charles C. Deam Wilderness Area, is located on the south shore; the pool elevation is about 538 ft year-round. During colder winters, limited ice fishing is available on protected backwater portions of the reservoir. Ransburg Scout Reservation, a large Boy Scout camp comprising over 624 acres, is situated along the eastern shore with a private dock system in Siscoe Bay; the largest marina situated on the lake is Marina with over 800 boats. The reservoir provides abundant fishing throughout the year, recreational opportunities such as boating and water skiing attract visitors from throughout Indiana and the Midwest.
Construction on the lake was finished in 1965 at a cost of $16.5 million. Salt Creek was dammed south of Bloomington and the reservoir fills the valley to the northeast of the dam extending into adjacent Brown County, it was thought that Elkinsville, a town in southern Brown County, had to be abandoned due to the path of the backwaters. Therefore, the town was acquired through the power of eminent domain; this was found not to be necessary. The lake was designed as a primary water source for the City of Bloomington and to prevent flood damage downstream; the lake was created and is still managed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District. Monroe Lake page at Indiana Dept. of Natural Resources Monroe Lake page at U. S. Army Corps of Engineers U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District Lake-Monroe.com
The red-shouldered hawk is a medium-sized hawk. Its breeding range spans eastern North America and along the coast of California and northern to northeastern-central Mexico. Red-shouldered hawks are permanent residents throughout most of their range, though northern birds do migrate to central Mexico; the main conservation threat to the widespread species is deforestation. Males weigh on average 550 g. Females are larger at 47 to 61 cm in length and a mean weight of 700 g; the wingspan can range from 90 to 127 cm. Adult birds can vary in mass from 460 to 930 g. Among standard measurements, the wing bone is 28–35 cm long, the tail is 16–24 cm long and the tarsus is 7.5–9 cm. Adults have brownish heads, reddish chests, pale bellies with reddish bars, their tails, which are quite long by Buteo standards, are marked with narrow white bars. Red "shoulders" are visible; these hawks' upper parts are dark with pale spots and they have long yellow legs. Western birds may appear more red, while Florida birds are paler.
The wings of adults are more barred on the upper side. Juvenile red-shouldered hawks are most to be confused with juvenile broad-winged hawks, but can be distinguished by their long tails, crescent-like wing markings, a more flapping, Accipiter-like flight style. In direct comparison, it is larger and longer proportioned than the broad-wing, though is smaller and more slender than most other common North American Buteo species; this bird is sometimes confused with the widespread red-tailed hawk. That species is larger and bulkier, with more even-sized, broad wings, is paler underneath, with a reddish tail apparent; the red-tail is more to soar with wings in a slight dihedral. The red-shouldered hawk is a member of the genus Buteo, a group of medium-sized raptors with robust bodies and broad wings. Members of this genus hawks in North America. Five subspecies of Buteo lineatus are recognized, which vary in range and in coloration: B. l. lineatus B. l. alleni B. l. elegans B. l. extimus B. l. texanus An eastern population ranges west through southern Canada from southern New Brunswick and Ontario to the eastern edge of the U.
S. Great Plains, south to Florida, the Gulf Coast, eastern Mexico. Only northernmost populations are migratory. A western population breeds west of the Sierra Nevada from northern California to northern Baja California, has expanded into Oregon and Arizona, east of the Sierra Mountains in California. Eastern populations winter from southern Wisconsin, Oklahoma and southern New England south to the Gulf Coast throughout breeding range. In winter, they are reported south to Veracruz, Mexico. Western populations are nonmigratory. Throughout its winter range, this species avoids higher elevations. Eastern birds wander west in migration. In the east, individuals from the northern half of the species’ range are migratory. In the west, most populations are local. Red-shouldered hawks are short- to moderate-distance migrants, with most individuals traveling distances between 300 km and 1,500 km each way; the species follows leading lines, migrating along inland coastlines. Larger numbers of red-shouldered hawks are counted at coastal watchsites than at inland sites.
Juveniles precede adults on migration in autumn, whereas adults precede juveniles in the spring. Red-shouldered hawks migrate alone, although they sometimes form small flocks of three or more birds; the species avoids crossing large bodies of water. While migrating, red-shouldered hawks are observed in soaring and flapping flight Red-shouldered hawks are forest raptors. In the east, they live in bottomland hardwood stands, flooded deciduous swamps, upland mixed deciduous–conifer forests, they tend to live in stands with an open subcanopy. They are not birds of deep forest, though. In the west, they live in riparian and oak woodlands, in eucalyptus groves and some residential areas. Red-shouldered hawks search for prey while perched on a treetop or soaring over woodlands; when they sight prey, they kill it by dropping directly onto it from the air. They may cache food near their nest for consumption; when in clearings, they sometimes fly low to surprise prey. Red-shouldered hawks, like most raptors, have sharp vision and reasonably good hearing, with talons capable of killing animals at least equal to their own size.
Small mammals are the most important prey rodents. Voles, mice and chipmunks may locally be favored based on abundance. Larger mammals, such as rabbits and tree squirrels, are occasionally preyed on. Other prey can include amphibians, birds and large insects, they will attack birds up to the size of a Ruffed Ring-necked Pheasant. Blue jays, a potential prey species, sometimes habitually imitate the call of the red-shouldered hawk and are known to be difficult to distinguish on voice alone. During winters, red-shouldered hawks sometimes habituate to preying on birds found at bird feeders. In some areas where they are common, crayfish can be important prey for this species. Unusual food items recorded for the
Brown County, Indiana
Brown County is a county in Indiana which in 2010 had a population of 15,242. The county seat is Nashville; the United States acquired the land from the Native Americans, part of which forms the southwest section of what is now Brown County, in the 1809 treaty of Fort Wayne. By the treaty of St. Mary's in 1818 more territory became property of the government and this included Brown County Land. No settler was allowed in the area until the government survey was completed in 1820; the first white man known to arrive was a German, Johann Schoonover, who lived for a short time on the creek named for him to trade with the Native Americans, about 1820. In that same year William Elkins, the first pioneer, built a log cabin and cleared land in what became Johnson Township; the earliest pioneers came from Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas. They crossed the Ohio River and traveled north on narrow Indian trails through dense hardwood forest with wagons drawn by oxen. Many made their way to Bloomington east to hilly country, or they reached Jackson County and came north into future Brown County on the Sparks Ferry Road, or west from Columbus in Bartholomew County.
Pioneers who had settled on lowland near Columbus came to the hills to escape malaria. Others deliberately chose the hills having lived in mountains before they made the trip to Indiana in search of new land. By 1830 an estimated 150 settlers had arrived. By 1828 the Indiana State Legislature had divided the land of present-day Brown County between Monroe and Bartholomew counties. In 1835 settlers presented a petition to the Legislature requesting a new county. On February 4, 1836, both the House and Senate passed a bill providing for the formation from western Bartholomew, eastern Monroe, northern Jackson counties of a county to be named for Gen. Jacob Brown, who defeated the British at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor in the War of 1812; the county has 320 square miles, 16 miles from east 20 miles from north to south. In August 1836, the land was divided into five townships of Jackson, Washington and Van Buren. Nashville known as Jacksonburg, was chosen as the county seat. Banner C. Brummett was appointed County Agent to lay out Nashville in lots to be sold at auction.
It was expected. The lots sold slowly, for pioneers had little money, funds were short for a number of years. In 1837 a log court house was built, the first log jail, they were built on the same lots on which the present court log jail stand. Nashville, at that time, consisted of a cluster of 75 people; the country was wild in 1836. Bears and wolves were plentiful; the wolves were so numerous and destructive to livestock that the Commissioners paid $1 for every wolf pelt brought to them. Settlers lived a rugged pioneer type of life for many years, their cabins and small settlements were mere niches in the great forest that covered hills and valleys. The men hunted deer, squirrels, wild turkeys and pigeons for food; as soon as enough land was cleared they planted corn, wheat, hops for yeast and tobacco. Women made quilts, wove wool and flax into cloth, made the family clothes, carried water from a well or stream, cooked food in open fireplaces, raised the children, nursed them when they were sick. By the time Nashville was incorporated in 1872, water powered grist mills and sawmills were scattered over the county.
Each village served its own locality with at least one general store, a blacksmith shop, a church and a post office. A doctor, sometimes more than one, lived in every village. In 1881 there were 20 doctors in the county, 37 churches - Methodist, United Brethren, Christian and New Light. Money continued to be scarce and much business was conducted by the barter system; the first schools were built of logs. People farmed. Lumber was taken to Indianapolis tan bark, cross ties, hoop poles, barrel staves; the trees were cut recklessly and this led to deep trouble. Since there was not enough farm land on the ridge tops and in the creek bottoms, trees were eliminated on the sides of hills. Wheat and other crops were planted, erosion began in earnest. By 1900, soil was so washed from hillsides and creek bottoms that crops could not be grown. Poverty was widespread and people began to leave the county in droves. Cabins all over the valleys stood empty. In 1890, 10,308 people lived in Brown County. By 1930 only 5,168 remained.
Not until 1980 did the population exceed the 1890 figure. In 1900, villages were still the centers of Brown County life. Travel by horseback, wagon, or carriage was exceedingly limited due to rutted, rocky roads. There were people in remote areas. Many a family's only contact with the outside world was the huckster's weekly visit with his horse and wagon; as a result, the pioneer way of life continued long after other counties had adopted a new pattern of living. In 1905 the Illinois Central Railroad built a line from Indianapolis to Illinois; the line ran from Morgantown across the southwest corner of Jackson Township. Helmsburg was the main station. Two trains a day from Indianapolis, two from Effingham, brought freight and passengers. Horse drawn hacks took wagons transported mail and freight from the station to Nashville; the first cars appeared in Nashville in 1913. Their use was
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Claytonia is a genus of flowering plants native to North America, Central America, Asia. The genus was included in Portulacaceae but is now classified in the family Montiaceae native to the mountain chains of Asia and North America, with a couple of species extending south to Guatemala in Central America, northwest to Kazakhstan and Russia in eastern Asia; the genus Claytonia was moved in 2009 from the purslane family with adoption of the APG IV system, which recognised the Montiaceae family. A number of the species were treated in the related genus Montia. A comprehensive scientific study of Claytonia was published in 2006. Claytonia perfoliata, the species for which the term miner's lettuce was coined, is distributed throughout the Mountain West of North America in moist soils and prefers areas which have been disturbed; the species got its name due to its use as a fresh salad green by miners in the 1849 Gold Rush in California. As of January 2019, Kew's Plants of the World Online lists 33 accepted species: CalFlora Database: Claytonia Illinois Wildflowers.
Flower-Visiting Insects of Spring Beauty Flora North America